Be n e Isra e l ‘Sha n i v a r Teli’ Jews of India & Malid a By Maxcin Moses, Saha ri a
The ‘Shanwar Teli’ or ‘Israel Teli’ (Shabbat observing oilmen, or Saturday oil pressers) Israelite people, a quite Jewish community living in Konkan cost of Maharashtra state, of India, it is important to understand the situations & circumstances of the community practices in exile out of their northern Israel (Samaria) nation. Nowadays on social platforms statements of many ‘Bene Israelites’ giving some distracted story, which they are not aware of the circumstances or historical dates & era people which influenced of the happening of the history. But facts differed from many of the community persons about Chitpavan, I have gathered knowledge since a project about the same Lord Parshuram came across me as a Tv Serial, when a Mythology script or story comes across, we have to have real investigate from authentic sources, even holy stages about the story from the scriptures, its sensitive matter, other vise it can create injustice to the believers & havoc, even face law bodies. Let me give you an example; claims about the ‘Chitpavan people’ also known as Konkanastha or Kobra Bramhin, at various times it has been speculated that they were originally Turks, Iranians, Egyptians, Greeks, Jews, Berbers, or people from farther south or north in India. An origin myth claiming that lord Parashuram (an immortal saint from Lord Rama time) created the caste from bodies of shipwrecked sailors, purified on the pyre, restored to life, and taught the Brahmin’s rites. The Bene Israel, who settled in the Kolaba district of the Konkan, claims the Chitpavan Bramhin as fellow Jews who became separated from their shipmates. The story of their ship arrival is similar to the ‘Shanvar Teli’s’, but the time of their arrival was different, location was more southern coast. DNA & Anthropological evidence, it becomes obvious that Chitpavans are related to Pashtuns, possibly being Hindu or following a similar ancient religion. This paper was published by a Marathi anthropologist, which supports their Gandharan origins, an Indian kingdom. Through DNA testing it's been proven that Chitpavan's have around 50% South Asian & 35-40% Central Asian DNA. A place called 'Roopkund' at an altitude of 5540 m, in the Garhwal region in Himachal Pradesh is always well covered with snow. It came into limelight in the year 1942 due to the most conspicuous reason. Many human skeletons were found buried under the snow in this place in 1942. The experts from the University of oxford carried out many tests like Carbon dating on these skeletons to finally arrive at a conclusion that the skeletons were of persons living during year 850 AD. The Centre for cellular and molecular biology at Hyderabad carried out DNA tests on the skeletons only to conclude that these skeletons belonged to the Chitpavan Brahmins. I assume in old time, some one of the ‘Shanwar Telis’ or oil pressers might have heard this story from the fellow Hindu’s and it had similarity in the beginning. Not having dates of knowledge, it had spread in the Jewish community. Or it could be that the other Hindu cast persons found the fair good looks & green blue eyes of the Chitpavan similar to the Jews and they had stated it as fact. Israelites Cohen’s & Levites & Offerings in the Jerusalem Temple teach moral & practical actions Let’s go through the several offerings during the ‘Bet Ha’Mikdash’ Jerusalem Temple. God commanded the people to bring a sheaf of the harvest (Leviticus/Vayikra 23:10). The Hebrew word for “sheaf” is omer. An omer is defined as “a measure of dry things, containing a tenth part of an ephah.” The definition of an ‘Omer’ being a tenth part of an ephah is found in Exodus (Shemot 16:36). An ephah contains 10 omers of grain. Remember, three times a year God commanded the people to come to Jerusalem/Yerushalayim to celebrate the festivals of Passover (Pesach) in spring, Pentecost (Shavuot/Harvest) in summer, & Tabernacles (Sukkot/ Ingathering) in early fall. All three of these festivals are agricultural harvest festivals. Passover (Pesach) is the barley harvest. Pentecost (Shavuot) is the wheat harvest. Both of these festivals are first fruits harvests before the final harvest that was to come at the end of the year during the festival of Tabernacles (Sukkot), which is the fruit harvest. The harvest represents all who would put their faith, trust & confidence expressing their gratitude to God, for commensurate with such a gift, are part of an ongoing process. By expressing thanks for God’s bounty and presenting the beginning of one’s harvest to Him, a circle was closed as
nature’s produce was returned to its Origin. The ceremony was spiritually elevating and everyone felt deep reverence, awe, and joy as they realized it is the Holy One alone who is the Source of all blessing. It was Moses who said, “As you harvest your crops, bring the very best of the first harvest to the house of the Lord your God.” (Exodus 23:19) King Solomon wrote about it too: “Honour the Lord with your wealth, with the firstfruits of all your crops; then your barns will be filled to overflowing, and your vats will brim over with new wine.” (Proverbs 3:9-10)
The Jewish Philosophy of First Fruits, First Born in Torah; When the Jews would prepare their first fruits offerings, they would go into the fields and orchards and tie a cord around the first and best part of the harvest that they saw ripening in the field in order to indicate what would be given to God. On the same general principle that the firstborn of man and beast belonged to the God of Israel and were to be devoted to Him, the first fruits, including the first grains to ripen each season, were to be brought as an offering to God. While ‘Terumah Gedolah’ was an agricultural tithe, the First-fruits, discussed in the Bikkurim tractate of the Talmud, were a sacrificial gift brought up to the altar. The major obligation to bring First Fruits (Bikkurim /प्प्प्प्प् प्प्/ )ביכוריםto the Temple began at the festival of Shavuot and continued until the festival of Sukkot (Mishnah, Bikkurim 1:6). This tithe was limited to the traditional seven agricultural products (wheat, barley, grapes in the form of wine, figs, dates, pomegranates, olives in the form of oil) grown in Israel. A prerequisite for bringing the Bikkurim is that the person who brings them is the legal property owner of the land on which the fruits were grown, for which reason, share-croppers and usurping occupants were not permitted to bring them. These species are especially dependent on the blessing of rainwater for their growth. The Temple, acts as the bridge between the physical & spiritual worlds. On the following Mishnah (Bikkurim 3:3), Rabbi Kook says; “All the professionals in Jerusalem would stand before them (the farmers) and inquire as to their welfare”. “When the nation is morally depraved, when individuals’ eyes and heart are only upon money, these two types, those who engage in nature and those who engage in artifice become alienated from one another. The farmers, who dwell in villages close to nature, will be the object of disrespect on the part of the professionals who have figured out how to live by civilization divorced from nature.” In the colorful ceremony of Bikkurim, which involved Jews from all walks of life, an opportunity to rectify the disrespect and alienation between the farmers and the townspeople. In a God-fearing society, each individual sector of society recognizes the relevance of the other sectors. Among the Jewish nation, farmers were given particular respect. This recognition is exemplified by the townspeople “standing up” before the farmers during the ceremony. lacking an authentic local culture, a place is open to exploitation, & ultimately destruction, from the center. It advocates strengthening local economies, fostering connections between generations, deepening religious convictions, & most importantly, building cohesive communities centered around specific places. The sound integration between place & culture, which implies an understanding of the interconnectedness of all of Creation, is critical for the development of positive environmental ethics. We can grow and eat, taking the extra time to learn about their spiritual symbolism. We can be more conscious of how our moral & practical actions determine the abundance or lack of blessing in the form of rain. Jewish life during Temple times, which wove together religion, economy, food, language, and local ecology, can be viewed as an integrated local culture. Today, the Jewish people are, on the whole, alienated not only from nature, but also from God, the Land of Israel, and each other. I see this as a theology of lead by example; It teaches one practice being free of greed by offer the first & best, instead of keeping for the self & food for the Soul, a god created circle ‘what you sow, you will reap’. The musicians played the flute until they reached the Temple mount, until they came to the outer court and hall. There they were welcomed by the Levites, singing Psalm 30:2. The doves which had been carried along in the baskets were offered for burnt offerings, and what the men had in their hands they gave to the priests. There are three principle terms used for the offerings of the Israelites in chapters 1 & 2. ( ב,)פרקים א 1) There is the general term Qorban/ן, ןָּב, ןּק ְר, , referring to all the sacrifices which the Israelite could offer and that the early chapters of Leviticus describe.
