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Linear Systems Optimal and Robust Control
CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 334872742 © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Version Date: 20110614 International Standard Book Number13: 9781420008883 (eBook  PDF) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright. com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 9787508400. CCC is a notforprofit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com
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Title Page
Linear Systems Optimal and Robust Control
Alok Sinha
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To The Loving Memory of My Mother, Grandparents, and Uncle And My Father
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A COMMON MODELING ERROR Prakrieh kriyamanani Gunaih karmani sarvasah Ahamkararavimudhatma Karta ’ham iti manyate
While all kinds of work are done by the modes of nature, he whose soul is bewildered by the selfsense thinks “I am the doer.” (The Bhagavad Gita: An English Translation, by S. Radhakrishnan, George Allen and Unwin, 1971, page 143.)
A ROBUST AND OPTIMAL CONTROL ALGORITHM Karmay eva ’dhikaras te Ma phalesu kadacana Ma karmaphalahetur bhur Ma te sango ’stv akarmani
To action alone hast thou a right and never at all to its fruits; let not the fruits of action be thy motive; neither let there be in thee any attachment to inaction. (The Bhagavad Gita: An English Translation, by S. Radhakrishnan, George Allen and Unwin, 1971, page 119.)
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Contents Chapter 1 1.1 1.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................1 Contents of the Book .......................................................................................2
Chapter 2 2.1 2.2
Introduction ..........................................................................................1
State Space Description of a Linear System.......................................3
Transfer Function of a Single Input/Single Output (SISO) System ...............3 State Space Realizations of a SISO System....................................................5 Method I...........................................................................................................5 Method II..........................................................................................................7 Properties of State Space Models..................................................................10 1. Duality.................................................................................10 2. Nonuniqueness of State Space Realization........................10 2.3 SISO Transfer Function from a State Space Realization..............................11 2.4 Solution of State Space Equations ................................................................12 2.4.1 Homogeneous Equation .....................................................................12 2.4.2 Inhomogeneous Equation...................................................................13 2.5 Observability and Controllability of a SISO System....................................14 2.5.1 Observability ......................................................................................14 Observability of State Space Realization Using Method I ...............16 Observability of State Space Realization Using Method II..............16 2.5.2 Controllability ....................................................................................19 Controllability of the State Space Realization Obtained Using Method I ..................................................................................24 Controllability of the State Space Realization Obtained Using Method II.................................................................................25 2.6 Some Important Similarity Transformations .................................................29 2.6.1 Diagonal Form ...................................................................................29 2.6.2 Controllability Canonical Form .........................................................30 2.7 Simultaneous Controllability and Observability ...........................................31 2.7.1 Observability of State Space Realization Using Method I ...............32 2.8 Multiinput/Multioutput (MIMO) Systems.....................................................36 2.9 State Space Realizations of a Transfer Function Matrix ..............................40 Method I.........................................................................................................40 Method II........................................................................................................42 2.10 Controllability and Observability of a MIMO System .................................44 2.10.1 Controllability and Observability of Methods I and II Realizations ........................................................................................45 Method I Realization .........................................................................45
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Method II Realization ........................................................................46 2.11 MatrixFraction Description (MFD)..............................................................46 2.11.1 Degree of a Square Polynomial Matrix and Greatest Common Right Divisor (gcrd)...........................................................47 2.11.2 Elementary Row and Column Operations.........................................50 2.11.3 Determination of a gcrd.....................................................................51 2.12 MFD of a Transfer Function Matrix for the Minimal Order of a State Space Realization ...........................................................................................57 2.13 Controller Form Realization from a Right MFD ..........................................59 2.13.1 State Space Realization......................................................................59 2.13.2 Similarity Transformation to Convert Any State Space Realization {A,B,C} to the Controller Form Realization..................64 2.14 Poles and Zeros of a MIMO Transfer Function Matrix ...............................66 2.14.1 Smith Form ........................................................................................66 2.14.2 Smith–McMillan Form ......................................................................67 2.14.3 Poles and Zeros via Smith–McMillan Form .....................................69 2.14.4 Poles and Zeros via an Irreducible MFD ..........................................71 2.15 Stability Analysis ...........................................................................................71 An Important Property of the Lyapunov Equation ...........................72 Exercise Problems ...................................................................................................73 Chapter 3 3.1
3.2 3.3 3.4
3.5
State Feedback Control and Optimization ........................................79
State Variable Feedback for a Single Input System ......................................79 3.1.1 Effects of State Feedback on Poles of the ClosedLoop Transfer Function: Computation of State Feedback Gain Vector .................................................................................................80 3.1.2 Effects of State Feedback on Zeros of the ClosedLoop Transfer Function ...............................................................................85 3.1.3 State Feedback Control for a Nonzero and Constant Output ...........89 3.1.4 State Feedback Control under Constant Input Disturbances: Integral Action....................................................................................91 Computation of State Feedback Gain Matrix for a Multiinput System .......95 State Feedback Gain Matrix for a Multiinput System for Desired Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors........................................................................99 Fundamentals of Optimal Control Theory ..................................................112 3.4.1 Necessary Conditions for Optimality ..............................................113 Minimization of I .............................................................................114 Maximization of I ............................................................................115 3.4.2 Properties of Hamiltonian for an Autonomous System ..................115 Special Case .....................................................................................116 Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Problem ...............................................123 3.5.1 Solution (OpenLoop Optimal Control) ..........................................124 3.5.2 Solution (ClosedLoop Optimal Control)........................................126 3.5.3 Cross Term in the Objective Function.............................................127 3.5.4 Important Case: Infinite Final Time ................................................132
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3.6
Solution of LQR Problem Via Root Locus Plot: SISO Case .....................137 The Symmetric Root Locus.........................................................................139 Case I: High Cost of Control (r → ∞)............................................140 Case II: Low Cost of Control (r → 0) ............................................140 3.7 Linear Quadratic Trajectory Control ...........................................................143 3.8 FrequencyShaped LQ Control ....................................................................148 3.9 MinimumTime Control of a Linear TimeInvariant System .....................154 Normality of Linear Systems.......................................................................155 Existence and Uniqueness Theorems on MinimumTime Control.............156 Exercise Problems .................................................................................................168 Chapter 4
Control with Estimated States.......................................................... 179
4.1 4.2
OpenLoop Observer....................................................................................179 ClosedLoop Observer .................................................................................180 4.2.1 Determination of Observer Gain Vector L for a SingleOutput System ......................................................................181 4.2.2 Determination of Observer Gain Matrix L for a MultipleOutput System...................................................................182 4.2.3 Locations of Observer Poles............................................................182 4.3 Combined Observer–CONTROLLER .........................................................186 4.4 ReducedOrder Observer .............................................................................191 4.5 Response of a Linear ContinuousTime System to White Noise ...............195 4.6 Kalman Filter: Optimal State Estimation ....................................................200 State Dynamics ............................................................................................200 Measurement Equation ................................................................................200 Observer Dynamics......................................................................................201 4.7 Stochastic Optimal Regulator in Steady State.............................................208 State Dynamics ............................................................................................208 Objective Function .......................................................................................209 4.8 Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) Control .................................................215 State Dynamics ............................................................................................216 Measurement Equation ................................................................................216 Objective Function .......................................................................................216 ClosedLoop System Dynamics...................................................................218 Minimum Value of the Objective Function .................................................219 4.9 Impact of Modeling Errors on ObserverBased Control.............................222 4.9.1 Structured Parametric Uncertainties ................................................222 4.9.2 Unmodeled Dynamics......................................................................224 Exercise Problems .................................................................................................228 Chapter 5
5.1
Robust Control: Fundamental Concepts and H2, H∞, and μ Techniques ....................................................................................235
Important Aspects of Singular Value Analysis ............................................235
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5.1.1
Significance of Minimum and Maximum Singular Values of the Transfer Function Matrix at a Frequency .............................235 5.1.2 An Inequality for Robustness Test ..................................................237 5.2 Robustness: Sensitivity and Complementary Sensitivity ............................238 5.2.1 Basic Definitions ..............................................................................238 5.2.2 Robustness to Structured Uncertainties ...........................................242 5.2.3 Robustness to Unstructured Uncertainties.......................................244 5.3. Robustness of LQR and Kalman Filter (KF) Feedback Loops ..................252 5.3.1 Liner Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Feedback Loop .........................252 5.3.2 Gain and Phase Margins of a SingleInput System ........................254 5.3.3 Gain and Phase Margins of a Multiinput System ...........................257 5.3.2 Kalman Filter (KF) Loop.................................................................260 5.4 LQG/LTR Control ........................................................................................263 5.4.1 Lack of Guaranteed Robustness of LQG Control...........................263 5.4.2 Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR) .......................................................265 5.5 H2 And H∞ Norms........................................................................................269 5.5.1 Definition of L2 Norm......................................................................269 5.5.2 Definition of H2 Norm .....................................................................269 5.5.3 Significance of H2 Norm..................................................................270 I. Connection with Unit Impulse Responses .......................270 II. Connection with the Root Mean Square (RMS) Response ...........................................................................271 5.5.4 Definition of H∞ Norm.....................................................................273 5.5.5 Significance of H∞ Norm .................................................................273 I. Connection with the WorstCase Frequency Response ...........................................................................273 II. Connection with the WorstCase Output or Input ...........274 III. Connection of the Bounded Real Lemma (5.5.28 to 5.5.30) with a Special Linear Quadratic Maximization Problem......................................................275 5.5.6 Computation of H2 Norm ................................................................278 5.5.7 Computation of H∞ Norm ................................................................281 5.6 H2 Control ....................................................................................................283 5.6.1 Full State Feedback H2 Control (Figure 5.6.1) ...............................283 5.6.2 Output Feedback H2 Control (Figure 5.6.2)....................................286 5.7 WellPosedness, Internal Stability, and Small Gain Theorem ....................288 5.7.1 WellPosedness and Internal Stability of a General Feedback System ..............................................................................................288 WellPosedness of Feedback System ..............................................290 Internal Stability of the System .......................................................290 5.7.2 Small Gain Theorem ........................................................................292 5.7.3 Analysis for Application of Small Gain Theorem ..........................297 5.8 Formulation of Some Robust Control Problems with Unstructured Uncertainties.................................................................................................299 5.8.1 Multiplicative Uncertainty ...............................................................299 5.8.2 Additive Uncertainty ........................................................................301
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5.9
Formulation of Robust Control Problems with Structured Uncertainties.................................................................................................304 5.9.1 Linear Fractional Transformation (LFT) .........................................304 Lower LFT .......................................................................................305 Upper LFT........................................................................................306 5.9.2 Structured Parametric Uncertainties ................................................308 5.10 H∞ Control....................................................................................................314 5.10.1 Full State Feedback H∞ Control (Figure 5.10.1).............................314 5.10.2 Full State Feedback H∞ Control under Disturbance Feedforward (Figure 5.10.3) ............................................................320 5.10.3 Guaranteed H∞ Norm via State Estimation .....................................322 5.10.4 Output Feedback H∞ Control...........................................................324 Equivalence of Stability of Systems Shown in Figure 5.10.6 and Figure 5.10.7 .............................................................................328 Controller Design.............................................................................332 5.10.5 Poles or Zeros on Imaginary Axis 336 5.11 Loop Shaping ...............................................................................................337 5.11.1 TradeOff between Performance and Robustness via H∞ Control..............................................................................................337 5.11.2 Fundamental Constraint: Bode’s Sensitivity Integrals ....................345 SISO System ....................................................................................345 5.12 Controller Based on μ Analysis...................................................................351 5.12.1 Definitions and Properties of Structured Singular Values (μ) ........351 5.12.2 Robustness Analysis via μ ...............................................................353 5.12.3 Robust Performance via μ Analysis ................................................354 5.12.4 μ Synthesis: D–K Iteration ..............................................................366 Exercise Problems .................................................................................................367 Chapter 6 6.1 6.2
Robust Control: Sliding Mode Methods..........................................377
Basic Concepts of Sliding Modes ...............................................................377 Sliding Mode Control of a Linear System with Full State Feedback ........379 6.2.1 Computation of Sliding Hyperplane Matrix G ...............................380 6.2.2 Optimal Sliding Mode (OS) Controller...........................................383 6.3 Sliding Mode Control of an Uncertain Linear System with Full State Feedback: Blending H∞ and Sliding Mode Methods ..................................386 6.3.1 Impact of Uncertainties on System Dynamics in Sliding Modes ...............................................................................................387 6.3.2 Computation of Sliding Hyperplane Matrix via H∞ Control Method .............................................................................................388 6.4 Sliding Mode Control of a Linear System with Estimated States..............394 6.5 Optimal Sliding Mode Gaussian (OSG) Control ........................................396 Exercise Problems .................................................................................................402
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References .............................................................................................................405 Appendix A: Linear Algebraic Equations, Eigenvalues/Eigenvectors, and Matrix Inversion Lemma ............................................................................409 A.1 System of Linear Algebraic Equations........................................................409 Definitions ....................................................................................................409 Linear Independence of Vectors ......................................................409 Range or Column Space ..................................................................409 Rank of a Matrix..............................................................................409 Null Space ........................................................................................410 A Systematic Test for Linear Independence of Vectors..............................414 A.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors......................................................................415 A.3 Matrix Inversion Lemma .............................................................................415 Appendix B: Quadratic Functions, Important Derivatives, Fourier Integrals, and Parseval’s Relation .....................................................................417 B.1 Quadratic Functions .....................................................................................417 B.2 Derivative of a Quadratic Function .............................................................419 B.3 Derivative of a Linear Function...................................................................421 B.4 Fourier Integrals and Parseval’s Theorem ...................................................422 B.4.1 Scalar Signal ....................................................................................422 Scalar Parseval Relation...................................................................424 B.4.2 Vector Signal ....................................................................................424 Multivariable Parseval Relation .......................................................425 Appendix C: Norms, Singular Values, Supremum, and Infinimum ..............427 C.1 Vector Norms ...............................................................................................427 C.2 Matrix Norms...............................................................................................427 C.3 Singular Values of a Matrix.........................................................................429 C.4 Singular Value Decomposition (SVD).........................................................429 Computation of U and V ..............................................................................430 Significance of Singular Vectors Corresponding to the Maximum and Minimum Singular Values ...........................................................................431 C.5 Properties of Singular Values.......................................................................432 C.6 Supremum and Infinimum ...........................................................................432 Appendix D: Stochastic Processes .....................................................................435 D.1 Stationary Stochastic Process ......................................................................435 Autocorrelation Function .............................................................................436 Autocovariance Function .............................................................................437 Crosscorrelation Function ............................................................................437 Crosscovariance Function ............................................................................437 Uncorrelated Stochastic Processes...................................................438 D.2 Power Spectrum or Power Spectral Density (PSD) ....................................438
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D.3 White Noise: A Special Stationary Stochastic Process...............................439 Generation of Approximate Gaussian White Noise in MATLAB ..............439 D.4 Response of a SISO Linear and TimeInvariant System Subjected to a Stationary Stochastic Process ...............................................................440 D.5 Vector Stationary Stochastic Processes .......................................................440 Appendix E: Optimization of a Scalar Function with Constraints in the Form of a Symmetric Real Matrix Equal to Zero ...............................443 Appendix F: A Flexible Tetrahedral Truss Structure ......................................447 Appendix G: Space Shuttle Dynamics during Reentry...................................451 State Space Model .......................................................................................453 Index......................................................................................................................457
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1
Introduction
1.1 OVERVIEW This book contains materials on linear systems, and optimal and robust control, and is an outgrowth of two graduate level courses I have taught for many years at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park. The first course is on linear systems and optimal control, whereas the second course is on robust control. The unique feature of this book is that it presents the materials in a theoretically rigorous way while keeping the applications to practical problems in mind. Also, this is the first book containing H∞ and sliding mode methods together. The materials on linear systems include controllability, observability, and matrix fraction description. First, the concepts of state feedback control and observers are developed. Next, the optimal control is presented along with stochastic optimal control. Then, the lack of robustness of LQG control is discussed. This is followed by the presentation of robust control techniques. The derivation of H∞ control theory is developed from the first principle. The sliding mode control of a linear system is presented. Then, it is shown how a blend of sliding mode control and H∞ methods can enhance the robustness of the system. One of the objectives is to make the book self contained as much as possible. For example, all the required concepts for stochastic processes are presented so that a student can understand LQG control without much prior background in stochastic processes. The book contains the presentation of theory with practical examples to illustrate the key theoretical concepts and to show their applications to practical problems. At the end of each chapter, exercise problems are included. The use of MATLAB software has been highlighted. For my course on linear systems and optimal control, I have used the textbook by T. Kailath, Linear Systems (PrenticeHall, 1980). This is a great book, and contains extensive amount of information on linear systems. For my course on robust control, I have used the textbook by K. Zhou and J. C. Doyle, Essentials of Robust Control (PrenticeHall, 1998). This is also an excellent book. However, a typical engineering graduate student in most universities may find the materials in both these textbooks to be highly mathematical and, as a result, find them difficult to follow. Therefore, I have developed mathematical analyses in this book by keeping in view the background of a typical engineering student with a bachelor’s degree. For example, the derivation of H∞ does not require students to learn additional mathematical tools. I have learned the linear system theory from the textbook of T. Kailath. Therefore, even though I have never met him, I would like to recognize T. Kailath as my virtual
1
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2
Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
teacher. During my sabbatical at MIT, I was fortunate to interact with M. Athans and attend his course on multivariable control systems, for which G. Stein presented excellent lectures on H∞ control. I would also like to thank E. F. Crawley for arranging my sabbatical and providing me an opportunity to do research on sliding mode control at the MIT Space Engineering Research Center, where I was lucky to find David Miller who helped me implement my controller on the development model of the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE). Lastly, I would like to thank my wife, Hansa, and daughters, Divya and Swarna, for their support.