2) There is the more specialized term ‘Ola, which refers to the whole burnt offering regulated in Leviticus chapter one ( פרק א,)ויקרא. 3) Third, there is the term Minha, which is employed in a technical sense in Leviticus chapter 2 ( פרק ב, )ויקראfor the Grain Offering. Taking note of the basic structure of Leviticus chapter 2, ( )פרק בthe chapter is divided into four. Verses 1-3 ( ג, ב, )פסוקים אThe uncooked grain offering, introduce the grain offering & focus on the offering of the grain in an uncooked form. ה.הָנ.ב ֹה ְל ָנ.ָה.הָעֶלהי. הָנ ןַת ן. ְו,ה ֶׁשֶמ ן.ָה.הָעֶלהי. הָהי ןַצ ק.הָּבנו ; ְו.הָ ק ְר. ה.הֶהי.ְ י,סָנֶֹלת--ה.הָו. ה.ה ןַלהי.הָח.הָ ק ְר ןַּב ן נִמְנ. ןַתְ ק נִרהיב- נִּכהי,א ְוֶנֶפׁש. הָתּה.הָר. הָּכ.א ְז-ה ן ֶאת.ֵהּכָנֹא ן.ַהְ קנִטהיר ן.ִהָתּה ; ְונ.הָנ.ב ְֹל ָנ-הָּכל. ןַעל,הָנּה.הָּתּה ונִמ ןַּׁשְמ.הָּסְל.הָּׁשְמ ם ְמֹלא ֻ קְמצו נִמ.הָ ק ןַמ ץ נִמ. ְו,ה נִנהיְמ ם.ֲֹהּכָנ.ַר ן ן ֹה ָנ.ְֲּבא ןֵנהי א- ֶאל,הָאּה.הנִבהי.ֱב ֶו, ה.הָו. ה. ןַלהי,ח ןַח ֹה א ןֵרהי ןַח נִנהי ָנ.נִאא ןֵּׁש--ה.הָח.הנִּמ ְזא ןֵּב.ַ ן. ה.הָו. ה. א ןֵמנִאא ןֵּׁשהי ְהי,הָדנִׁשהיְמ ם. הָ ק. ק ֶדׁש ֹ ָנ:הָנהיו.הָב. וְל,ר ן ֹה ָנ.ְֲלא--ה.הָח.הנִּמְנ.ַ ן- נִמ ן,הּנוֶת ֶרת.ַג ְו ן.
Verses 14-16 ( טז, טו, )פסוקים ידEarly grain offerings תprescribe the offering of the first fruits of the grain crop. Finally, before we move into our study of the text itself, it is important to keep in mind the three principal terms used for “offering” in the first two chapters of the Book of Leviticus. א ןֵאת נִמְנ ןַחת נִּבּכו ֶרהיָך, ןַּתְ ק נִרהיב, ֶּג ֶרש ןַּכ ְרֶמל,הָּבא ןֵאׁש. הָ קלוהי. אנִבהיב--ה.הָו. ה. ןַלהי, ןַּתְ ק נִרהיב נִמ ְנ ןַחת נִּבּכו נִרהיְמ ם-היד ְונִאְמ ם. הוא.ִ נ,ה.הָח.ה ; נִמְנ.הָנ.ב ֹה ְל ָנ.ָה.הָעֶלהי. הָּת. ְו ןַשְמ,ה ֶׁשֶמ ן.ָה.הָעֶלהי. הָּת.הָנ ןַת.טו ְו. ה.הָו. ה. ןַלהי,ה.נִאֶּׁש--הָתּה.הָנ.ב ְֹל ָנ-הָּכל. , ןַעל,הָנּה.הָשּה ונִמ ןַּׁשְמ. נִמנִּג ְר,הָתּה.הָר. הָּכ.א ְז-ה ן ֶאת.ֵהּכָנֹא ן.ַהְ קנִטהיר ן.ִטז ְונ
Tu BiShvat ( )ט״ו בשבטis a Jewish holiday, also called "Rosh Ha’Shanah La'Ilanot" ()ראש השנה לאילנות, literally "New Year of the Trees" In contemporary Israel, the day is celebrated as an ecological awareness day, & trees are planted in celebration. Tu B’Shvat seder in which the fruits & trees of the Land of Israel were given symbolic meaning. Thanks-giving offerings and Peace Offerings were an integral part of Jewish ritualistic service. The ‘Konkan Bene Israelites’ remembered the 3 pilgrimage festivals, Pesakh (Passover), Shavuot (Pentecost, God gave the Torah to the nation of Israel assembled at Mount Sinai), Sukkot (Tabernacles) & the high holidays, Rosh Hashana (Trumpets blows on new year) & Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement “affliction of souls”), they kept Brit-Mila (circumcision ceremony), Shabbat (Saturday, the original seventh day on which God rested after completing the creation) & Kosher, practicing just a few outward forms of Judaism, but had no scholars of their own. Indian Bene-Israel names for the festivals originally celebrated & the after religious revival of David Rahabi; ‘Naviacha San’ for Rosh Ha’shana (प्प्प्प्प्प् प्प्/New Year’s Day). ‘Khiriacha San’ for Hag Heasif (प्प्प्प्प्प्प्प् प्प्/Feast of the gathering). ‘Darfalnicha San’ Yom Kippur (प्प्प्प्प्प्प्प्प् प्प्प्/Day of Atonement). ‘Shila cha San’ Simhat Kohen (or the merry making Day of the Priest/प्प्प्प् प् प्प्प्). ‘Holicha San’ (Purim/प्प्प्प्प्प् प्प्). ‘Anashi Dhakacha San’ Pessah
(प्प्प्प्प् प्प्प्प् प्प् प्प्/Passover). The other holidays, which date from the time of the religious revival by David Rahabi, have received their names in Hindustani an Urdu mix Hindi language). ‘Ramzan’ (Ellul). ‘Naviacha Roja’ Zom Gedalia (Fast of Gedaliah/Fast of the seventh month/प्प्प्प्प्प्प् प्प्प्). ‘Sabab i Roja 1’ Zom Tebet (Fast of Tebet/Fast of the tenth month /प्प्प्प् प्प्प्प्). ‘Elijah Hannabich a Ooorus’ Rosh Hashana l'ilanoth (प्प्प्प्प् प्प्प्प् प्प् प्प्प्/New year for the Trees). ‘Sabab i Roja 2’ Zom Tammuz (Fast of Tammuz/Fast of the Fourth Month). ‘Birdiacha Roja’ Tisha b’Ab (Fast of destruction of the Temple/प्प्प्प्प्प्प्प्प् प्प्प्). Sacrificial meals Laws during ‘Tabernacle’ in the holy temple in Old Testament General Features of the Minħah/ןּחה, ִמְנofferings as per text describes: The mincha offering was derived from grain, in particular from wheat. In ancient times a number of other grains were also regarded as staples of the menu – such as barley, spelt, oats, rye & wheat was considered to be the most important flavorsome & also availability of wheat flour even for the poorest. The provision to present only finely sifted flour indicated that even for the humblest of offerings some genuine efforts, dedication & devotion were demanded. A grain such as barley was mostly reserved for animal consumption. The oil is olive-based & no yeast whatsoever may be used in the preparation. The ‘loaves/cakes/ fried doughnuts & Pancakes/wafers (rekikim)’ are therefore more like an ‘matza’ than to bread, without any leavening, yeast or anything sweet, but strictly it should include salt. The Torah does not seem to indicate a preference of one type of mincha, the general thrust of the matter is to encourage heightened involvement of the supplicant. "Invest as much as you can", "in your relationship with God. The monetary value of the offering is much less significant than the amount of spiritual & physical effort that you have put in." The Kohen carefully removes (with the palm of his hand & three of his fingers) a small amount of the offering & offers it upon the altar, along with the frankincense, as a ‘remembrance’ on behalf of the supplicant. This ‘remembrance/ha’zkara’ is completely burnt in the altar fire, the remaining may be consumed by the Kohanim. The priests do eat the leftovers. It was taught that when the priests eat of this sacrifice. There were also baked goods, which were not burned on the altar but eaten by the priests after they had been displayed; these were the twelve unleavened & specially shaped showbreads, two loaves of leavened bread prepared for the festival of Shavuot; thanksgiving breads, which included leavened bread, unleavened bread, unleavened wafers & scalded loaves, with one of each kind given to the priests & the remainder eaten by the owner & guests. (shalmei tzibur) (Leviticus 23:1929) were eaten only by the male priests/kohanim. The unleavened loaves & wafers accompanying the Nazirite’s/Nazir, sacrificial ram, one of each kind given to the priests & the remainder eaten by the Nazirite & guests. Whole extended families or clans also participated in a sacrifice that was offered on occasions such as the New Moon, it is referred to as both the “sacrifice of days” and a kinship sacrifice. In the early Israelite period, before the centralization of sacrificial offerings as an exclusive part of the Temple services, these sacrifices were offered at various locations. David is described as leaving Saul’s table to participate with his family in Bethlehem (1 Samuel 20:6) Elkanah goes to Shiloh to participate with his household in the annual sacrifice (1 Samuel 1:21). The mincha then, in some important respects resembles the animal or bird olah. Like the animal or bird offering whose presentation typically includes the placement of blood upon the altar as well as the ritual burning of certain fats & limbs, this mincha also includes the offering of the handful of meal as well as the frankincense upon the fire. They may be brought as an offering of first fruits to God, but they shall not be offered upon the altar as a sweet-smelling sacrifice. There are also offerings of undiluted wine, referred to as ‘nezekh’. As an observation, it stands to reason that an important aspect of the presentation of the mincha must have been the supplicant's recognition that God was the sustainer who bestows nourishment to all life. Grain was the basis of the diet & were the main part of every meal. Meat was consumed much in less frequently & was not regarded as being essential in the same importance. This may explain why the Kohanim were enjoined to partake of the mincha after the offering of the handful & the frankincense, for their consumption emphasized that God indeed provides. But if the free-will ‘Olah’ offering
was presented from cattle, sheep or birds, then it was wholly consumed by the altar & the Kohanim ate none of it. Other offerings could be eaten by the priests with their families in any ritually clean place (Leviticus 10:14). The ordinary Israelite had to eat his share within a fixed time, with his family, guests, & any Levites that he invited. The Firstborn offering (Numbers 18:17-18), could be eaten by the priests & other members of their households. The personal peace offering (shalmei yachid) (Leviticus 3) & Thanksgiving offering (Leviticus 7:31-34), the breast & thigh meat were eaten by the priests & other members of their households & the remainder by ordinary Israelites. The Tithe offering (Leviticus 27:32) could be eaten by anyone and the Passover offering (Exodus 12) was eaten by all who had purchased a share in the sacrifice. The priest once in his lifetime prior to his beginning service in the Temple had to offer an Mincha. This one was completely burnt & not eaten. The High Priest also offered a Mincha for himself every day, for directing his thoughts & focus to God & make him worthy to ask for forgiveness of Israel’s sins. The sacrifice of Yom Kippur is separate & distinct from all the other sacrifices offered during the year. While the others reconciled the sinner on a day to day basis with God, Yom Kippur is the day that God would forgive all the sins of all the people in every generation – in essence this was their salvation sacrifice. Yom Kippur is the only time that the High Priest would enter into the presence of God in the Holy of Holies, doing this act 4 times on that day. He would remove four of his eight garments, all those with gold & enter only with four white linen garments. He would change his clothes five times, dipping himself in a Mikveh each time. Special offerings were made in addition to the regular ones: An offering for all the people paid for with public funds (Korban Mussaf); The High Priest’s personal sacrifice paid for with his own money; two goats – one sacrificed to Hashem and the other sent to Alazel after all the sins of the people were "placed" upon it As the Talmud states, "While they are clothed in the priestly garments, they are clothed in the priesthood; but when they are not wearing the garments, the priesthood is not upon them". Conducting the service without these garments would render the priests the same as those who are not descendants of Aaron - all of whom are unfit for service in the Temple. Significance to the garments? Because their quality is such that they elevate the wearers - Aaron and all his descendants - to the high levels of sanctity required from those who come to serve before G-d in the holy place. These garments themselves possess a certain holiness; powerful enough to sanctify all those who merely come in contact with them, as we read in the prophets: "... so as not to hallow the people with their garments" (Ezekiel 44:19). The eight garments worn by the High Priest all year round are as follows: The