1.2 CONTENTS OF THE BOOK In Chapter 2, methods to develop a state space realization from a SISO transfer function are presented, along with the concepts of controllability and observability. The connection between a minimal order of the SISO state space realization and simultaneous controllability and observability is presented. This is followed by the matrix fraction description of the MIMO system, and a method is developed to find a state space realization with the minimal order. Lastly, poles and zeros of a MIMO system are defined. In Chapter 3, the design of a full state feedback control system is presented for a SISO system along with its impact on poles and zeros of the closedloop system. Next, the full state feedback control system is presented for a MIMO system. The necessary conditions for the optimal control are then derived and used to develop the linear quadratic (LQ) control theory and the minimum time control. In Chapter 4, methods to estimate states are developed on the basis of inputs and outputs of a deterministic and a stochastic system. Then, theories and examples of optimal state estimation and linear quadratic Gaussian control are presented. In Chapter 5, the fundamental concepts of robust control are developed. The robustness of LQ and LQG control techniques developed in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 are examined. Lastly, theories for H2, H∞, and μ techniques are presented along with Bode’s sensitivity integrals and illustrative examples. In Chapter 6, basic concepts of sliding modes are presented along with the sliding mode control of a linear system with full state feedback. Then, it is shown how H∞ and sliding mode theories can be blended to control an uncertain linear system with full state feedback. Next, the sliding mode control of a deterministic linear system is developed with the feedback of estimated states. Lastly, the optimal sliding Gaussian (OSG) control theory is presented for a stochastic system.
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2
State Space Description of a Linear System
First, methods to develop a state space realization from a SISO transfer function are presented, as well as the concepts of controllability and observability. The connection between a minimal order of the SISO state space realization and the simultaneous controllability and observability is presented. This is followed by the matrix fraction description (MFD) of the MIMO system, and a method is developed to ﬁnd a state space realization with the minimal order. Lastly, poles and zeros of a MIMO system are deﬁned.
2.1 TRANSFER FUNCTION OF A SINGLE INPUT/SINGLE OUTPUT (SISO) SYSTEM The dynamics of a single input/single output (SISO) linear system can be represented in general by the following nth order differential equation: dny d n−1y d n−2 y a a + + + … + an y = 1 2 dt n dt n−1 dt n−2 d n−1u d n−2 u d nu b0 n + b1 n−1 + b2 n−2 + … + bnu dt dt dt
(2.1.1)
where y (t ) is the output and u (t ) is the input. The coefﬁcients a1 , a2 ,…, an and b0 , b1 ,…, bn are system parameters. These parameters are constants for a timeinvariant system. Taking the Laplace transformation of (2.1.1) and setting all initial conditions to be zero, y (s ) = g (s ) u (s )
(2.1.2)
where g( s ) =
b0 s n + b1s n−1 + … + bn−1s + bn s + a1s n−1 + a2 s n−2 + …an−1s + an n
(2.1.3)
3
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
y1 ( s )
u(s )
y (s )
g1 ( s)
g2 (s)
FIGURE 2.1 Cascaded linear systems.
The expression g (s ) is described as the transfer function with which the following facts can be attributed: 1. The transfer function is the ratio of Laplace transforms of the output and the input. 2. All initial conditions associated with the input and the output are taken to be zero. 3. The transfer function is only deﬁned for a linear and timeinvariant system. Taking u (t ) = δ(t ) , the unit impulse function, it can be seen that g (t ) = L−1 ( g (s ))
(2.1.4)
is the unit impulse response function of the system. In other words, the transfer function of a linear timeinvariant system is the Laplace transformation of the unit impulse response of the system. To appreciate the usefulness of the transfer function approach, consider the system shown in Figure 2.1 in which the output of the ﬁrst subsystem y1 (s ) is the input to the next subsystem. This is a typical situation found in the study or design of a control system. The output y (s ) and the input u (s ) are related as follows: y (s ) = g1 (s ) g2 (s ) u (s )
(2.1.5)
In time domain, the output y (t ) is related to the input u(t) via the convolution integral (Kuo, 1995). More speciﬁcally, y (t ) =
t
∫ g (t − τ)y (τ)d τ 2
1
(2.1.6a)
0
and y1 (t ) =
t
∫ g (t − τ)u(τ)d τ 1
0
Therefore,
(2.1.6b)
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State Space Description of a Linear System
y (t ) =
5
τ
t
∫ g (t − τ) ∫ g (τ − ν)u(ν)d νd τ 2
0
1
(2.1.7)
0
Comparing Equation 2.1.5 and Equation 2.1.7, it is obvious that the input–output relationship in sdomain is much simpler than that in time domain.
2.2 STATE SPACE REALIZATIONS OF A SISO SYSTEM METHOD I Deﬁne ξ(t ) such that d nξ d n−1ξ d n−2 ξ + a1 n−1 + a2 n−2 + … + an ξ = u (t ) n dt dt dt
(2.2.1)
Assuming that all initial conditions on y (t ) are zero and using the principle of superposition (Kailath, 1980), Equation 2.1.1 leads to
y (t ) = b0
d n −1ξ d n −2 ξ d nξ + b1 n −1 + b2 n −2 + ...... + bn ξ n dt dt dt
(2.2.2)
Although initial conditions on y(t) and its higher derivatives have been taken to be zero, the Equation 2.2.2 is valid for nonzero initial conditions on y(t) and its higher 0 ) ,…, and derivatives. The treatment of nonzero y(0 ) , y(
dny (0 ) is related to the dt n
observability issue and will be discussed later. Deﬁne x1 = ξ
x2 =
dξ dt
x3 =
d 2ξ dt 2
xn =
d n−1ξ dt n−1
(2.2.3)
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6
Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Using (2.2.1) and (2.2.3), the following n ﬁrstorder differential equations are obtained as follows: dx1 = x2 dt dx2 = x3 dt dxn−1 = xn dt dxn = −an x1 − an−1x2 − … − a1xn + u (t ) dt
(2.2.4)
Using Equation 2.2.2, the output y (t ) is related to variables deﬁned in (2.2.3) as follows: y(t ) = b0
dxn + b1xn + b2 xn−1 + … + bn x1 dt
(2.2.5)
Using (2.2.4), y (t ) = (bn − b0 an ) x1 + (bn −1 − b0 an −1 ) x2 + ..... + (b1 − b0 a1 ) x n + b0 u (t ) (2.2.6) The system represented by (2.2.4) and (2.2.6) can be realized using n analog integrators as shown in Figure 2.2. The variables x1, x2 , x3,…, x n turn out to be outputs of integrators and are described as state variables. In matrix form, Equation 2.2.4 and Equation 2.2.6 are described as follows: dx = Ac x (t ) + b c u (t ) dt
(2.2.7)
y (t ) = cc x (t ) + b0 u (t )
(2.2.8)
and
where
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State Space Description of a Linear System
7
y
b0 b1
bn b2
u
xn
xn
bn xn
1
x2
1
x1
a1 a2
an
1
an
FIGURE 2.2 Analog computer simulation diagram (Method I).
⎡ 0 ⎢ 0 Ac = ⎢ ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢⎣ − an
1 0 . .
0 1 . .
0 . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . − a2
⎡0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢.⎥ bc = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢.⎥ ⎢.⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 ⎥⎦
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ − a1 ⎥⎦
(2.2.9)
(2.2.10)
and c c = [bn − b0 an
bn−1 − b0 an−1 … b1 − b0 a1 ]
METHOD II Deﬁning p =
d , Equation 2.1.1 can be written as dt
(2.2.11)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control u
bn
bn
x1
x1
an
b1
1
x2
an
x2
xn
b0
xn
1
xn
y
a1
1
FIGURE 2.3 Analog computer simulation diagram (Method II).
p n ( y(t ) − b0 u (t )) + p n−1 (a1 y(t ) − b1u (t )) + p n−2 (a2 y(t ) − b2 u (t )) + … + (an y(t ) − bn u (t )) = 0
(2.2.12)
Dividing (2.2.12) by p n (Wiberg, 1971), y(t ) = b0 u (t ) −
a1 y(t ) − b1u (t ) a2 y(t ) − b2 u (t ) a y(t ) − bn u (t ) (2.2.13) − −… − n 2 p p pn
The analog computer simulation diagram corresponding to Equation 2.2.13 is shown in Figure 2.3. Deﬁning the outputs of integrators as state variables x1, x2 , x3,…, x n , the following relationships are obtained: y (t ) = x n (t ) + b0 u (t ) and dx1 = − an y (t ) + bn u (t ) = − an x n + (bn − b0 an )u dt dx2 = −an−1y(t ) + x1 (t ) + bn−1u (t ) = −an−1xn + x 1+(bbn−1 − b0 an−1 )u dt dxn = −a1y(t ) + xn−1 (t ) + b1u (t ) = −a1xn + x n−1+(b1 − b0 a1 )u dt
(2.2.14)
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State Space Description of a Linear System
9
Equations 2.2.14 can be put in the matrix form as follows: dx = Ao x (t ) + b o u (t ) dt
(2.2.15a)
y (t ) = co x (t ) + b0 u (t )
(2.2.15b)
and
where ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢1 Ao = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢. ⎢0 ⎣
0 0 1 . 0
. . . . .
. . . . .
− an ⎤ ⎥ − an −1 ⎥ − an −2 ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ − a1 ⎥⎦
. 0 0 . 1
⎡ bn − b0 an ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢bn −1 − b0 an −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . bo = ⎢ ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ b1 − bo a1 ⎥⎦
(2.2.16)
(2.2.17)
and co = ⎡⎣0
0
.
.
0
1⎤⎦
(2.2.18)
Notation Often, a state space realization is represented by the symbol {A, b, c} by which we mean the following: x = Ax (t ) + bu (t )
(2.2.19a)
y (t ) = cx (t )
(2.2.19b)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
EXAMPLE 2.1
g (s ) =
s 3 + 2s + 5 s + 2 s 2 + 4s + 3
(2.2.20)
3
Here, b0 = 1. From Method I: ⎡0 ⎢ Ac = ⎢ 0 ⎢ −3 ⎣
1 0 −4
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ −2 ⎥⎦
⎡0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ b c = ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎣ ⎦
cc = ⎡⎣2
2
2 ⎤⎦
(2.2.21)
From Method II: ⎡0 ⎢ Ao = ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ⎣
PROPERTIES 1.
OF
−3 ⎤ ⎥ −4 ⎥ −2 ⎥⎦
0 0 1
⎡2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ b o = ⎢2 ⎥ ⎢2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
co = ⎡⎣0
0
1⎤⎦
(2.2.22)
STATE SPACE MODELS
Duality
{
}
For any given realization A, b, c of a system transfer function, there is a dual (Kailath, 1980) realization AT , cT , b T . It is interesting to note that
{
}
Ao = Ac T, b o = ccT , and co = b cT
(2.2.23)
Hence, the state space realization obtained by Method I is dual to that obtained by Method II, and vice versa. 2.
Nonuniqueness of State Space Realization
Consider the following transformation: x (t ) = Tx (t )
(2.2.24)
where T is any nonsingular matrix. For the realization {A, b, c}, dx = Ax + bu (t ) dt
(2.2.25)
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State Space Description of a Linear System
11
y (t ) = cx (t )
(2.2.26)
Substituting (2.2.24) into (2.2.25) and (2.2.26), dx = Ax + bu (t ) dt
(2.2.27)
y (t ) = cx (t )
(2.2.28)
where A = T −1 AT ,
b = T −1b ,
and
c = cT
(2.2.29)
Hence, a new realization, {A, b, c }, has been obtained. As the choice of the nonsingular matrix T is arbitrary, there are clearly many realizations or nonunique state space realizations corresponding to a given transfer function (Kailath, 1980). In matrix theory, the transformation (2.2.24) is known as similarity transformation, and A and A are called similar matrices.