ephod, breastplate, robe, tunic, turban, belt, crown, & pants called the "golden garments." The clothing worn by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement, are four garments called the "white garments." The uniform of the ordinary priests, consisting of four garments, ephod, robe, tunic, turban, belt, & pants. Sacrificial/קורבנות/Qorbanot meals Original Tradition & performed by the Indian Bene Israel. • Zevach Sh'lamim/ןּלִמים, ֶזשַבח שַהְש/’Sebah Shelamim’ The Peace Offering - This offering is made when a dispute is settled among the Bene-Israel, or when a person buys a house, a field or a garden. It is also called "a dish offered in the name of God." This is presented in the same way as the Thank-offering (Lev. VII 11—17). The peace-offering is eaten for two days, as said in Lev. XIX 5—6. In Temple time this sacrifice ‘Shalmay Toda’ was also offered whenever God rescued from a dangerous situation; Recovering from a serious illness, Crossing the desert safely, Returning safely from an ocean voyage, Freed from prison. • Karban Nedaba/ִהתשַנ ְדבוִתי/heave offerings - This' offering is made by a Bene-Israel when a new house is built, or when his residence is changed. • Zevach Asham/אשם/’Sebah Asham’ The Guilt or Trespass Offerings - This offering is not made by the Bene-Israel in the mode enjoined by Lev. Vn, 1—10, because they had neither temple, nor altar, nor High Priest but it was altered. When a person steals, when a person misuses Temple items, when a person has uncertainty about possibly committing a sin, For the High Priest who sinned
For when the Sanhedrin sins, For when the King sins • Zevach Chatat/חטאת/’Sebah Hatath’ The Sin Offering - This offering is not made by the Bene-Israel for the same reasons as those given above. The Chatat & Olah was slaughtered on the north side of the altar. • Olah/עלה/The Burnt-Offering - This ascension offering is not made by the Bene-Israel, for the same reasons. (Lev. chap. I. 10—17). It also functioned to forgive sins, for wrong thoughts, for failing to fulfill some mitzva of the Torah, for sins that can be corrected & not repeated by performing a mitzva. Qorban Neder/Korban Neder/The Vow Offering - this was done after the appealed request had bean achieved, and a thankyou is offered to the God. Qorban Nezer/Korban Neser/offering of the Nazarite (chaste) - This offering is made when a Bene-Israel woman , who has no male issue for some ten or twelve years after marriage , take s a vow to the effect that if she is blessed with a son , she will keep him a s a "Nazir" for 6 or 7 years ; his hair is not cut or shaved all this time, Sebah Toda/ Gratitude offering - A dish “Khuda che nave tabak” (Dish offered in the name of God). These & all other offerings are of course prepared with salt, as directed in the Levitical code. The Indian Bene Israelites followed the offering tradition without remembering the details, for example they performed the gratitude offering, is especially made when any one of the Bene-Israel has recovered front a severe illness, or has returned safe from a long journey either by land or sea, or has been rescued from a gale or storm, or any local hazels and hurdles they faced. A big plate is filled with, an unleavened rice-bread made by hand & baked on an iron or earthen pan without oil or butter. Unleavened cakes (chapatis) smeared oil. Unleavened wafers deep Fried in Oil (Papad /प्प्प्प्प्, Sago Wafersप्प्प्प्प्प्प्प् प्प्प्प्/Kurdai-प्प्प्प्प् or Padhir Peni-प्प्प्प्प् प्प्प्प्/Pheni-प्प्प्प्/ Chirote-प्प्प्प्प्प्). Fritters/flat dounut of fine flour & deep fried in oil (wheat flour Gharge /प्प्प्प्प्), leavened bread (rice flour Puri/प्प्प्प् or Gharya/प्प्प्प्प्प्). Pieces of the liver of fowls & goat or lamb. A twig of subja leaves (basil). A cup of wine or other liquor as a drink offering are all put into the dish. Then the Thali/Plate is placed on a white clean or new sheet, besides which a censer is placed with frankincense burning thereon. Afterwards a handful of Malid a together with a piece of each of the articles kept in the dish is taken by the man who officiates as Priest (Hazan) into his own hands, & is presented to the person on whose account the offering is made, & also to those who fast along with him, saying that they are released from the vow. The ‘Hazan’ then takes a piece of each of the articles for himself, as was done by the Cohen in olden times. The rest is shared by the people invited for the occasion, & then they all feast together. This offering is eaten on the same day that it is offered & is not kept for another day. After the ‘Keriyath Shema’ Shema Yisrael prayer was repeated about a dozen times since they had forgotten all the blessing & prayers; let’s not forget the history of India during those times, many had tried to rule India & at times convert them. It clearly suggested that the Bene-Israel survivor s of the ship-wreck have been of the tribe of Levi & that therefore they remembered the different sorts of offerings so well, & science has proven the claim. When did Jews start saying the ‘Shema Yisrael’ Prayer? ןּחד, ןּר לֵאל ה' ֱאֹל לֵהינו ה' ֶא, ְששַמע יְש. ְָבִשְבְָתָך ְָב לֵביֶתָך,ןָּבם, ןָּת, ןּבֶניָך ְו ִדשַָב ְר, ןָּתם ְל, ְוִששַַנְנ. ןּבֶבָך, ְל-שַעל-- ֲאֶשר ָאִכֹנִכי ְמשַצ ְוָך שַהּיֹום,ןּה לֵאֶלה, ןּב ִרים, ןּהיו שַה ְד, ְו. א ֶדָך ְֹמ ִכ-ןּכל, שַנְפְשָך וְב-ןּכל, ןּבְבָך וְב, ְל-ןּכל, ְָב,ןָּת לֵאת ה' ֱאֹלֶהיָך, ְוָאשַהְב ןּע ֶריָך, וִבְש,ְמ ֻזזֹות לֵָביֶתָך-ןָּתם שַעל, וְכשַתְב. ן לֵעיֶניָך, פת לֵָבי ֹןּט ִכ, ט ֹןּהיו ְל ִכ, ןּי ֶדָך ; ְו, -ןָּתם ְלאֹות שַעל, ו ְקשַש ְר. ןּשְכְָבָך וְבקוֶמָך, וְב,וְבֶלְכְָתָך שַב ֶד ֶרְך.