2.3 SISO TRANSFER FUNCTION FROM A STATE SPACE REALIZATION Taking the Laplace transformation of equations (2.2.19), y (s ) = c(sI − A)−1 x (0 ) + c(sI − A)−1 bu (s )
(2.3.1)
For the deﬁnition of a transfer function, x(0 ) = 0 . Therefore, g (s ) =
y (s ) = c(sI − A)−1 b u (s )
(2.3.2)
cAdj (sI − A)b det(sI − A)
(2.3.3)
Equation 2.3.2 can be expressed as g (s ) = where Adj ( sI − A) = A n−1 + ( s + a1 )A n−2 + … + ( s n−1 + a1s n−2 + … + an−1 )I n
(2.3.4)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
and det( sI n − A) = s n + a1s n−1 + a2 s n−2 + … + an−1s + an
(2.3.5)
Further, it can be shown that cAdj ( sI − A)b = b1s n−1 + b2 s n−2 + … + bn−1s + bn
(2.3.6)
The results (2.3.5) and (2.3.6) are also true for A, b , and c . Hence, the transfer function is unique for all similar state space realizations.
2.4 SOLUTION OF STATE SPACE EQUATIONS 2.4.1 HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION Consider the solution of Equation 2.2.19 with u (t ) = 0 ; i.e., dx = Ax ; dt
x (0 ) = x 0
(2.4.1)
Taking the Laplace transformation of (2.4.1), x (s ) = (sI − A)−1 x 0
(2.4.2)
−1 ⎞ 1⎛ 1 ⎛ A A2 A⎞ ( sI − A)−1 = ⎜ I − ⎟ = ⎜ I + + 2 + …⎟ s⎝ s⎠ s⎝ s s ⎠
(2.4.3)
Now,
Taking the inverse Laplace transformation of (2.4.3), L−1 ( sI − A)−1 = I + At + A 2
t2 + …; t ≥ 0 2
(2.4.4)
The matrix exponential is deﬁned as follows: e At = L−1[(sI − A)−1 ] Lastly, taking the inverse Laplace transformation of (2.4.2),
(2.4.5)
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State Space Description of a Linear System
x (t ) = e At x 0 ;
13
t≥0
(2.4.6)
The matrix e At is also known as the state transition matrix because it takes the initial state x 0 to a state x(t ) in time t. Properties of eAt
1.
d At (e ) = Ae At = e At A dt
(2.4.7)
2. e A (t1+t2 ) = e At1 e At2
(2.4.8)
3. If e At is nonsingular, (e At )−1 = e − At
(2.4.9)
EXAMPLE 2.2 ⎡ −4 A=⎢ ⎣ −1
⎡0 ⎤ 3⎤ ⎥ x(0 ) = ⎢ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎣1⎦
⎡ s ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 3) (sI − A)−1 = ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎢ − (s + 1)(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ 3 (s + 1)(s + 3) ⎥⎥ ⎥ s+4 (s + 1)(s + 3) ⎥⎦
⎡1.5e −3t − 0.5e − t L−1[(sI − A)−1 ] = e At = ⎢ −3 t −t ⎣0.5e − 0.5e
(2.4.10)
(2.4.11)
−1.5e −3t + 1.55e − t ⎤ ⎥ −0.5e −3t + 1.5e − t ⎦
(2.4.12)
t≥0
(2.4.13)
Then, Equation 2.4.6 yields ⎡ −1.5e −3t + 1.5e − t ⎤ x(t ) = ⎢ ; −3 t −t ⎥ ⎣ −0.5e + 1.5e ⎦
2.4.2 INHOMOGENEOUS EQUATION Taking the Laplace transformation of (2.2.19), x (s ) = (sI − A)−1 x (0 ) + (sI − A)−1 bu (s )
(2.4.14)
Utilizing the deﬁnition (2.4.5), the inverse Laplace transformation of (2.4.14) yields
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
t
x (t ) = e x (0 ) + At
∫e
A (t − τ )
bu (τ) d τ ; t ≥ 0
(2.4.15)
0
EXAMPLE 2.3 Let ⎡ −4 A=⎢ ⎣ −1
⎡1⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ 3⎤ ⎥ b = ⎢ ⎥ x(0 ) = ⎢ ⎥ ; and u(t) = 1 for t ≥ 0 0⎦ ⎣0 ⎦ ⎣1⎦ ⎡1.5e −3(t − τ ) − 0.5e − (t − τ ) ⎤ e A (t − τ ) b = ⎢ ⎥ −3 ( t − τ ) − 0.5e − (t − τ ) ⎦ ⎣0.5e
(2.4.16)
(2.4.17)
Then
t
∫ 0
⎡ ⎢1.5 e−3t ⎢ e A (t − τ )bu ( τ )d τ = ⎢ ⎢ −3t ⎢0.5 e ⎢⎣
t
t
∫
e3 τ d τ − 0.5 e−t
t
∫
∫ 0
0
t
e3 τ d τ − 0.5 e−t
0
∫ 0
⎤ eτ d τ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥= ⎥ τ e d τ⎥ ⎥⎦
(2.4.18)
⎡ −0.5 e−3t + 0.5 e−t ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 0.5 e−3t + 0.5 e−t ⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 3 ⎥⎦ Hence, from (2.4.15), ⎡ −2 e −3t + 2 e − t ⎤ ⎥; x(t ) = ⎢ 1 2 −3t ⎢ − − e + 2e− t ⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 3 ⎥⎦
t≥0
(2.4.19)
2.5 OBSERVABILITY AND CONTROLLABILITY OF A SISO SYSTEM 2.5.1 OBSERVABILITY The state space model {A, b, c} can be developed on the basis of the governing differential Equation 2.1.1 or the transfer function (2.1.3). If the initial conditions
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State Space Description of a Linear System
15
on the output and its derivatives are nonzero, how would one get correct values of initial states? To answer this question, consider the output Equation 2.2.19b, y (t ) = cx (t ) Differentiating it and using (2.2.19a), dy = cAx (t ) + cbu (t ) dt
(2.5.1)
Continuing this differentiation process, d2y du = cA 2 x(t ) + cAbu (t ) + cb 2 dt dt
(2.5.2)
d n−1y d n−1u n−1 n −2 n− 3 du = c A x ( t ) + c A b u ( t ) + c A b + … + cb dt n−1 dt n−1 dt Representing (2.5.1) and (2.5.2) in matrix form, y (t ) = Θx (t ) + Τu(t )
(2.5.3)
where ⎡ y(t ) = ⎢ y ⎣
dy dt
.
.
d n −1y ⎤ ⎥ dt n −1 ⎦
T
(2.5.4)
⎡ c ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ cA ⎥ ⎢ cA2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Θ=⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ n −1 ⎥ ⎣cA ⎦ ⎡ u(t ) = ⎢u ⎣
du dt
.
.
(2.5.5)
d n −1u ⎤ ⎥ dt n −1 ⎦
T
(2.5.6)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ cb ⎢ cAb Τ=⎢ ⎢ . ⎢ . ⎢ n −2 ⎢⎣cA b
0 0 cb . . .
0 0 0 . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . cb
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ .⎥ .⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(2.5.7)
From (2.5.3), Θx (0 ) = y (0 ) − Τu(0 )
(2.5.8)
x (0 ) = Θ −1y (0 ) − Θ −1Τu(0 )
(2.5.9)
Therefore,
provided the matrix Θ is nonsingular. Hence, the condition for initial states to be calculated from the initial values of input, output, and their derivatives is that the matrix Θ should be nonsingular. The matrix Θ is known as the observability matrix. The solution (2.4.15) of the state space equation indicates that x(t ) can be calculated for any u(t) if the initial value x(0 ) is known. Observability of State Space Realization Using Method I Using (2.5.5), ⎡ bn − b0 an ⎢ ⎢ − an (b1 − b0 a1 ) Θ=⎢ . ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢ . ⎣
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
b1 − b0 a1 ⎤ ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎦
(2.5.10)
The determinant and hence the singularity of the observability matrix will depend on system parameters. Hence, the realization may or may not be observable. Observability of State Space Realization Using Method II Using (2.5.5),
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State Space Description of a Linear System
⎡0 ⎢ ⎢0 Θ = ⎢. ⎢ ⎢. ⎢1 ⎣
0 0 . . 0
0 . . . 0
17
. . . . .
. 1 . . .
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ .⎥ ⎥ .⎥ 0 ⎦⎥
(2.5.11)
It can be easily seen that det Θ = −1 or + 1
(2.5.12)
Therefore, Θ is nonsingular irrespective of the system parameter values. Hence, this state space realization is always observable. EXAMPLE 2.4 Consider a springmassdamper system Figure 2.4, with the following differential equation: mx + αx + βx = f (t )
(2.5.13)
where f(t) is the applied force. Dividing (2.5.13) by m, x +
f (t ) α β x + x = = u (t ) m m m
(2.5.14)
Deﬁning states as x1 = x
and
x2 = x
(2.5.15a,b)
state equations are x = Ax (t ) + bu (t )
(2.5.16)
where ⎡ x (t ) ⎤ x(t ) = ⎢ 1 ⎥ ; ⎣ x2 (t ) ⎦
⎡ 0 A=⎢ ⎣ −β / m
1 ⎤ ⎥; −α / m ⎦
Case I: Position Output If the position of the mass, x, is measured by a sensor,
⎡0 ⎤ b=⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦
(2.5.17)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control x (t )
m
f (t )
FIGURE 2.4 A springmassdamper system.
y (t ) = cx (t )
(2.5.18)
c = [1
0]
(2.5.19)
⎡1 Θ=⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎦
(2.5.20)
where
Then the observability matrix is
Hence, the state space realization is observable for all values of spring stiffness and damping constant. Case II: Velocity Output If the velocity of the mass, x , is measured by a sensor, y (t ) = cx (t )
(2.5.21)
c = [0
1]
(2.5.22)
1 ⎤ ⎥ −α / m ⎦
(2.5.23)
where
Then the observability matrix is ⎡ 0 Θ=⎢ ⎣ −β / m Therefore,
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State Space Description of a Linear System
19
det Θ = β / m
(2.5.24)
Hence, the state space realization is not observable if the spring stiffness is zero, i.e., if there is no spring in the system. This is an interesting result because the displacement can be obtained by integrating velocity: t
x1 (t ) = x1 (0 ) +
∫ x (t)dt
(2.5.25)
2
0
However, the initial condition x1 (0 ) is needed. In the absence of a spring, the loss of observability implies that x1 (0 ) cannot be obtained, and the position of the system cannot be observed.
2.5.2 CONTROLLABILITY The linear differential equation dx = Ax + bu (t ) dt
(2.5.26)
is controllable if and only if it can be transferred from any initial state to any ﬁnal state in a finite time. Therefore, for the linear and timeinvariant system (2.5.26), the issue is to ﬁnd u(t); t0 ≤ t ≤ t f , which will take the system from any x(t0 ) to any x(t f ) in a ﬁnite time t f − t0 . Using the solution of (2.5.26), tf
x (t f ) = e
A ( t f − t0 )
x (t0 ) +
∫e
A (t f − τ )
bu (τ) d τ
(2.5.27)
t0
This is an integral equation because the unknown function u(.) appears under an integral sign. Deﬁne a matrix P (t f , t0 ) as follows: tf
P (t f , t0 ) =
∫
e
A (t f − τ )
bb T e
AT ( t f − τ )
dτ
t0
This matrix P (t f , t0 ) is known as the controllability Gramian. The solution of (2.5.27) is found (Friedland, 1985) to be
(2.5.28)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
u (τ) = b T e
AT ( t f − τ )
P −1 (t f , t0 )[ x (t f ) − e
A ( t f − t0 )
x (t0 )]
(2.5.29)
This result can be veriﬁed by substituting (2.5.29) into (2.5.27). Hence, the control input u(.) can be found if and only if the matrix P (t f , t0 ) is nonsingular. Deﬁning a new variable ν = t f − t0 , t f − t0
∫e
P (t f , t0 ) =
Aν
T
bb T e A ν d ν
(2.5.30)
0
Note that P (t f , t0 ) = P (t f − t0 ) ; i.e., P (t f , t0 ) only depends on t f − t0 for a linear and timeinvariant system. A t e s t f o r l i n e a r i n d e p e n d e n c e o f a n y f u n c t i o n s { i (τ); 0 ≤ τ ≤ t f − t0 , i = 1, 2,...., n} is that their Gramian matrix G (Appendix A) is nonsingular where t f − t0
G=
∫
T
(τ) (τ) d τ
T
(τ) = ⎡⎣ 1 (τ)
and
.
.
.
n (τ) ⎤⎦
(2.5.31)
0
Equation 2.5.30 can be written as t f − t0
P (t f , t0 ) =
∫e
Aν
b(e Aν b)T d ν
(2.5.32)
0
Comparing (2.5.31) and (2.5.32), nonsingularity of the matrix P implies that elements of the vector e Aν b are linearly independent over (0, t f − t0 ) . Therefore, the pair {A, b} is controllable over (0, t f − t0 ) if and only if the elements of the vector e Aν b are linearly independent. EXAMPLE 2.5 ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣ −4
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
and
⎡0 ⎤ b=⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦
(2.5.33)
Find e At : ⎡s sI − A = ⎢ ⎣4
−1⎤ ⎥ s⎦
(2.5.34)
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State Space Description of a Linear System
21
⎡ s ⎢ 2 (sI − A) = ⎢ s + 4 ⎢ −4 ⎢ s2 + 4 ⎣ −1
1 ⎤ ⎥ s2 + 4 ⎥ s ⎥ s 2 + 4 ⎥⎦
⎡ cos 2 t e At = L−1[(sI − A)−1 ] = ⎢ ⎣ −2 sin 2 t
0.5 sin 2 t ⎤ ⎥ cos 2 t ⎦
(2.5.35)
(2.5.36)
Find e Aν b : ⎡ sin 2 ν ⎤ sin 2 ν ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎥ 1 cos 2 ν ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣ cos 2 ν ⎥⎦
⎡ cos 2 ν e Aν b = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢⎣ −2 sin 2 ν
(2.5.37)
From the controllability Gramian,
Aν
T AT ν
e bb e
⎡ sin 2 2 ν ⎢ 4 =⎢ ⎢ sin 2 ν cos 2 ν ⎢⎣ 2
sin 2 ν cos 2 ν ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎥ cos 2 2ν ⎥⎥ ⎦
(2.5.38)
Let t0 − t f = Δt
(2.5.39)
Hence, Δt
P (t f , t0 ) =
∫e
Aν
T
bb T e A ν d ν
0
⎡ Δt − (sin( 4 Δt )) / 4 ⎢ 8 =⎢ − cos( 4 Δt ) + 1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 16
det( P ( Δt )) =
− cos( 4 Δt ) + 1 ⎤ ⎥ 16 ⎥ Δt + (sin( 4 Δt )) / 4 ⎥ ⎥⎦ 2
( Δt )2 − 0.25 sin 2 (2 Δt ) 16
(2.5.40)
(2.5.41)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Theorem The system is completely controllable if and only if the controllability matrix C = [b
Ab
A2 b
.