"The Shema" refers to the six verses from the fifth book of the Torah, Deuteronomy 6:4-9. The first word is the Hebrew word "Shema", which means "hear", or "listen", or "understand". The six verses state: 4. Hear, O Yisrael / Israel: The Eternal (more precisely, the Transcendental one) is our God, the Eternal is one/unique/indivisible. 5. Love the Eternal (more precisely: The Transcendental one) your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.
6. These things that I command you today are to be on your hearts. 7. Teach them diligently to your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. 8. Tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads. 9. Write them on the door posts of your houses and on your gates. It is possible the Bene Israelites with past of being conquered & exiled had accustomed to live low-profiled life & not attract much attention with the fear of losing their life. Presumable the Ancestors who have survived from the boat crash knew well about the rituals & prayers, but during exile they might had not practice mostly, generations have passed without practice, and they held-on to basic of their belief with probably was taught to them mouth to ear by their parents. After the religious revival ’Veyiten lekha’ is repeated. After the ceremony is over, grace is said over the cup of wine or liquor, a little of which is poured on the ground as a libation, and the rest is drunk by the officiating reader and the person who makes the offering. At the end of Sabbath, it has been customary for Jews to invoke Elijah requesting him to bless their home & their family (in Israel they bless the Israeli soldiers), Eliyahoo Hannabicha Urus, on 15th of Shevat (TuBishvat). The Malida dish & prayers are offered & celebrated mostly on joyous occasions such as Birth of a baby & gratifying fertility, brit-Mila (circumcision ceremony), bar/bat mitzvah, graduations, engagement parties, henna ceremonies before the wedding, housewarming parties, new Jobs, blessings for safe voyage, safety or good health, after ending of 1-year completion of the mourning period are wished upon. When times are bad and you are down on your luck or encounter sickness in the family, revival from sickness, health & peace, you might have a Malida ceremony to turn the tide. Usually the women take a ‘Neder’ (vow) to fast & once the fast is completed, they celebrate with a Malida ceremony to mark the completion. Some claim that the practice has been in practice amongst the Bene-Israel in India from time immemorial, goes to prove that the ancestors of the Bene-Israel were actually in Ancient Israel during the time of the existence of the Second Temple, & that they left it sometime or other before its destruction, or, in other words somewhere about 2000 years ago. Speculations were also that the first people who might have said the ‘Shema Yisrael’ were descendants of the Israelite tribe of Judah, the majority of those who remained in the Land of Israel after the northern tribes of Israel were exiled before the seventh century BCE. But actually, the first who said the ‘Shema Yisrael’ were members of all of the twelve tribes of Israel, whom God freed from Egypt over 3,300 years ago, and who traveled through the desert forty years, under the leadership of Moses, before finally entering the Land of Canaan (which became later the Land of Israel). However, we don't know whether they recited these verses morning and evening, since they may have spoken about these three things in other ways, not specifically by reciting these verses. The Archeologists found the wheel & the scrips of the Hebrews written in Saudi Arabia from the exodus time, I am sure we could solve our mystery too, the ship wreck is down below waters of ‘Underi & Khanderi’ Island (Hennry & Kenrry Island); only if the archaeology department of India decides to investigate the time of arrival of the ‘Shanival Teli’s’ would be reviled and might their boarding place too. Few facts that contradicts the claim are, the sects of Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes & Zealots were formed during this period. The Second Temple period ended with the First Jewish–Roman War & the Roman destruction of Jerusalem & its Temple. Ezra the Cohen brought the Law before the congregation, both men & women, all that could hear with understanding, Now, although the offerings made by the Bene-Israel at the present time are styled a "Dish offered in the name of God", yet there is no doubt that we possess in the observance an actual vestige and continuation of the offerings directed in the Hebrew Scriptures. The Bene-Israel haven’t preserved the custom of making any burnt-offering, they didn’t have a Temple, nor an Altar. No sacrifice of a goat or lamb, as directed in the Mosaic Law, was offered, since the Bene-Israel in common with other
Hebrews have no altar now for that purpose. By slaughtering a cow or a bullock it might have brought themselves into serious trouble by hurting the local Hindu’s, while a dove or a pigeon could not be available. Instead, the person on whose account the offering is made, fasts for a day, while all other things are being prepared and offered as directed in Lev. VII 12-15. Instead of the burnt-offering, they observed a strict Fast for 24 hours on occasions with some alterations in the offerings, adapting themselves to the circumstances of the country they were lived in, they maintained a semblance even of animal sacrifice; substituted a goat or lamb instead of a cow or a bullock which the ancestors of the Bene- Israel made, is still observed by their descendants. The Hindu’s too have ‘Vrath’ fasting (they eat special fasting food) like most of other civilizations tradition of offering for god and asking favors; the men & mostly ladies in-return they perform fasting for the particular day of the god or goddess who helps with particular wish. Ascension of Eliyahu (אל הָיהוה הנביא, Elijah, Elias) The Prophet to Heaven in a Fiery Chariot Eliyahu Ha’Navi/Elijah, meaning "My God is Yahweh, the Prophet, was one of the greatest prophets of Jewish History & Jewish Legend. He lived in the period after Yerav’am ben Nevat, who caused the Jewish Kingdom to be split into the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Yehuda, when the First Temple stood, but the People of Israel was sunk in the depths of idol-worship. His main antagonists were King Ach’av & his wife Queen Jezebel during 9th century BC. Different theories regarding Elijah's origin are presented in the Aggadah literature: (1) he belonged to the tribe of Gad. But the words of 1 Kings 17:1 could be rendered as "Elijah the dweller from among the inhabitants in Gilead", because in that verse "Tishbite" was the residence or birthplace of Elijah. (2) he was a Benjamite from Jerusalem, identical with the Elijah mentioned in I Chronicles 8:27. (3) have stated that Elijah was a priest. But the Talmud states; the said to Elijah, “Art thou not a priest, why then dost thou stand in a cemetery?" (4) Elijah was really an angel in human form, so that he had neither parents nor offspring, like Melchizedek. The Midrash Rabbah Exodus 4:2 states "Elijah should have revived his parents as he had revived the son of the Zarephathite" indicating he surely had parents. (5) Some equate him with Phinehas the grandson of Aaron (Exodus 6:25). Because of Phinehas' zealousness for God, he & his descendants were promised, "a covenant of lasting priesthood" (Numbers 25:13). Therefore, Elijah is a priest & a prophet. (6) Elijah is also equated with the Archangel Sandalphon, whose four wing beats will carry him to any part of the earth. When forced to choose between death & dishonor, Rabbi Kahana chose to leap to his death. Before he could strike the ground, Elijah/Sandalphon had appeared to catch him. Yet another name for Elijah is "Angel of the Covenant" Eliyahu who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel, God performed many miracles through Elijah, including resurrection (raising the dead), bringing fire down from the sky, and entering Heaven alive "by fire". He is also portrayed as leading a school of prophets known as "the sons of the prophets" Elijah was summoned to appear before God in the same cave, on Mount Carmel. The vision in which God revealed Himself to Elijah gave him at the same time a picture of the destinies of man, who has to pass through "four worlds." This world was shown to the prophet by God through symbolism: in the form of the wind, since it disappears as the wind; storm is the day of death, before which man trembles; fire is the judgment in Gehenna; and the stillness is the last day. The traditions associated with the cave is that Elijah hid here from the wrath of Jezebel, who had introduced worship of her Phoenician god Baal to the land. At Jewish circumcision ceremonies, a chair is set aside for the use of the prophet Elijah. Elijah is said to be a witness at all circumcisions when the sign of the covenant is placed upon the body of the child. This custom stems from the incident at Mount Horeb (1 Kings 19): Elijah had arrived at Mount Horeb after the demonstration of God's presence and power on Mount Carmel. At the Passover seder, the door of the house is opened & Elijah is invited in to sit in place which is th reserved at the seder table, the 5 cup is viewed as Elijah's & is used for no other purpose.