.
A n −1 b]
(2.5.42)
is nonsingular. Proof Step I: Consider that the matrix P, Equation 2.5.28, is singular. In this case, elements of the vector e Aν b are linearly dependent. As a result, there exists a nonzero vector q such that T
z(t ) = b T e A t q = 0 for 0 ≤ t ≤ t f − t0
(2.5.43)
Differentiating (2.5.43), T
z(t ) = b T AT e A t q = 0 T
z (t ) = bT ( AT )2 e A t q = 0
(2.5.44)
T d n−1 z(t ) = bT ( AT )n−1 e A t q = 0 n−1 dt
Putting (2.5.43) and (2.5.44) in matrix form, ⎡ ⎤ bT ⎢ ⎥ T T ⎢ b A ⎥ T ⎢ ⎥ eA tq = 0 . ⎢ ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢b T ( AT ) n −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(2.5.45)
Using the deﬁnition (2.5.42), T
C T eA tq = 0
(2.5.46)
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State Space Description of a Linear System
23
Let C T = ⎡⎣r1
r2
.
.
rn ⎤⎦
(2.5.47)
and ⎡ α1 (t ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ α 2 (t ) ⎥ T eA tq = ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢α (t ) ⎥ ⎣ n ⎦
(2.5.48)
Hence, from (2.5.46) – (2.5.48), α1 (t )r1 + α 2 (t )r2 + … + α n (t )rn = 0
(2.5.49)
Hence, columns of C T are linearly dependent. As rank (C ) = rank (C T ), the matrix C is singular. Step II: Consider that C is singular. We will show that the matrix P, Equation 2.5.28, is singular in this case. e Aν = I + A ν +
A 2 ν2 A n−1νn−1 A n νn +… + + +… 2! (n − 1)! n!
(2.5.50)
Recall the Cayley–Hamilton theorem: A n = −a1A n−1 − a2 A n−2 − … − an I n
(2.5.51)
det( sI − A) = s n + a1s n−1 + a2 s n−2 + … + an
(2.5.52)
where
Using (2.5.50) and (2.5.51), e Aν = If1 ( ν) + Af2 ( ν) + … + A n−1 fn ( ν) where f1 ( ν),.…, fn ( ν) are functions of ν .
(2.5.53)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Hence, e Aν b = Cf ( ν)
(2.5.54)
⎡ f1 ( ν) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ f2 ( ν) ⎥ f ( ν) = ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ f ( ν) ⎥ ⎣ n ⎦
(2.5.55)
where
Therefore, from (2.5.30), t f − t0
P (t f , t0 ) = C [
∫ f (ν)f
T
( ν) d ν]C T
(2.5.56)
0
Note that rank ( AB) ≤ min{rank ( A), rank ( B)} . Therefore, the rank of P (t f , t0 ) is going to be less than n because it has been assumed that the matrix C is singular. Controllability of the State Space Realization Obtained Using Method I Using (2.5.42), ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢. C=⎢ ⎢. ⎢. ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1
0 0 . . 1 − a1
0 . . . − a1 − a 2 + a1
. . . . . .
. 1 . . . .
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ .⎥ ⎥ .⎥ .⎥ ⎥ . ⎥⎦
(2.5.57)
It can be shown that det C = −1 or + 1
(2.5.58)
Therefore, the state space realization obtained using Method I is always controllable.
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25
Controllability of the State Space Realization Obtained Using Method II Using (2.5.42), ⎡ bn − b0 an ⎢ ⎢ − an (b1 − b0 a1 ) T C =⎢ . ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢ . ⎣
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
b1 − b0 a1 ⎤ ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎦
(2.5.59)
The determinant and hence the singularity of the controllability matrix will depend on system parameters. Hence, the realization may or may not be controllable. EXAMPLE 2.6 Consider the tank system shown in Figure 2.5, where u1 and u2 are input mass ﬂow rate to tank 1 and tank 2, respectively. Let p1 and pa be the pressure at the left end of the pipe and the atmospheric pressure, respectively. Then, p1 − pa = ρgh1
(2.5.60)
where ρ is the ﬂuid density. u1 pa
h1
Tank 1
p1
pa
q
h2
FIGURE 2.5 A tankpipe system.
u2
Tank 2
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Considering a laminar pipe ﬂow, q=
p1 − pa RL
(2.5.61)
where q and RL are the volumetric ﬂow rate through the pipe and the ﬂow resistance, respectively. From the law of conservation of mass, ρA1
dh1 = u1 − ρq dt
(2.5.62)
ρA2
dh2 = u2 + ρq dt
(2.5.63)
where A1 and A2 are crosssectional areas of tanks 1 and 2, respectively. Using (2.5.60) and (2.5.61), ⎡ h1 ⎤ ⎡ −α1 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ h2 ⎦ ⎣ α 2
⎡0⎤ 0 ⎤ ⎡ h1 ⎤ ⎡β1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ u1 + ⎢ ⎥ u2 0 ⎦ ⎣ h2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣β 2 ⎦
(2.5.64)
where α1 =
ρg , A1RL
α2 =
ρg , A2 RL
β1 =
1 , ρA1
and
β2 =
1 ρA2
(2.5.65)
The controllability matrix with respect to input u1 is ⎡β C=⎢ 1 ⎣0
−α1β1 ⎤ ⎥ α 2 β1 ⎦
(2.5.66)
Hence, the system (2.5.64) is controllable with respect to the input u1. It is obvious that both states h1 and h2 are inﬂuenced by the input u1. And, the controllability matrix with respect to the input u2 is ⎡0 C=⎢ ⎣β 2
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
(2.5.67)
Hence, the system (2.5.64) is not controllable with respect to the input u2 . It is obvious that the state h1 cannot be inﬂuenced by the input u2 .
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27
m
f (t )
z1
c
c
Fixed z3
m m
z2 c
FIGURE 2.6 A periodic springmass system.
EXAMPLE 2.7: A PERIODIC STRUCTURE For the system in Figure 2.6, differential equations of motion are mz1 + βz1 + βc ( z1 − z3 ) + βc ( z1 − z2 ) = f (t )
(2.5.68)
mz2 + βz2 + βc ( z2 − z1 ) + βc ( z2 − z3 ) = 0
(2.5.69)
mz3 + βz3 + βc ( z3 − z2 ) + βc ( z3 − z1 ) = 0
(2.5.70)
Deﬁne x = [ z1
z2
z3
z1
z2
z3 ]T
(2.5.71)
and
u (t ) =
f (t ) m
(2.5.72)
Then state equations are x = Ax (t ) + bu (t ) where
(2.5.73)
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⎡0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 A=⎢ ⎢− p ⎢q ⎢ ⎢⎣ q
0 0 0
0 0 0
q −p q
q q −p
p=
1 0 0 0 0 0
β + 2β c m
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 1⎥ ⎥, 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
0 1 0 0 0 0
and
q=
⎡0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ b=⎢ ⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦
2βc m
(2.5.74a,b)
(2.5.75a,b)
The controllability matrix is ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 C=⎢ ⎢1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 −p q q
−p q p 0 0 0
p 2 + 2q 2 ⎤ ⎥ q 2 − 2 pq ⎥ q 2 − 2 pq ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥⎦ 0
0 0 0 2 p + 2q 2 q 2 − 2 pq q 2 − 2 pq
(2.5.76)
Therefore, ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 det C = det ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣⎢0 ⎡1 ⎢ det C = det ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
−p q p 0 0 0 −p q q
p 2 + 2q 2 q 2 − 2 pq q 2 − 2 pq 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 −p
⎡1 p 2 + 2q 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 2 q − 2 pq ⎥ . det ⎢0 ⎢0 q 2 − 2 pq ⎥⎦ ⎣
−p q q
q q
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 2 2 p + 2q ⎥ q 2 − 2 pq ⎥⎥ q 2 − 2 pq ⎦⎥
(2.5.77)
p 2 + 2q 2 ⎤ ⎥ q 2 − 2 pq ⎥ = 0 (2.5.78) q 2 − 2 pq ⎥⎦
In other words, the state space realization is not controllable. Because of symmetry, the inﬂuence of input on states z2 and z3 is identical. As a result, the input cannot take the system from any initial states to any arbitrary ﬁnal states.
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29
2.6 SOME IMPORTANT SIMILARITY TRANSFORMATIONS 2.6.1 DIAGONAL FORM Consider the similarity transformation (2.2.24). Find a nonsingular matrix T such that A = Ad = diag(λ1, λ 2 ,…, λ n )
(2.6.1)
T −1 AT = Ad
(2.6.2)
AT = TAd
(2.6.3)
In other words,
or
Deﬁne T = ⎡⎣t1
t2
.
.
t n ⎤⎦
(2.6.4)
where t i is the ith column of the matrix T. Hence, from (2.6.3) and (2.6.4), At i = λ i t i
(2.6.5)
Therefore, λ i and t i must be the eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector of the matrix A, respectively. The matrix T will be nonsingular if and only if A has n independent eigenvectors. In this context, the following two properties are stated: If A has n distinct eigenvalues, there exists n independent eigenvectors. If an eigenvalue of A is repeated r times, r independent eigenvectors corresponding to this eigenvalue will be found provided: rank ( A − λ i I ) = n − r
(2.6.6)
⎡5 ⎢ A = ⎢ −1 ⎢ −1 ⎣
(2.6.7)
EXAMPLE 2.8 −1 5 −1
−1⎤ ⎥ −1⎥ 5 ⎥⎦
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Eigenvalues of the matrix A are 3, 6, and 6; i.e., the eigenvalue 6 is repeated twice. ⎡ −1 ⎢ A − 6 I = ⎢ −1 ⎢ −1 ⎣
−1⎤ ⎥ −1⎥ −1⎥⎦
−1 −1 −1
(2.6.8)
Therefore, rank ( A − 6 I ) = 1, the condition (2.6.6) is satisﬁed, and the matrix A can be digonalized.
2.6.2 CONTROLLABILITY CANONICAL FORM Given a realization { A, b, c} , ﬁnd the similarity transformation matrix T such that Ac = T −1AT ,
b c = T −1b,
cc = cT
and
(2.6.9a,b,c)
Note that Equation 2.2.29 has been used here. From (2.6.9a), TAc = AT
(2.6.10)
Let T = ⎡⎣t1
t2
.
t n ⎤⎦
.
(2.6.11)
Now, AT = [ At1
At 2
At 3
.
.
At n ]
(2.6.12)
and using (2.2.9), TAc = [− an t n
t1 − an −1t n
t 2 − an −2 t n
From (2.6.10), (2.6.12), and (2.6.13), At1 = − an t n At 2 = t1 − an −1t n At 3 = t 2 − an−2 t n
.
.
t n −1 − a1t n ] (2.6.13)
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31
At n = t n −1 − a1t n As b c = [0
0
.
.
0
(2.6.14)
1]T , Equation 2.6.9b yields tn = b
(2.6.15)
Solving equations (2.6.14) from the last equation backward, t n −1 = ( A + a1I )b = Ab + a1b t n −2 = A( A + a1I )b + a2 b = A2 b + a1 Ab + a2 b
(2.6.16)
t 2 = A n−2 b + a1A n−3b + ..... + an−2 b t1 = A n −1b + a1 A n −2 b + ..... + an −1b Representing (2.6.16) in the matrix form, T = CQ
(2.6.17)
where ⎡ an −1 ⎢ ⎢ an −2 Q=⎢ . ⎢ ⎢ a1 ⎢ 1 ⎣
an −2 an −3 . 1 0
. . . 0 0
. . . . .
a1 1 . . .
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ .⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(2.6.18)
The matrix Q is always nonsingular. Therefore, the matrix T is nonsingular if and only if the controllability matrix C is nonsingular. In summary, any given realization can be converted to the canonical form {Ac , b c , c c } , provided the controllability matrix is nonsingular.
2.7 SIMULTANEOUS CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY The realization {Ac , b c , c c } is always controllable. On the other hand, the realization {Ao , b o , c o } is always observable. Under what conditions are {Ac , b c , c c } and
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{Ao , b o , c o } observable and controllable, respectively? To answer this question, consider the following theorems (Kailath, 1980). Theorem 1 A realization is both observable and controllable if and only if there are no common factors between the numerator and the denominator of the transfer function. Theorem 2 Observability and controllability properties are preserved under similarity transformations. Therefore, {Ac , b c , c c } is guaranteed to be observable provided there are no common factors between the numerator and the denominator of the transfer function. Similarly, {Ao , b o , c o } is guaranteed to be controllable provided there are no common factors between the numerator and the denominator of the transfer function. Furthermore, if one can ﬁnd one realization that is both observable and controllable, all realizations are both observable and controllable. If there are no common factors between numerator and denominator, any realization can be converted to either {Ac , b c , c c } or {Ao , b o , c o }.
2.7.1 OBSERVABILITY METHOD I
OF
STATE SPACE REALIZATION USING
Without any loss of generality, assume that b0 = 0 . Therefore, cc = ⎡⎣bn
bn −1
.
b1 ⎤⎦
.
(2.7.1)
Let ei be the ith row of the identity matrix I n . Then, it can be easily shown (Kailath, 1980) that ei Ac = ei+1 ; e n Ac = ⎡⎣ − an
1≤ i ≤ n −1
− an −1
.
.