Havdalah is the ceremony that concludes the Sabbath Day (Saturday evening in Jewish tradition). As part of the concluding hymn, an appeal is made to God that Elijah will come during the following week. "Elijah the Prophet, Elijah the Tishbite. Let him come quickly, in our day with the messiah, the son of David." Eliyahu, The Prophet was succeeded by Prophet Elisha, his major disciple. When Eliyahu (Elijah) was about to be taken to heaven, Elisha walked with him from Gilgal to Jordan, and would not leave him on any pretext. At the beginning of (II Kings 2), Eliyahu travels from Gilgal to Bethel to Jericho to the Jordan before being taken up in the whirlwind. Elisha then mostly reverses this course crossing back over the Jordan, going up to Jericho on to Bethel and from there returning to Samaria. There are four different locations referred to as Gilgal in the bible. Most theories stick with; one in Samaria & one near Jericho. Eliyahu & Elisha went to Bethel" from Gilgal, suggesting that the place was in the vicinity of Bethel, hence in a mountainous region, higher elevation than Bethel. Elisha shall receive 3 dimensions of Eliyahu: his Mantle, his spirit & his God. Gilgal was the spiritual peak and from that spiritual position in God, Joshua led the 3 campaigns in the conquest of Canaan and it was their spiritual Epicenter. Bethel is the House of God & Jericho means the first fruit. Eliyahu brought Elisha on this specific route for the purpose to let Elisha 'catch' his heart cry on the spiritual state of decay in these 3 important and strategic spiritual places. Eliyahu must ensure Elisha will continue his legacy to restore God's Kingdom in Israel. Eliyahu turned to Elisha and said, “Ask what I shall do for thee, before I be taken away from thee. Then Elisha said, I pray thee let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me.” (II Kings 2:9). This was a hard thing but Eliyahu did not say it was impossible. He told Elisha that incase he should see him while he was taken up then it should be god will, but if not, it was not meant to be so. Minutes later the chariot of fire from heaven swept down, & Eliyahu was caught up in a whirlwind into heaven. Elisha saw it happen. As Eliyahu went up, his mantle fell to the ground. Elisha picked it up & returned to the Jordan. As he reached the river, he took the mantle & smote the waters, they parted for him as they had for Eliyahu. The sons of the prophets which had viewed the scene afar off, said, “The spirit of Eliyahu doth rest upon Elisha.” (II Kings 2:15). In Judaism, Elijah's name is invoked at the weekly Havdalah rite that marks the end of Shabbat, & Elijah is invoked in other Jewish customs, among them the Passover Seder and the ‘Brit-milah’ (circumcision). He appears in numerous stories & references in the Haggadah & rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud. Elijah's story continues with Ahaziah, after Achav’s death. Ahaziah the son of Jezebel & Ahab; two bad apples, & was the uncle of Ahaziah, King of Judah became king over Israel in Samaria, and he reigned two years over Israel, 852-851 BC. He did evil in the sight of the Lord and walked in the way of his father and in the way of his mother and in the way of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who caused Israel to sin. He served Baal and worshiped him and provoked the Lord God of Israel to anger. Ahaziah could have taken the message of Elijah as an opportunity to confess his sins, instead he sends out orders to arrest Elijah. Elijah, the biblical account became the basis of later legend. Elijah the precursor of the Messiah, Elijah zealous in the cause of God, Elijah the helper in distress: these are the three leading notes struck by the Aggadah, endeavoring to complete the biblical picture with the Elijah legends. His career is extensive, colorful & varied. He has appeared the world over in the guise of a beggar & scholar. The Book of Malachi prophesies Elijah's return "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Judgment", making him a harbinger of the Messiah and of the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. References to Elijah appear in Ecclesiasticus, the New Testament, the Mishnah and Talmud, the Quran, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and Bahá'í writings. Elijah is mentioned four more times in the New Testament, Jesus/Yehoshua/Joshua uses Elijah as an example of rejected prophets. But let’s not forget Jesus lived in northern kingdom. Elijah has been venerated as the patron saint of Bosnia and Herzegovina Another Cave of Elijah, located in Jobar, Syria, and connected to the synagogue there, Later stories of the Chasidic rabbis, reverence & love, expectation & hope, were always connected in the Jewish
consciousness with Elijah. Lilith Story; Elijah was always seen as deeply pious, it seems only natural that he would be pitted against an equally evil individual. Lilith, the first wife of Adam. She rebelled against Adam, the angels, & even God, here after was seen as a demon. Elijah encountered Lilith & instantly recognized & challenged her, "Unclean one, where are you going?" Unable to avoid or lie to the prophet, she admitted she was on her way to the house of a pregnant woman. Her intention was to kill the woman & eat the child (this is mentioned in the missing books of Genesis). Elijah pronounced his malediction, "I curse you in the Name of the Lord. Be silent as a stone!" But then Lilith negotiated a bargain with him; she gives Elijah her names so that they can be written in an Amulet, pronounced in the houses of pregnant women or new born children. Lilith promises, "where I see those names, I shall run away at once. Neither the child nor the mother will ever be injured by me." Story is that of Rabbi Joshua ben Levi; The rabbi, a friend of Elijah's, was asked what favor he might wish. The rabbi answered only that he be