(2.7.2) − a1 ⎤⎦
(2.7.3)
Consider b( Ac ) = b1Acn−1 + b2 Acn−2 + … + bn−1Ac + bn I n
(2.7.4)
e1b( Ac ) = b1e1Acn−1 + b2 e1Acn−2 + … + bn−1e1Ac + bn e1I n
(2.7.5)
Then,
Because of (2.7.2),
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State Space Description of a Linear System
33
e1 Ac = e2 e1Ac2 = e 2 Ac = e 3
(2.7.6)
e1Acn−1 = e n From (2.7.5) and (2.7.6), e1b( Ac ) = b1e n + b2 e n−1 + … + bn−1e 2 + bn e1 = c c
(2.7.7)
From (2.7.2) and (2.7.7), e2 b ( Ac ) = e1 Ac b ( Ac ) = e1b ( Ac ) Ac = cc Ac
(2.7.8)
e3 b ( Ac ) = cc Ac2 ,…, e n b ( Ac ) = cc Acn −1
(2.7.9)
In a similar manner,
Therefore, the observability matrix is ⎡ c c ⎤ ⎡ e1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ cc Ac ⎥ ⎢ e2 ⎥ Θc = ⎢ . ⎥ = ⎢ . ⎥ b ( Ac ) = I n b ( Ac ) = b ( Ac ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢. ⎥ ⎢c A n −1 ⎥ ⎢e ⎥ ⎣ c c ⎦ ⎣ n⎦
(2.7.10)
Note that b ( Ac ) is a polynomial in Ac . Therefore, it can easily be shown that b ( Ac )p = b (λ)p
(2.7.11)
where λ and p are the eigenvalue and the associated eigenvector of Ac. In other words, the eigenvalue and the associated eigenvector of b ( Ac ) are b(λ) and p, respectively. From (2.7.4), b (λ) = b1λ n −1 + b2 λ n −2 + ........ + bn
(2.7.12)
As the determinant of a matrix equals the product of its eigenvalues, Equation 2.7.10 yields
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
n
det(Θc ) = det(b ( Ac )) =
∏ b (λ ) i
(2.7.13)
i =1
Therefore, the determinant of the observability matrix will be zero if and only if λ i , an eigenvalue of Ac , satisﬁes b (λ i ) = 0 ; i.e., λ i is also a zero of the transfer function. In other words, the state space realization obtained using Method I is observable if and only if all poles and zeros of the transfer function are distinct. EXAMPLE 2.9 The transfer function (2.2.20) can be written as g (s ) = 1 + h (s )
(2.7.14)
where
h (s ) =
−2 s 2 + 2 s + 2 s + 2 s 2 + 4s + 3 3
(2.7.15)
It can be easily seen that {Ac , b c , c c } and {Ao , b o , c o } , Equation 2.2.21 and Equation 2.2.22, correspond to the transfer function h (s ) . Poles of h (s ) are 1, and −0.5 ± 1.6583 j, whereas zeros are 0.618 and 1.618. In other words, there are no common factors between the numerator and denominator. Therefore, any state space realization is guaranteed to be both observable and controllable. As a result, {Ac , b c , c c } will be observable, and {Ao , b o , c o } will be controllable. EXAMPLE 2.10 From Figure 2.7, y (s ) s +1 = u (s ) s (s + 4)
v (s)
u(s )
s 1 s ( s 4)
r (s )
p s
FIGURE 2.7 A feedback system.
q
(2.7.16)
y (s )
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State Space Description of a Linear System
35
r (s ) p , = y (s ) s + q
(2.7.17)
u (s ) = v (s ) − r (s )
(2.7.18)
For the transfer function (2.7.16), Method I yields ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣0
1 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ u (t ) −4 ⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦
(2.7.19)
⎡x ⎤ 1⎤⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣ x2 ⎦
(2.7.20)
y (t ) = ⎡⎣1 And, for the transfer function (2.7.17),
r + qr (t ) = py (t )
(2.7.21)
Combining (2.7.19) and (2.7.21) and using (2.7.18) and (2.7.20), the state space realization is obtained: ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ x2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎢ r ⎥ ⎢ p ⎣ ⎦ ⎣
1 −4 p
y (t ) = [1
0 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −1 ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ + ⎢ 1 ⎥ v (t ) − a ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ r ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦
1
(2.7.22)
⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ] ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(2.7.23)
⎤ −4 ⎥ 16 − p ⎥ p − 4 p − pq ⎥⎦
(2.7.24)
Controllability: ⎡0 ⎢ C = ⎢1 ⎢0 ⎣
1 −4 p
det C = p (1 − q ) The realization is not controllable when p = 0 or q = 1 .
(2.7.25)
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Observability: ⎡ 1 ⎢ O=⎢ 0 ⎢− p ⎣
0 ⎤ ⎥ −1 ⎥ 3 + q ⎥⎦
1 −3 12 − p
det O = 3(1 − q )
(2.7.26)
(2.7.27)
The realization is not observable when q = 1 . Note that y (s ) (s + 1)(s + q ) = v (s ) s (s + 3)(s + q ) + p (s + 1)
(2.7.28)
When p = 0 or q = 1, (s + q ) or (s + 1) is a common factor between the numerator and denominator of the transfer function (2.7.28), respectively. Therefore, a state space realization cannot be both observable and controllable when p = 0 or q = 1. Here, the realization is not controllable when p = 0 , and is neither observable nor controllable when q = 1 .
2.8 MULTIINPUT/MULTIOUTPUT (MIMO) SYSTEMS The transfer function matrix of a MIMO system is deﬁned as y (s ) = G (s )u(s )
(2.8.1)
where y(s ) and u(s ) are px1 and mx1 vectors, respectively. ⎡ y1 (s ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ y2 (s ) ⎥ y(s ) = ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ y (s ) ⎥ ⎣ p ⎦
and
⎡ u1 (s ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ u2 (s ) ⎥ u(s ) = ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢u (s ) ⎥ ⎣ m ⎦
(2.8.2a,b)
Accordingly, the matrix G (s ) is of order pxm. As an example, for a 2input/2output system, ⎡ 1 ⎡ y1 (s ) ⎤ ⎢ s + 1 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ y2 (s ) ⎦ ⎢ s + 5 ⎢ (s + 1)2 ⎣
1 ⎤ s + 2 ⎥⎥ ⎡ u1 (s ) ⎤ 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣u2 (s ) ⎥⎦ s + 3 ⎥⎦
(2.8.3)
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37
Taking the least common multiple of denominators of elements of the matrix G (s ) , G (s ) =
1 N (s ) (s + 1) (s + 2 )(s + 3)
(2.8.4)
2
where ⎡ (s + 1)(s + 2 )(s + 3) N (s ) = ⎢ ⎣ (s + 2 )(s + 3)(s + 5)
(s + 1)2 (s + 3) ⎤ ⎥ (s + 1)2 (s + 2 ) ⎦
(2.8.5)
The elements of the matrix N (s ) are polynomials in s. Hence, N (s ) will be called a polynomial matrix. It can also be expressed as follows: N (s ) = s 3 N1 + s 2 N 2 + sN 3 + N 4
(2.8.6)
where ⎡1 N1 = ⎢ ⎣1
1⎤ ⎥; 1⎦
⎡6 N2 = ⎢ ⎣10
5⎤ ⎥; 4⎦
⎡11 N3 = ⎢ ⎣31
7⎤ ⎥; 5⎦
⎡6 N4 = ⎢ ⎣30
3⎤ ⎥ 2⎦
(2.8.7)
In general, a pxm transfer function matrix G(s) is represented as G (s ) =
N (s ) d (s )
(2.8.8)
where d ( s ) = s r + d1s r−1 + … + dr
(2.8.9)
N ( s ) = s r−1N1 + s r−2 N 2 + … + sN r−1 + N r
(2.8.10)
and
N1 , N 2 ,…, N r are pxm matrices. Definitions 1. A rational transfer function matrix G(s) is said to be proper if lim G (s ) < ∞
s →∞
and strictly proper if
(2.8.11)
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lim G (s ) = 0
(2.8.12)
s →∞
2. A vector of polynomials is called a polynomial vector. The degree of a polynomial vector equals the highest degree of all the entries of the vector. For example, the polynomial vector ⎡ s4 + 1 ⎤ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢s + s + 1⎥ ⎢ s+7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(2.8.13)
has degree = 4. Lemma If G(s) is a strictly proper (proper) transfer function matrix and G (s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s )
(2.8.14)
then every column (Kailath, 1980) of N(s) has degree strictly less than (less than or equal to) that of the corresponding column of D(s). Definition: ColumnReduced Matrix Let ki = the degree of ith column of m × m matrix D(s)
(2.8.15)
Then, it can be easily seen that m
deg det D (s ) ≤
∑k
i
(2.8.16)
i=1
Inequality holds when there are cancellations of terms in the expansion of det D(s). A matrix D(s) for which the equality sign holds is called a column reduced matrix (Kailath, 1980). EXAMPLE 2.11 ⎡ s4 + s D (s ) = ⎢ 2 ⎣s + s + 1
s2 + 2⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎦
(2.8.17)
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Here, k1 = 4 and k2 = 2
(2.8.18)
det D (s ) = −s 3 − 3s 2 − s − 2
(2.8.19)
and
In other words, 2
deg det D (s ) <
∑k
(2.8.20)
i
i=1
Therefore, the matrix D(s) is not column reduced. In general, a polynomial matrix D(s) can be expressed (Kailath, 1980) as D (s ) = Dhc S (s ) + L (s )
(2.8.21)
where S (s ) = diag[s k1
s k2
.
.
s km ]
(2.8.22)
Dhc = the highestcolumndegree coefﬁcient matrix, or the leading (column) coefﬁcient matrix of D(s)
(2.8.23)
L (s ) : remaining terms
(2.8.24)
det D (s ) = (det Dhc )s ∑ i + terms of lower degrees in s
(2.8.25)
It can be shown that k
When det Dhc ≠ 0 , m
deg det D (s ) =
∑k
i
i=1
and the matrix D(s) is column reduced.
(2.8.26)
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Facts A nonsingular polynomial matrix is column reduced if and only if its leading (column) coefﬁcient matrix is nonsingular (Kailath, 1980). If D(s) is column reduced, then G (s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s ) is strictly proper (proper) if and only if (Kailath, 1980) each column of N(s) has degree less than (less than or equal to) the degree of the corresponding column of D(s).
2.9 STATE SPACE REALIZATIONS OF A TRANSFER FUNCTION MATRIX Two methods, similar to those for a SISO system (Section 2.2), will be presented.
METHOD I Deﬁne ξ( s ) =
1 u( s ) d (s)
(2.9.1)
Using Equation 2.8.9, ( s r + d1s r−1 + … + dr )ξ( s ) = u( s )
(2.9.2)
dr d r−1 ξ(t ) + d1 r−1 ξ(t ) + … + dr ξ(t ) = u(t ) r dt dt
(2.9.3)
In timedomain,
Deﬁne x1 = ξ ;
x2 =
d r−1 d ξ ,…, x r = r−1 ξ dt dt
(2.9.4)
Equation 2.9.3 and Equation 2.9.4 can be written as x 1 = x 2 x 2 = x 3 x r−1 = x r
(2.9.5)
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x r = − d1x r − d2 x r −1 − ...... − dr x1 + u(t ) In matrix form, ⎡ x 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ x 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎢ x ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ r −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ x r ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ − dr I m
Im 0 . . 0 − dr −1I m
0 Im . . . .
. 0 . . . .
0 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ . ⎥⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ u(t ) . ⎥⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ I m ⎥ ⎢ x r −1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − d1I m ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ x r ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ I m ⎥⎦
. . . . 0 .
(2.9.6)
From (2.8.1), (2.8.8), and (2.9.1), y( s ) = N ( s )ξ( s )
(2.9.7)
y( s ) = ( s r−1N1 + s r−2 N 2 + … + sN r−1 + N r )ξ( s )
(2.9.8)
or
In timedomain, y(t ) = N1
d r−1 d r −2 ξ(t ) + N 2 r−2 ξ(t ) + … + N r ξ(t ) r −1 dt dt
(2.9.9)
Using the deﬁnition (2.9.4),
y (t ) = ⎡⎣ N r
N r −1
.
.
⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ N1 ⎤⎦ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢x ⎥ ⎣ r⎦
(2.9.10)
Equation 2.9.6 and Equation 2.9.10 comprise a state space realization: x = Ax + Bu(t ) y (t ) = Cx (t ) where
(2.9.11)
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⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ . A=⎢ ⎢ . ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ − dr I m ⎡0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ B=⎢ ⎥; ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ I m ⎥⎦
Im . . .
. 0 . . .
. . . . 0
− dr −1I m
.
.
.
C = ⎡⎣ N r
N r −1
Im 0 . . 0
0
.
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ Im ⎥ ⎥ − d1I m ⎥⎦ 0 0 . .
.
N1 ⎤⎦
(2.9.12)
(2.9.13a,b)
The state vector x is described as ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ x=⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢x ⎥ ⎣ r⎦
(2.9.14)
As the dimension of each of the block elements x i is mx1, Number of states, n = mr
(2.9.15)
METHOD II From (2.8.1) and (2.8.8),
y (s ) =
N (s ) u(s ) d (s )
( s r + d1s r−1 + … + dr )y( s ) = ( s r−1N1 + s r−2 N 2 + … + sN r−1 + N r )u( s ) Dividing both sides by s r ,
(2.9.16)
(2.9.17)
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43
u(t )
Nr
Nr 1
x1
x1
dr
N1
x2
x2
xr
dr 1
xr
y (t )
d1
FIGURE 2.8 MIMO analog computer simulation diagram (Method II).
⎛ d1 ⎛ N1 N 2 dr ⎞ N r−1 N r ⎞ ⎜1 + + ....... + r ⎟ y( s ) = ⎜ + 2 + … + r−1 + r ⎟ u( s ) ⎝ ⎝ s s s ⎠ s s ⎠ s
(2.9.18)
This equation can be written as y( s ) = −
d1 d y( s ) − … − rr y( s ) s s
(2.9.19)
N N N N + 1 u( s ) + 22 u( s ) + .… + rr−−11 u( s ) + rr u( s ) s s s s On the basis of Equation 2.9.19, the simulation diagram is constructed as shown in Figure 2.8. Deﬁning outputs of integrators as pdimensional state variable vectors x1, x 2 ,......, x r , the following state space model is obtained: y (t ) = x r (t )
(2.9.20)
and x 1 = − dr y (t ) + N r u(t ) = − dr x r (t ) + N r u(t ) x 2 = −dr−1y(t ) + x1 (t ) + N r−1u(t ) = −dr−1x r (t ) + x1 (tt ) + N r−1u(t ) x r = −d1y(t ) + x r−1 (t ) + N1u(t ) = −d1x r (t ) + x r−1 (t ) + N1u(t ) Equation 2.9.20 and Equation 2.9.21 comprise the state space model:
(2.9.21)
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x = Ax + Bu(t )
(2.9.22)
y (t ) = Cx (t ) where ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢I p ⎢0 A=⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢. ⎢ ⎣0
0
.
.
0
0
.
.
0
Ip
0
.
0
0
Ip
.
.
.
.
0
0
. .
. Ip
− dr I p ⎤ ⎥ − dr −1I p ⎥ − dr −2 I p ⎥⎥ − dr − 3 I p ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ − d1I p ⎦
(2.9.23)
T
⎡0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ C=⎢ ⎥ ; ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ I m ⎥⎦
B = ⎡⎣ N r
N r −1
.
.
N1 ⎤⎦
T
(2.9.24a,b)
The state vector x is described as ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ x=⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢x ⎥ ⎣ r⎦
(2.9.25)
As the dimension of each of the block elements x i is px1, the number of states, n = pr
(2.9.26)
2.10 CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY OF A MIMO SYSTEM Definition 1 A multiinput state space realization is controllable if and only if the controllability matrix
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C = ⎡⎣ B
45
…
A2 B
AB
A n−1B⎤⎦
(2.10.1)
is of full rank. Definition 2 A multioutput state space realization is observable if and only if the observability matrix ⎡ C ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ CA ⎥ ⎢ CA2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Θ=⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ n −1 ⎥ ⎣CA ⎦
(2.10.2)
is of full rank.
2.10.1 CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY OF METHODS I AND II REALIZATIONS Method I Realization C = ⎡⎣ B
A2 B .
AB
A r B :…
.
A n−1B⎤⎦
(2.10.3)
where n = mr. The dimension of the matrix C is n × mn. Using (2.10.3), (2.9.12), and (2.9.13a), ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢0 C =⎢ . ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ I m
0 0 . Im *
. . . . .
.
Im :
Im
* . * *
. * *
: : : :
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎦
(2.10.4)
It is obvious that the mr × mr submatrix shown in (2.10.4) is nonsingular. Hence, the matrix C is of full rank, i.e., Rank (C) = n
(2.10.5)
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Hence, the realization obtained using Method I is guaranteed to be controllable. However, it need not be always observable. Method II Realization From (2.10.2), ⎡ C ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ CA ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ r Θ = ⎢ CA ⎥ ........... ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ n −1 ⎥ ⎢⎣CA ⎦⎥
(2.10.6)
where n = pr. The dimension of the matrix Θ is n × pn. Using (2.10.6), (2.9.23), and (2.9.24a), ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢0 Θ = ⎢Im ⎢ ⎢ ... ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
0 0 . Im * ...
. . . . . ...
0 Im . * * ...
Im ⎤ ⎥ *⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ *⎥ *⎥ ⎥ ... ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦
(2.10.7)
It is obvious that the pr × pr submatrix shown in (2.10.7) is nonsingular. Hence, the matrix Θ is of full rank, i.e., Rank(Θ) = n
(2.10.8)
Hence, the realization obtained using Method II is guaranteed to be observable. However, it need not be always controllable.
2.11 MATRIXFRACTION DESCRIPTION (MFD) Given a transfer function matrix, two methods for obtaining state space realizations have been obtained in a manner analogous to what we did for SISO systems. The
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47
state space realization from Method I is always controllable, whereas the state space realization from Method II is always observable. Furthermore, the number of states from the two methods is different when the number of outputs does not equal number of inputs. As a result, following questions arise: 1. When will a state space realization be both controllable and observable? 2. How do we obtain a state space realization with the minimum number of states? To answer these questions in a general way, the MFD of a transfer function is introduced. Equation 2.8.8 can also be written as G (s ) = N R (s ) DR−1 (s )
(2.11.1)
where N R (s ) = N (s )
and
DR (s ) = d (s ) I m
(2.11.2)
Alternatively, G (s ) = DL−1 (s ) N L (s )
(2.11.3)
where N L (s ) = N (s )
and
DL (s ) = d (s ) I p
(2.11.4)
Equation 2.11.1 and Equation 2.11.3 are known as right and left MFD, respectively. Any transfer function matrix can be represented by either right or left MFD. It should be noted that DR (s ) and DL (s ) can be viewed as denominator polynomial matrices. Similarly, N R (s ) and N L (s ) can be viewed as numerator polynomial matrices.
2.11.1 DEGREE OF A SQUARE POLYNOMIAL MATRIX AND GREATEST COMMON RIGHT DIVISOR (GCRD) The degree of a square polynomial matrix is equal to the degree of the determinant of the polynomial matrix (Kailath, 1980). Therefore, deg DR (s ) = deg det DR (s ) = mr and
(2.11.5)
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deg DL (s ) = deg det DL (s ) = pr
(2.11.6)
It is interesting to note that the number of states in Method I realization equals deg DR (s ) , whereas the number of states in Method II realization equals deg DL (s ) . In fact, Method I and Method II are connected to the right and left MFD, respectively. Furthermore, having expressed the transfer function matrix as a right MFD, a state space realization can be developed to have the number of states equal deg DR (s ) . The same result also holds for left MFD. For the transfer function matrix in Equation 2.8.3, a right MFD is constructed using (2.11.2): ⎡ ( s + 1)( s + 2 )( s + 3) G(s ) = ⎢ ⎣( s + 2 )( s + 3)( s + 5 ) ⎡( s + 1)2 ( s + 2 )( s + 3) ⎢ 0 ⎣
( s + 1)2 ( s + 3)⎤ ⎥× ( s + 1)2 ( s + 2 )⎦ −1
⎤ ⎥ ( s + 1)2 ( s + 2 )( s + 3)⎦ 0
(2.11.7)
= N1 ( s ) D1−1 ( s ) where deg D1 (s ) = 8 Another right MFD can also be constructed: ⎡ ( s + 1) G(s) = ⎢ ⎣( s + 5 )
( s + 3)⎤⎡( s + 1)2 ⎥⎢ ( s + 2 )⎦⎣ 0
−1
⎤ 0 −1 ⎥ = N 2 ( s )D2 ( s ) (2.11.8) ( s + 2 )( s + 3)⎦
where deg D2 (s ) = 4 The diagonal elements of D2 (s ) are obtained by taking the least common multiple of each column separately. It can be easily veriﬁed that N 2 (s ) = N1 (s )W −1 (s ) where
and
D2 (s ) = D1 (s )W −1 (s )
(2.11.9)
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⎡(s + 2 )(s + 3) W (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎣
49
0 ⎤ ⎥ (s + 1)2 ⎦
(2.11.10)
Here, W(s) is a nonsingular polynomial matrix, but W −1 (s ) is not a polynomial matrix. When W −1 (s ) is postmultiplied with N 1 (s ) , another polynomial matrix N 2 (s ) is obtained. Therefore, the polynomial matrix W(s) is called a right divisor of N 1 (s ) . Using this deﬁnition, the polynomial matrix W(s) is also a right divisor of D1 (s ) . In other words, W(s) is a common right divisor (crd) of both N1 (s ) and D1 ( s ). From (2.11.9), D2 (s )W (s ) = D1 (s )
(2.11.11)
From the procedure of matrix multiplication and the deﬁnition of the determinant, deg D1 (s ) = deg D2 (s )W (s ) = deg D2(s) + deg W(s)
(2.11.12)
Thus, ﬁnding a crd of numerator and denominator polynomial matrices, the degree of the denominator polynomial matrix (hence, the number of states) can be decreased by the degree of the crd. Therefore, the minimal order of state space realization will be obtained (Kailath, 1980) by ﬁnding the greatest common right divisor (gcrd). If the degree of a gcrd is zero, the number of states cannot be reduced any further. A polynomial square matrix is said to be unimodular if its degree equals zero. A polynomial matrix is unimodular if and only if its inverse is also a polynomial matrix. Nonuniqueness of a gcrd Let Wg (s ) be a gcrd of N(s) and D(s). Then, N (s ) = N (s )Wg−1 (s )
(2.11.13)
D (s ) = D (s )Wg−1 (s )
(2.11.14)
where N (s ) and D (s ) are polynomial matrices. It can be veriﬁed that U a (s )Wg (s ) is also a gcrd where U a (s ) is any unimodular matrix. Definitions 1. Two polynomial matrices N(s) and D(s) with the same number of columns will be said to be relatively right prime (or right coprime) if they only have unimodular crd. 2. An MFD G (s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s ) will be said to be irreducible if N(s) and D(s) are right coprime.
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
2.11.2 ELEMENTARY ROW
AND
COLUMN OPERATIONS
A general procedure for obtaining a gcrd is based on elementary operations on polynomial matrices deﬁned as follows (Kailath, 1980; Rugh, 1993): 1. Interchange of any two rows or columns 2. Addition to any row (column) by a polynomial multiple of any other column (row) 3. Multiplying any row or column by any nonzero real or complex number These elementary operations are represented by elementary matrices. Postmultiplication of a polynomial matrix by an elementary matrix results in elementary row operation, whereas premultiplication results in elementary column operation. As an example, consider the following polynomial matrix: ⎡s + 1 ⎢ P (s ) = ⎢ 1 ⎢s + 3 ⎣
s2 + s + 1 2s + 3 s (s + 1)
s ⎤ ⎥ s + 5⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.15)
Then, various elementary operations are described as follows: Interchange of ﬁrst and second rows: ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢0 ⎣
1 0 0
⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ P (s ) = ⎢ s + 1 ⎢s + 3 1 ⎥⎦ ⎣
2s + 3 s2 + s + 1 s (s + 1)
s + 5⎤ ⎥ s ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.16)
s ⎤ ⎥ s + 5⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.17)
Interchange of ﬁrst and second columns: ⎡0 ⎢ P (s ) ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ⎣
1 0 0
0 ⎤ ⎡s 2 + s + 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 2s + 3 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ s (s + 1)
s +1 1 s+3
Addition of s times ﬁrst row to the third row: ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢s ⎣
0 1 0
⎡ 0⎤ s +1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ P (s ) = ⎢ 1 ⎢s (s + 1) + s + 3 1 ⎥⎦ ⎣
s2 + s + 1 2s + 3 s (s 2 + s + 1) + s (s + 1)
s ⎤ ⎥ s+5⎥ s 2 + 1⎥⎦
(2.11.18)
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51
Addition of s times ﬁrst column to the third column: ⎡1 ⎢ P (s ) ⎢0 ⎢s ⎣
0⎤ ⎡s + 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0⎥ = ⎢ 1 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣s + 3
0 1 0
s2 + s + 1 2s + 3 s (s + 1)
s (s + 1) + s ⎤ ⎥ s+s+5 ⎥ s (s + 3) + 1⎥⎦
(2.11.19)
2s ⎤ ⎥ s + 5⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.20)
⎤ ⎥ 2 (s + 5) ⎥ 2 ⎥⎦
(2.11.21)
Scaling of ﬁrst row by 2: ⎡2 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 0
⎡2 (s + 1) 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ P (s ) = ⎢ 1 ⎢ s+3 1 ⎥⎦ ⎣
2 (s 2 + s + 1) 2s + 3 s (s + 1)
Scaling of ﬁrst column by 2: ⎡2 ⎢ P (s ) ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 0
0 ⎤ ⎡(s + 1) ⎥ ⎢ 0⎥ = ⎢ 1 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ s + 3
(s 2 + s + 1) 2s + 3 s (s + 1)
2s
All the matrices by which P(s) is pre or postmultiplied are elementary matrices that have the following properties: 1. The inverse of an elementary matrix is also an elementary matrix. 2. Determinants of elementary matrices are nonzero constants and hence independent of s. In other words, elementary matrices are unimodular (see Section 2.11.1).
2.11.3 DETERMINATION
OF A
gcrd
Given m × m and p × m polynomial matrices D(s) and N(s), ﬁnd elementary row operations or equivalently a unimodular matrix U(s) such that at least the last p rows on the righthand side of following equation are zero, i.e., ⎡ D (s ) ⎤ ⎡ R (s ) ⎤ U (s ) ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ N (s ) ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦ Then the square matrix R(s) is a gcrd (Kailath, 1980). EXAMPLE 2.12 Find a gcrd of
(2.11.22)
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⎡ (s + 1)(s + 5) ⎢ N (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎢(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ 0 ⎥ (s + 2 )(s + 5) ⎥ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎥⎦
(2.11.23)
⎡(s + 3)(s + 5) D (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎣
⎤ 0 ⎥ (s + 4)(s + 5) ⎦
(2.11.24)
and
Solution ⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎡ D (s ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ = (s + 1)(s + 5) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ N (s ) ⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ 0 ⎥ (s + 4)(s + 5) ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ (s + 2 )(s + 5) ⎥ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎥⎦
(2.11.25)
Step I: Subtract fourth row from the ﬁrst row. ⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ U1 (s ) ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ ⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 (s + 4)(s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 (s + 2 )(s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎦ ⎣(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U1 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
Step II: Divide the fourth row by –1/2.