able to join Elijah in his wanderings. Elijah granted his wish only if he refrained from asking any questions about any of the prophet's actions. The first place they came to was the house of an elderly couple who were so poor they had only one old cow. The old couple gave of their hospitality as best they could. The next morning, as the travelers left, Elijah prayed that the old cow would die and it did. The second place they came to was the home of a wealthy man. He had no patience for his visitors & chased them away with the admonition that they should get jobs & not beg from honest people. As they were leaving, they passed the man's wall & saw that it was crumbling. Elijah prayed that the wall be repaired and it was so. Next, they came to a wealthy synagogue. They were allowed to spend the night with only the smallest of provisions. When they left, Elijah prayed that every member of the synagogue might become a leader. Finally, they came to a very poor synagogue. Here they were treated with great courtesy and hospitality. When they left, Elijah prayed that God might give them a single wise leader. At this Rabbi Joshua could no longer hold back. He demanded of Elijah an explanation of his actions. At the house of the old couple, Elijah knew that the Angel of Death was coming for the old woman, so he prayed that God might have the angel take the cow instead. At the house of the wealthy man, there was a great treasure hidden in the crumbling wall. Elijah prayed that the wall be restored thus keeping the treasure away from the miser. The story ends with a moral; A synagogue with many leaders will be ruined by many arguments. A town with a single wise leader will be guided to success and prosperity. "Know then, that if thou seest an evil-doer prosper, it is not always unto his advantage, & if a righteous man suffers need and distress, think not God is unjust." Georgian mythology; Once Jesus, the prophet Elijah & St. George were going through Georgia. When they became tired & hungry, they stopped to dine. They saw a shepherd & decided to ask him to feed them. First, Elijah went up to the shepherd & asked him for a sheep. After the shepherd asked his identity Elijah said that, he was the one who sent him rain to get him a good profit from farming. The shepherd became angry at him & told him that he was the one who also sent thunderstorms, which destroyed the farms of poor widows. (After Elijah, Jesus & St. George attempt to get help and eventually succeed).
Prophet Elijah & the Indian Bene Israel. The story of Lilith & Elijah has a custom followed by the Indian Bene Israel woman. • The recipient of these wishes was the prophet Elijah. Another story that Elijah’s significance for the Bene Israel is heightened by the fact that this prophet is alleged to have led them in ancient times from the Holy Land to India. The prophet’s well-known posthumous globe-trotting finds other particular echoes with the Bene Israel. They claim to descend from the sea-faring tribe of Zebulun, and historically they worked in India as sailors. Perhaps the seafarers' long-waiting wives established this Thanksgiving ceremony out of persistent personal need? • The Bene Israel legend also narrates of two occasions when Prophet Elijah visited them and returned to heaven. The first occasion occurred immediately after the arrival of Bene Israel to the Navgaon village coast of Konkan. On this occasion he revivified the unconscious Bene Israel’s who swam to the beach from the sea. The second occasion occurred at a much latter period. At this visit the Bene Israel believe, Prophet Elijah also left horse hooves marks & mystical long strait marking of a chariot rail on a solid huge rock, from the spot Elijah ascended to heaven. In this place in the village of Khandala near Alibag. The Bene Israel’s used to have religious rituals.
‘Malida’ Practice of the Bene Israel community The prophet Elijah is considered the guardian prophet of the community. Legend has it he rescued the 7 women & 7 men, & were washed ashore on the Konkan Coast, there life was spared. At the core of the Bene Israel Jewish Indian community is the ‘Malida’, both a dish and the ceremony surrounding the blessing of the food, that are essential to the community in Israel & living in India or elsewhere. The dish of sweetened, parched flattened rice is prayed over, and like offering at the temple mount and traditions of Hindus offering food at local Indian temples, is offered to God. Some anthropologist believed that the custom of the Bene Israel ‘Malida’ Service was borrowed from Mahomedans from their association with the Afghanis, but certain critical elements permit this theory to be refuted. There are few accounts on the origin of the ‘Malida’ dish & custom. Some say the custom predates to the time of the first holy temple in Jerusalem.
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The Israelites would bring parched and flattened wheat grains as an offering to God at the temple in Jerusalem. The rendition eaten by Bene-Israel is an adaptation made with Poha, a common Indian parched and flattened rice. Malida was performed mainly on Tu B’Shevat, which is the “New Year for Trees”. The reason to thank God for blessing us with the new fruits of spring. They took inspiration from regional dish of Malida/Maleeda of the original Afghani dish that was used by the local Muslims. They mixed the ingredients to tailor-fit them to Jewish dietary laws, example using coconut milk instead of milk. keeping the eating the liver & gizzards in mind. The meal after the ceremony included Chicken or Mutton (goat meat). Another example is during the Jerusalem Temple flattened wheat was Offred flattened rice/rice flakes After making ‘Aliya’ to Israel (Migrating), they first visit Elijah’s Cave, which is in Mount Carmel in Haifa, & perform exactly the same ceremony accompanied with the prayers.