0 1 0 −1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
⎤ 0 ⎥ (s + 4)(s + 5) ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −2 (s + 5) ⎥ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎥⎦ 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.26)
(2.11.27)
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⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ U 2 (s ) ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎣
53
⎤ ⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 4)(s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ −2 (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎦ ⎣(s + 2 )(s + 3)
⎤ 0 ⎥ (s + 4)(s + 5) ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎥⎦
(2.11.28)
⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U 2 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.29)
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 −1 / 2 0
Step III: Subtract (s + 4) times the fourth row from the second row. ⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ U 3 (s ) ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ ⎡ (s + 3))(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 4)(s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎦ ⎣(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U 3 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 −(s + 4) 0 1 0
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎥⎦
(2.11.30)
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.31)
Step IV: Subtract 0.5 times the ﬁrst row from 0.5 times the third row. ⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ U 4 (s ) ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ (s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ ⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ (s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎦ ⎣(s + 2 )(s + 3)
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎥⎦ 0 0 0
(2.11.32)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 U 4 (s ) = ⎢ −1 / 2 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1/ 2 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.33)
Step V: Subtract (s + 3) times the third row from the ﬁrst row. ⎡ (s + 3)(s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ U 5 (s ) ⎢ (s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ = 0 (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎦ ⎣(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U 5 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 0 0 0
−(s + 3) 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎥⎦ 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.34)
(2.11.35)
Step VI: Replace ﬁfth row by adding (s + 3)/3 times the third row and –1/3 times the ﬁfth row. ⎡ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ U 6 (s ) ⎢ (s + 5) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢(s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 (s + 1)(s + 4) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣(s + 3)
⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U 6 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 (s + 3) / 3
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ −(s + 1)(s + 4) / 3 ⎥⎦
(2.11.36)
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −1 / 3 ⎥⎦
(2.11.37)
0 0 0 1 0
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55
Step VII: Add (s + 4)/3 times the fourth row and to the ﬁfth row. ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 U 7 (s ) ⎢(s + 5) ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 −(s + 1)(s + 4) / 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣(s + 3)
⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U 7 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ 4(s + 4) / 3 ⎥⎦ 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
0 0 0 1 (s + 4) / 3
(2.11.38)
(2.11.39)
Step VIII: Subtract the third row from the ﬁfth row. ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 U 8 (s ) ⎢(s + 5) ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢(s + 3) ⎣
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ 4(s + 4) / 3 ⎥⎦
⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 4(s + 4) / 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −2
⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U 8 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 −1
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.40)
(2.11.41)
Step IX: Replace ﬁfth row by the fourth row — 3/4 times the ﬁfth row. ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 U 9 (s ) ⎢(s + 5) ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ −2 ⎣
⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢(s + 5) 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 4(s + 4) / 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3 / 2
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦ 0 0 0
(2.11.42)
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⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U 9 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 1
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −3 / 4 ⎥⎦
(2.11.43)
Step X: Subtract 2(s + 5)/3 times the ﬁfth row from the third row. ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 U10 (s ) ⎢(s + 5) ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 3/2 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U10 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 ⎥=⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣3 / 2 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ −2 (s + 5) / 3 ⎥ ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ −2 (s + 5) / 3 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎦
(2.11.44)
(2.11.45)
Step XI: Add 2/3 times the fourth row to the third row. ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 U11 (s ) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢3 / 2 ⎣
⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −2 (s + 5) / 3 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢3 / 2 1 ⎦ ⎣
⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 U11 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣ Step XII: Interchanging rows,
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 2/3 1 0
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦ 0 0 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.11.46)
(2.11.47)
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⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 U12 (s ) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢3 / 2 ⎣
57
0 ⎤ ⎡3 / 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 ⎥=⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ (s + 5) ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0
1 ⎤ ⎥ (s + 5) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(2.11.48)
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(2.11.49)
U ( s ) = U12 ( s )U11 ( s )…U 2 ( s )U1 ( s )
(2.11.50)
⎡0 ⎢ ⎢0 U12 (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢1 ⎣
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
In summary, with reference to Equation 2.11.22,
and ⎡3 / 2 R (s ) = ⎢ ⎣ 0
1 ⎤ ⎥ (s + 5) ⎦
(2.11.51)
The square matrix R(s) is a gcrd of N(s) and D(s).
2.12 MFD OF A TRANSFER FUNCTION MATRIX FOR THE MINIMAL ORDER OF A STATE SPACE REALIZATION Let a transfer function be expressed as G (s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s )
(2.12.1)
First, ﬁnd Wg (s ), a gcrd of N (s ) and D (s ). Then, obtain the following matrices: N (s ) = N (s )Wg−1 (s )
(2.12.2)
D (s ) = D (s )Wg−1 (s )
(2.12.3)
and
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The transfer function matrix can also be written as G (s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s )
(2.12.4)
deg D (s ) = deg D(s) deg Wg (s )
(2.12.5)
where
Now, a state space realization based on Equation 2.12.4 will have a minimum number of states (Kailath, 1980) equal to deg D (s ). EXAMPLE 2.13 Let the transfer function matrix be deﬁned as ⎡s +1 ⎢s + 3 ⎢ ⎢ G (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢s + 2 ⎢⎣ s + 5
⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ s+2⎥ s + 4⎥ ⎥ s +1⎥ s + 5 ⎦⎥
(2.12.6)
With respect to (2.12.1), N(s) and D(s) are given by (2.11.23) and (2.11.24). From (2.11.51), a gcrd of N(s) and D(s) is ⎡3 / 2 Wg (s ) = ⎢ ⎣ 0
1 ⎤ ⎥ (s + 5) ⎦
(2.12.7)
Therefore, ⎡ 2 (s + 1)(s + 5) ⎢ 3 ⎢ −1 N (s ) = N (s )Wg (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎢ 2 (s + 2 )(s + 3) ⎢ 3 ⎣⎢ and
−
2 (s + 1) ⎤ 3 ⎥⎥ (s + 2 ) ⎥ ⎥ s ⎥ ⎥⎦ 3
(2.12.8)
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59
⎡ 2 (s + 3)(s + 5) D (s ) = D (s )W (s ) = ⎢ 3 ⎢ 0 ⎢⎣
−
−1 g
2 (s + 3) ⎤ 3 ⎥⎥ (s + 4) ⎥⎦
(2.12.9)
Because deg D (s ) = 3, the minimal number of states equals 3.
2.13 CONTROLLER FORM REALIZATION FROM A RIGHT MFD 2.13.1 STATE SPACE REALIZATION Consider a strictly proper right MFD (Kailath, 1980) G (s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s )
(2.13.1)
D( s )ξ( s ) = u( s )
(2.13.2a)
y( s ) = N ( s )ξ( s )
(2.13.2b)
Rewrite (2.8.1) as
The matrix D(s) can be written as Equation 2.8.21 where L (s ) = Dlc Ψ(s )
(2.13.3)
Here, Dlc is the lowercolumndegree coefﬁcient matrix of D(s) and Ψ T (s) = ⎡s k1−1 . ⎢ ⎢ 0 . ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 . ⎣
. . . . .
s .
.
1 0
0
0 s
.
k2 −1
0
. .
.
. .
. . .
0 s
.
1
0
. . . . .
. . . . .
0 0
s km −1
. .
. . . . .
. .
.
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ s 1⎥⎦ (2.13.4)
Note that the dimension of the matrix Ψ T (s ) is mx( k1 + k2 +… km ) . Furthermore, the degree of the ith column of N(s) will be at the most ki − 1. Therefore, a matrix N lc can be deﬁned such that
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y( s ) = N ( s )ξ( s ) = N lc Ψ ( s )ξ( s )
(2.13.5)
From (2.8.21) and (2.13.2a),
[ DhcS(s ) + Dlc Ψ (s )] ξ(s ) = u(s )
(2.13.6)
Assuming that the matrix D(s) is column reduced, −1 −1 S ( s )ξ( s ) = − Dhc Dlc q( s ) + Dhc u(s )
(2.13.7)
q( s ) = Ψ ( s )ξ( s )
(2.13.8)
q(s ) = Ψ (s ) S −1 (s )v (s )
(2.13.9)
v( s ) = S ( s )ξ( s )
(2.13.10)
where
Equation 2.13.8 is rewritten as
where
Using (2.13.4), Equation 2.13.9 yields q( s ) = ⎡s −1 . ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣
. .
.
s −( k1 −1) s − k1 . . 0 . . . . 0
s
−1
0 .
0
. .
. . 0 s −( k2 −1) s − k2
.
. . .
.
0
.
.
. . . .
. . . .
s −1
0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . . . s −( kn −1)
0 0
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ × ⎥ ⎥ s − kn ⎥⎦ T
⎡ v1 ( s ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ v2 ( s ) ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢⎣vm ( s )⎥⎦
(2.13.11) Let s −1v1 (s ) = x1 ,…, s − ( k1−1) v1 (s ) = x k1−1 , s − k1 v1 (s ) = x k1
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61
s −1v2 ( s ) = xk1+1 ( s ), … , s −( k2 −1) v2 ( s ) = xk1+k2 −1 ( s ), s −( k2 −1) v2 ( s ) = xk1+k2 ( s ) … …
(2.13.12)
s −1vm ( s ) = xk1+...+km−1+1 ( s ), … , s −1vm ( s ) = xk1+...+km−1+km −1 ( s ) s −1vm ( s ) = xk1+...+km−1+km ( s ) In this case, x1 = v1 , x2 = x1 , … , x k1 = xk1−1 x k1+1 = v2 , x k1+2 = xk1+1 , … , x k1+k2 = xk1+k2 −1 …
(2.13.13)
… x k1+....+km−1+1 = vm , x k1+.....+km−1+2 = xk1+.....+km−1+1 , … , x k1+...+km = xk1+...+km −1 Deﬁne the state vector x as x = ⎡⎣ x1
.
x k1
.
x k1+ k2
.
.
.
.
x k1+...+ km −1+1
.
x k1+.....++ km ⎤⎦
T
(2.13.14) Then, Equations 2.13.13 can be written as x = Ac0 x (t ) + Bc0 v (t )
(2.13.15)
where ⎧⎡0 ⎪⎢ ⎪⎢1 ⎪ Ac0 = block diagonal ⎨⎢0 ⎪⎢ ⎪⎢ . ⎢ ⎩⎪⎣0
0 0 1 . 0
. . . . .
⎫ 0⎤ ⎪ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎥; ki xki ; i = 1, 2, … , m ⎬ ⎥ ⎪ .⎥ ⎪ ⎪⎭ 0⎥⎦
0 0 0 . 1
(2.13.16)
and [ Bc0 ]T = block diagonal {[1
0
.
0 ] ; 1xki ; i = 1, 2, … , m} (2.13.17)
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Utilizing (2.13.9) and (2.13.12), it can be easily seen that q(s ) = x (s )
(2.13.18)
Therefore, from (2.13.7) and (2.13.10), −1 −1 v (t ) = − Dhc Dlc x (t ) + Dhc u(t )
(2.13.19)
Substituting (2.13.19) into (2.3.15), the state equations are obtained: x = Ac x (t ) + Bc u(t )
(2.13.20)
−1 Ac = Ac0 − Bc0 Dhc Dlc
(2.13.21)
−1 Bc = Bc0 Dhc
(2.13.22)
where
and
From (2.13.5), (2.13.14), and (2.13.18), output equations are given as y (t ) = C c x (t )
(2.13.23)
C c = N lc
(2.13.24)
where
EXAMPLE 2.14 Find the minimal state space realization of transfer function matrix G(s), Equation 2.12.6. ⎡1 ⎢ G (s ) = ⎢0 ⎢1 ⎣ where
0⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎥ − H (s ) 1 ⎥⎦
(2.13.25)
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⎡ 2 ⎢s + 3 ⎢ ⎢ H (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 3 ⎢⎣ s + 5
63
⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ⎥ s + 4⎥ ⎥ 4 ⎥ s + 5 ⎥⎦
(2.13.26)
Note that H(s) is a strictly proper MFD and can be expressed as H (s ) = N H (s ) DH −1 (s )
(2.13.27)
where ⎡2 (s + 5) ⎢ N H (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎢ 3(s + 3) ⎣
0 ⎤ ⎥ 2 (s + 5) ⎥ 4(s + 4) ⎥⎦
(2.13.28)
⎤ 0 ⎥ (s + 4)(s + 5) ⎦
(2.13.29)
1 ⎤ ⎥ s + 5⎦
(2.13.30)
and ⎡(s + 3)(s + 5) DH (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎣ A gcrd of N H (s ) and DH (s ) is again found as ⎡3 / 2 Wh (s ) = ⎢ ⎣ 0 Then, ⎡ 4(s + 5) ⎢ 3 ⎢ −1 N H (s ) = N H (s )Wh (s ) = ⎢ 0 ⎢ 2 (s + 3) ⎢ ⎢⎣ and
4⎤ − ⎥ 3⎥ 2 ⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎦
(2.13.31)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
⎡ 2 (s + 3)(s + 5) DH (s ) = DH (s )W (s ) = ⎢ 3 ⎢ 0 ⎢⎣
−
−1 h
2 (s + 3) ⎤ 3 ⎥⎥ (s + 4) ⎥⎦
(2.13.32)
For DH (s ) in Equation 2.13.32, k1 = 2 and k2 = 1. And, ⎡2 / 3 Dhc = ⎢ ⎣ 0
−2 / 3 ⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎡0 ⎢ A = ⎢1 ⎢0 ⎣ 0 c
and
0 0 0
⎡16 / 3 Dlc = ⎢ ⎣ 0
⎡1 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎥ , Bc = ⎢0 ⎢0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣
10 0
−2 ⎤ ⎥ 4⎦
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(2.13.32)
(2.13.33)
For N H (s ) in Equation 2.13.31, ⎡4 / 3 ⎢ N lc = ⎢ 0 ⎢ 2 ⎣
20 / 3 0 6
−4 / 3 ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2 ⎥⎦
(2.13.34)
From (2.13.21), (2.13.22), and (2.13.24), ⎡ −8 ⎢ Ac = ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ⎣
−15 0 0
⎡1.5 −1⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ Bc = ⎢ 0 ⎢0 −4 ⎥⎦ ⎣
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
and
C c = N lc
(2.13.35)
2.13.2 SIMILARITY TRANSFORMATION TO CONVERT ANY STATE SPACE REALIZATION {A,B,C} TO THE CONTROLLER FORM REALIZATION Given any state space realization {A,B,C}, the objective is to ﬁnd the nonsingular matrix T such that T −1 AT = Aˆ c
and
T −1B = Bˆc
(2.13.36)
where the structures of Aˆ c and Bˆc match those of Ac and Bc given by Equation 2.13.21 and Equation 2.3.22, respectively.
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State Space Description of a Linear System
65
TABLE 2.1 Search for Independent Vectors b1 X Ab1 X
b2 X Ab2 X
b3 X Ab3 X
A2b1 0
A2b2 0
A2b3 0
3
A b1
3
A b2
A3b3
4
A b1
4
A b2
A4b3
5
5
A5b3
A b1
A b2
First, consider the controllability matrix C = [B
AB
A2 B
.
.
A n −1 B]
(2.13.37)
The order of the matrix is n × nm. Out of these nm column vectors of the matrix, only n column vectors are independent. To ﬁnd these n independent column vectors, Table 2.1 is created for the state equations with three inputs and six states as an example. The search for independent columns is conducted (Kailath, 1980) rowwise from left to right, and a sign “X” is introduced to indicate that it is independent of all the previous vectors that have been found to be independent. The sign “0” is introduced to indicate that the associated vector is not independent of previously found independent columns. There is no need to consider vectors in the table column below the vector with the “0” sign because they are guaranteed to be dependent on previously found independent vectors due to the Cayley–Hamilton theorem. Next, each vector with the sign “0” is expanded in terms of independent vectors, i.e., 3
A2 b i =
∑
3
α ji b j +
j =1
∑ β Ab ji
j
;
i = 1, 2, and 3
(2.13.38)
j =1
where α j and β j are coefﬁcients to be determined. Using the matrix notation, Equation 2.13.38 can be written as C I [α1i
α2i
α 3i
β1i
β2 i
β3i ]T = A2 b i
(2.13.39)
where C I = ⎡⎣b1 Solving (2.13.39),
b2
b3
Ab1
Ab 2
Ab 3 ⎤⎦
(2.13.40)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
[α1i
α 2i
α 3i
β1i
β 3i ]T = C I −1A 2 b i
β2i
(2.13.41)
Then, for each vector with the sign “0”, terms having A are collected on the left side and the matrix A is factored out as follows: 3
At i 2 =
∑α b ji
(2.13.42)
j
j =1
where 3
t i 2 = [ Ab i −
∑β b ] ji
(2.13.43)
j
j =1
Again, for t i2 , terms having A are collected on the left side and the matrix A is factored out as follows: 3
At i1 = t i 2 +
∑β b ji
(2.13.44)
j
j =1
where t i1 = b i
(2.13.45)
Lastly, the transformation matrix T is deﬁned as T = [t11
t12
t 21
t 22
t 31
t 32 ]
(2.13.46)
2.14 POLES AND ZEROS OF A MIMO TRANSFER FUNCTION MATRIX 2.14.1 SMITH FORM For any pxm polynomial matrix P(s), unimodular matrices U(s) and V(s) can be found (Kailath, 1980) such that U (s ) P (s )V (s ) = Λ(s ) where
(2.14.1)
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State Space Description of a Linear System
⎡ λ1 (s ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ . ⎢ 0 Λ(s ) = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ . ⎢⎣ 0
0 λ 2 (s ) . . 0 0 . 0
. . . . . . . 0
67
0 0 0 λ r (s ) 0 0 . 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0
. . . . . . . .