‘Malida’ Ceremony Method The ceremony, which is led by a ‘Khazan’ (cantor), is called the ‘Eliyahu Ha-Navi ceremony’. Prior to the service an oil lamp is lighted for ‘Eliyahu Ha Navi’ and a ‘Bracha’ (blessing) is said over it. The sweetened & flattened rice, is served as a heaping mound, on a large thali & adorned with 5 fruits, some families place 7 fruits, like in my family. other the fruits should be for use of the blessing as per their category. Borei Pri Ha’Gefen; Red Grape Juice (Raisin juice), Borei Pri Ha’Etz; Dates, Apple, Grapes, Figs, Mango, Kiwi, Chiku, Oranges, Mandrin, Peach, Afarsimon, Pear, Plum, Pomegranate, Prunes, Quince, Raspberries, Borei Pri Ha’Adama; Banana, Pineapple, Melons, Papaya, Strawberry, Borei Mezonot; other than bread Ha’Motzi Lekhem min Ha’Araz; Wheat bread Shehakol; food that is not grown from earth directly. Shehiyanu Bracha; one new fruit of the season B’samim; depended on event that is being celebrated & the day of the week, it might be decorated with fragrance rose Petals or Myrtle leaves/Sabja or aromatic cloves. The heaping thali is then decorated with rose petals, A handful of Malida along with sliced fruit & a date are then disbursed to all guests after the blessings. A plate of dry cooked Liver & Gizzard placed on the Malidah or separately. Blessed ‘Shehakol’. Prior to the meal a plate for the Ha Motzi Bracha is placed on the table. The Gizzard & Liver are Placed over the ‘Malida’ or in a separate plate. But after the prayers the liver & gizzard are cut into small pieces & distributed to all the congregants. This is act of following a custom/tradition established in the old temple days, inherently/inadvertently following a custom related to the tribe of Levy. In the old days when some person came to the temple to offer a sacrifice, the ritual slaughter was performed by a Levite. But he was not allowed to charge for his services. So, the liver & gizzard were claimed by him as his portion. Now if one wanted that from him; he had to pay the Levite to buy the Liver & gizzard from him. Similar to the custom of the ceremony of Pidyon Ha Ben. Why the liver & gizzard? If one has observed pack animals hunting one will have noticed that, the liver & gizzard is eaten only by the Alpha Male, the leader of the pack. The Levites claimed to be the leaders of the Jewish People. Hence following the practice from their community & without even realizing it the Bene Israel are following a time-honored tradition till today symbolizing their role as community leaders & this was an indication for them being from the Levi tribe, until the DNA had pointed connection to the Cohen. The prayers are recited in a typical tune for each of the prayers. Many have compared the Malida ceremony to some offerings of the Hindus & the Muslims to their deities & Peers, or the holy saints. Even the name Malida is of Persian origin. It is but natural for people living. The fact is ‘Malida’ is an Afghani word for similar dish but made with different ingredients. Let’s not forget many tribes of
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the exile Jews were and are located in that area, there was no Islam when the Bene Israel arrived to India, the Mohamedans who arrived much later from Saudi Arabia are called ‘Konkni Muslim’ not the one from the Mughals. The Hindus have a sweet ‘prasad’ which is given in the temples, called ‘Shira’ made of semolina and cooked in ghee, sugar, some cook with milk, so there is no question of coping. I will write about this confusion in future article. Note: Samuel Kehimkar wrote in his book about Bene Israel “containing Maida made of five pieces of unleavened bread of rice flour” what I see is the same ingredient of ‘rice roti’, ‘wheat roti was used by the Afghanis for ‘Malida’ it was also used by the Konkani Muslims. That was crumbed into tiny pieces instead of the Poha (rice flakes). Malida or Maleeda, is the Persian word for confection, majorly in Afghanistan. ّ لप्چوری ک Churi/Choori/ ڈو ُ / چوری ُ is a traditional sweet confection made out of parathas or rotis by crumbling them coarsely & stir frying them with ghee, sugar, dry fruits & nuts. Many Muslims in Subcontinent celebrate the last Wednesday of the Islamic month Safar by fasting, taking shower & opening the fast with sweet Choori. The method is supposedly attributed to Sunnah, but almost every Islamic Sect deems it a Bid'ah (Innovation in Religion). But still the practice is mostly carried out in villages of these countries; The married females go to parents in order to eat Choori over there & bring some for the family of their Husband. The Choori could be made as ‘Ladoo’ balls.
Specific Hebrew passages in the order below are recited during the ‘Malida’ ceremony. 1) The song of praising ‘Eliyahu Ha’navi’ is sung & blessings over the fruit from the tree & from the earth are recited during the ceremony. Before partaking of Malida, Bore Mine Mezonot or Shehakol Nihiya Bidbaro blessing is offered. Of the five or seven fruits kept on the platter, at least one is for Ha’etz & one for Ha’adama prayer before partaking them. Sweet smelling flowers or twigs of myrtle is used for smelling & Bore Atze Besamim prayer is offered. 2) Many different blessings, quoted from the Hebrew Bible, are recited, the first of which begins with the Hebrew words “Vayiten Lecha” (May God Give You). Another blessing quoted from the Hebrew Bible that is recited – three times – is “Ha-Malach Ha-Goel” (May the Angel Who Redeems Us). *Veiten Lecha, consists of various different blessings as bellow: Genesis: בראשית a. Chapter 27, verses 28-29 / כט- פסוקים כח,פרק כז b. Chapter 28, verses 3-4 / ד- פסוקים ג,פרק כ"ח c. Chapter 49, verses 25-26 / כו- פסוקים כה,פרק מט *Deuteronomy: ספר דברים a. Chapter 7, verses 13-15 / טו- פסוקים יג,פרק ז b. Chapter 28, verses 3, 6, 5, 4, 8 & 12 / יב- יח, ד, ה, ו, פסוקים ג,פרק כ"א c. Chapter 15, verse 6 / פסוק ו,פרק ט d. Chapter 33, verse 29 / פסוק כט,פרק לג 3) Genesis: a. Chapter 48, verse 16 repeated thrice / פסוקים טז,פרק מח 4) The readings from the Hebrew Bible conclude with the reading of Psalm 121/ קכא. After the malida ceremony, the fruits are then eaten by the participants. 5) After the prayer, a meal is Offred, goat, chicken may accompany with rice, salad & vegetables, symbolizing the Temple offering. After the meal often, songs in Marathi language praising ‘Eliyahu Ha’navi’ are sung which have been composed by ancestors. . ןּדוד, ן, ןּמשיח ָב, עם,ןּדוד, ן, ןּמשיח ָב, ןּיבא לֵא לֵלינו עם, ןּי לֵמנו, ןּרה ב, ָבמה,ןּיהו הנביא, אל,ןּיהו הנביא, לֵאל,ןּיהו הנביא, אל
Eliyahu hanavi, Eliyahu hanavi, Eliyahu hanavi. Bimheirah b'yameinu, yavo eileinu, im Mashiach ben David. May Elijah the prophet, Elijah the Tishbite, Elijah of Gilead, quickly in our day come to us heralding redemption.
Festive Malida Recipe 1 kg thick Poha (thick variety of rice flakes) 0.75 kg powdered sugar 1/2 grated fresh coconut freshly 10 cardamom pods, shelled & finely ground
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50 gm raw almonds, blanched, peeled & thinly sliced 50 gm raw pistachios, shelled, blanched, peeled & thinly sliced Charoli/Chironji (Indian pine nut) its optional 50 gm golden raisins A dash of Rose water Few fresh fragrant rose petals, or Cloves (depending on the ceremony reason) (Optional, replace cardamom with 0.5 teaspoon each of powdered nutmeg, pinch of saffron) 1) Immerse Poha in cold water for 3-4 minutes until softens, don’t over soak, keep it al-dente, not mushy. 2) Run through a sieve to drain all water out and press on top gently to rid of excess water. 3) In a large bowl, add the Poha & sugar powder & flake with a fork to fluff the mixture. 4) Add the cardamom and coconut, nut, golden raisins, rose water & mix well. 5) On a decorative big deep plate ‘Thali’, heap the ‘Malida’ in the middle. 6) Arrange 5 or 7 type of fresh fruits (uncut). 7) Place the rose petals or cloves on the top of the ‘Malida’. 7) Keep refrigerated until serving. Stays in refrigerator for a few days.