0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ .⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(2.14.2)
r is the normal rank of P(s), and λ i (s ) ; i = 1, 2,…, r are unique monic polynomials obeying the division property λ i (s ) λ i+1 (s ) ;
i = 1, 2,…, r − 1
(2.14.3)
The pxm polynomial matrix Λ(s ) is known as the Smith form of P(s). The notation (2.14.3) indicates that the polynomial λ i (s ) is divisible by the polynomial λ i+1 (s ) .
2.14.2 SMITH–MCMILLAN FORM A transfer function matrix G (s ) can be written (Kailath, 1980) as G (s ) =
1 N (s ) d (s )
(2.14.4)
where d (s ) is the monic least common multiple of the denominators of elements of G (s ) . From (2.14.4), d (s )G (s ) = N (s )
(2.14.5)
Expressing N (s ) in the Smith form (2.14.1), N (s ) = U (s ) Λ(s )V (s )
(2.14.6)
where U (s ) and V (s ) are unimodular matrices. From (2.14.5) and (2.14.6), U −1 (s )G (s )V −1 (s ) =
1 Λ(s ) d (s )
(2.14.7)
As the inverse of a unimodular matrix is also a unimodular matrix, any transfer function matrix can be converted to the form on the righthand side of (2.14.7) via
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elementary row and column operations. Now, from (2.14.2), nonzero diagonal elements of the matrix on the righthand side of (2.14.7) will be λ i (s ) ; d (s )
i = 1, 2,…, r
(2.14.8)
where r is the normal rank of G (s ) . Eliminating common factors between λ i (s ) and d (s ) , λ i (s ) εi (s ) = d (s ) ψ i (s )
(2.14.9)
There are no common factors between ε i (s ) and ψ i (s ) . Deﬁne M (s ) = ⎡ε1 ( s ) / ψ1 ( s ) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ . ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
0 ε 2 ( s ) / ψ2 ( s ) . . 0 0 . 0
. . . . . . . 0
0 0 0 ε r ( s ) / ψr ( s ) 0 0 . 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0
. . . . . . . .
0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ (2.14.10) 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ .⎥ ⎥ 0⎥⎦
Then, from (2.14.7) and (2.14.10), U1−1 (s )G (s )U 2−1 (s ) = M (s )
(2.14.11)
In other words, a transfer function matrix G (s ) can be converted to have the structure of the matrix M (s ) via elementary row and column operations. Polynomials in M (s ) satisfy the following properties: ψ i+1 (s ) ψ i (s ) ;
i = 1, 2,…, r − 1
(2.14.12)
εi (s ) ε i+1 (s ) ; i = 1, 2,…, r − 1
(2.14.13)
d (s ) = ψ 1 (s )
(2.14.14)
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Notations (2.14.12) and (2.14.13) indicate that polynomials ψ i+1 (s ) and εi (s ) are divisible by polynomials ψ i (s ) and εi+1 (s ) , respectively.
2.14.3 POLES
AND
ZEROS
VIA
SMITH–MCMILLAN FORM
Poles of a multivariable transfer function G (s ) are roots of denominator polynomials ψ i (s ) in the Smith–McMillan form M (s ) , Equation 2.4.10. Similarly, zeros of a multivariable transfer function G (s ) are roots of numerator polynomials εi (s ) in the Smith–McMillan form M (s ) . EXAMPLE 2.15 Find poles and zeros of the following transfer function matrix: G (s ) =
1 P (s ) s 2 + 4s + 5
(2.14.15)
where ⎡ 2 P (s ) = ⎢ 2 ⎣(s + 1)
(s + 1)2 ⎤ ⎥ −2 ⎦
(2.14.16)
Using elementary operations, P(s) will be ﬁrst converted to Smith form. Step I: Divide the ﬁrst row of P(s) by 1/2: ⎡ 1 U1 (s ) P (s ) = ⎢ 2 ⎣(s + 1)
0.5(s + 1)2 ⎤ ⎥ −2 ⎦
(2.14.17)
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎦
(2.14.18)
where ⎡0.5 U1 (s ) = ⎢ ⎣0
Step II: Subtract (s + 1)2 times the ﬁrst row from the second row: ⎡1 U 2 (s )U1 (s ) P (s ) = ⎢ ⎣0 where
0.5(s + 1)2 ⎤ ⎥ −2 − 0.5(s + 1) 4 ⎦
(2.14.19)
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⎡ 1 U 2 (s ) = ⎢ − ( + 1)2 s ⎣
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎦
(2.14.20)
Step III: Subtract 0.5(s + 1)2 times the ﬁrst column from the second column: ⎡1 U 2 (s )U1 (s ) P (s )V3 (s ) = ⎢ ⎣0
⎤ 0 4⎥ −2 − 0.5(s + 1) ⎦
(2.14.21)
where ⎡1 V3 (s ) = ⎢ ⎣0
−0.5(s + 1)2 ⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎦
(2.14.22)
Step IV: Multiplying the second column by –2, ⎡1 U 2 (s )U1 (s ) P (s )V3 (s )V4 (s ) = ⎢ ⎣0
⎤ ⎥ 4 + (s + 1) ⎦ 0
4
(2.14.23)
where ⎡1 V4 (s ) = ⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ −2 ⎦
(2.14.24)
Now, it can be veriﬁed that Equation 2.14.23 has the Smith form (2.14.1), i.e., ⎡1 U (s ) P (s )V (s ) = ⎢ ⎣0
⎤ 0 4⎥ 4 + (s + 1) ⎦
⎡ 0.5 U (s ) = U 2 (s )U1 (s ) = ⎢ 2 ⎣ −0.5(s + 1)
(2.14.25)
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎦
(2.14.26)
and ⎡1 V (s ) = V3 (s )V4 (s ) = ⎢ ⎣0 Therefore, from (2.14.15) and (2.14.25),
(s + 1)2 ⎤ ⎥ −2 ⎦
(2.14.27)
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71
⎡1 1 ⎢ s + 4s + 5 ⎣0
U −1 (s )G (s )V −1 (s ) =
2
⎤ 0 4⎥ 4 + (s + 1) ⎦
(2.14.28)
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ s2 + 1⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎦
(2.14.29)
As (s + 1) 4 + 4 = (s 2 + 4s + 5)(s 2 + 1) , ⎡ 1 ⎢ 2 U −1 (s )G (s )V −1 (s ) = ⎢ s + 4s + 5 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣
0
Equation 2.14.29 has the Smith–McMillan form. Therefore, poles are −2 ± j , which are the roots of s 2 + 4s + 5 = 0 . Further, zeros are ± j , which are the roots of s 2 + 1 = 0 .
2.14.4 POLES
AND
ZEROS
VIA AN IRREDUCIBLE
MFD
Consider the following irreducible MFD of the multivariable transfer function G (s ) : G (s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s )
(2.14.30)
Poles of G (s ) are roots of det D (s ) = 0. Zeros of G (s ) are values of s for which N (s ) is not of full rank. EXAMPLE 2.16 For the transfer function matrix (2.12.6), the irreducible MFD is represented by G (s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s )
(2.14.31)
where N (s ) and D (s ) are represented by (2.12.8) and (2.12.9), respectively. Now, det D (s ) =
2 (s + 3)(s + 4)(s + 5) 3
(2.14.32)
Therefore, poles are located at –3, –4, and –5. There is no s for which the rank of N (s ) is less than 2. Therefore, there is no zero.
2.15 STABILITY ANALYSIS The stability of a linear and timeinvariant system is not inﬂuenced by external inputs u(t). Therefore, u(t) will be set to zero, and the following initialvalue problem is considered:
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x = Ax (t ) ;
x(0 ) ≠ 0
(2.15.1)
The system (2.15.1) is described to be stable when x(t ) → 0 as t → ∞
(2.15.2)
This property is also referred to as asymptotic stability. The condition (2.15.2) is satisﬁed when all the eigenvalues of A have negative (nonzero) real parts, i.e., they are located in the left half (excluding the imaginary axis) of the complex plane. Deﬁne a positive deﬁnite (Appendix B) function V(t) as V (t ) = x T (t ) Px (t )
where
P = PT > 0
(2.15.3)
Differentiating (2.15.3) with respect to time, V (t ) = x T (t ) Px (t ) + x T (t ) Px (t )
(2.15.4)
Substituting (2.15.1) into (2.15.4), V (t ) = x T (t )[ AT P + PA]x (t )
(2.15.5)
For a stable system, V (t ) is a negative deﬁnite function. Therefore, AT P + PA = −Q
(2.15.6)
where Q = Q T > 0 . Equation 2.15.6 is known as the Lyapunov equation, often written as AT P + PA + Q = 0
(2.15.7)
An Important Property of the Lyapunov Equation When Q = Q T > 0 , and all the eigenvalues of A have negative (nonzero) real parts, the Lyapunov equation 2.15.7 has a unique solution for P, satisfying P = P T > 0 as follows (Kailath, 1980): ∞
P=
∫e 0
AT t
Qe At dt
(2.15.8)
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73
EXERCISE PROBLEMS P2.1
Consider the following transfer function:
G (s ) =
P2.2
Develop state space realizations using Methods I and II. Write state space equations and draw the block diagram for each method. Using the properties of the determinant, ﬁnd the characteristic polynomial of the following matrix: ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢−a ⎣ n
P2.3
P2.4
4s 3 + 25s 2 + 45s + 34 s 3 + 6 s 2 + 10 s + 8
1 0 . 0 − an −1
0 1 . 0 .
. . . . .
. . . . .
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥ − a1 ⎥⎦
a. If A = T −1 AT , show that e At = Te At T −1 . b. If there are n independent eigenvectors for the n × n matrix A, develop an algorithm to compute e At using the result in part (a). Matlab Exercise Consider the system shown in the Figure P.2.4 where +
G(s)
P(s)
H(s)
FIGURE P.2.4 A Feedback System.
G (s ) =
s+2 2 s + 6s + 8
P (s ) =
H (s ) =
s 3 + 2 s 2 + 9s + 10 s 3 + s 2 + 10 s + 20
s +1 s+5
a. Develop state space models for both openloop and closedloop systems.
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P2.5
Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
b. Examine controllability and observability of these state space models. c. Determine the stability of open and closedloop systems. Consider a single input/single output system with the following transfer function: s+α (s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 3)
P2.6
a. Construct a state space realization {A, b, c} that is controllable for all values of α . You should also show the corresponding simulation diagram. b. Find the values of α for which the state space realization developed in part (a) is not observable. Consider a linear system described by the following state space equation: dx1 = x2 dt dx2 = − x1 + u dt y (t ) = x1 (t ) + x2 (t ) dy (0 ) = 1, and u(0) = 0. dt a. Determine x1 (0 ) and x2 (0 ). b. Determine the response x1 (t ) and x2 (t ) via the matrix exponential when u(t) =1 for t > 0. Consider a single input/single output system with the following transfer function: Given y(0) = 0,
P2.7
s+2 (s + 1)(s + 2 )(s + 3) a. Construct a state space realization {A, b, c} that is controllable. You should also show the corresponding simulation diagram. b. Answer the following questions: i. Will it be possible to construct a realization that is both controllable and observable? ii. Will it be possible to construct a realization that is neither controllable nor observable?
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State Space Description of a Linear System
P2.8
75
Consider the following system: dx = Ax (t ) + bu (t ) dt where ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣0
1⎤ ⎥, 0⎦
⎡0 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ b = ⎢ ⎥ , and x(0 ) = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦ ⎣0 ⎦
Find u(t), 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 , such that x(1) = [1 0 ]T . P2.9 Consider the state space realization using Method II. Show that this realization is controllable, provided there is no common factor between numerator and denominator of the transfer function. P2.10 Consider the following state space realization: dx ⎡ −2 =⎢ dt ⎣ 1
⎡1⎤ 1⎤ ⎥ x (t ) + ⎢ ⎥ u (t ) −2 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎦
y (t ) = ⎡⎣1
2 ⎤⎦ x (t )
i. Find the transfer function of the system. ii. Determine the observability and controllability of the state space realization. iii. Let y(0) = 1,
dy (0 ) = 0, and u(0) =0. Find x(0). dt
iv. Find e At . v. Solve the state equations when x(0) = 0 and u(t) = 1 for t ≥ 0 . P2.11 Consider the following transfer function matrix: ⎡ s +1 H(s) = ⎢ 2 ⎣s + s +1 a. Develop the state controllability and b. Develop the state controllability and
⎤ s+2 ⎥ 2 s + 2s + 1 ⎦ 3
space realization using Method I. Determine its observability. space realization using Method II. Determine its observability.
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
P2.12 Consider the problem of the control of a tiretread extrusion line: ⎡ 0.071 ⎢ s + 0.19 G (s ) = ⎢ ⎢ 0.24 ⎢ 2 ⎣ (s + 0.23)
0.007 (s + 0.23)2 0.027 (s + 0.3)2
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦
a. Find the controllerform state space realization using a suitable MFD. b. Determine controllability and observability of your state space realization and discuss your results. c. Find poles and zeros of the system. P2.13 Consider a system with the following transfer function matrix: ⎡ s ⎢ − (s + 1) G(s) = ⎢ ⎢ (2 s + 1) ⎢ s (s + 1) ⎣
1 ⎤ (s + 1) ⎥⎥ 1 ⎥ s + 1 ⎥⎦
i. Find an irreducible right MFD. ii. What is the order of a minimal realization? iii. Find the poles and transmission zeros. P2.14 Consider the linearized dynamics of a spark ignition engine (Abate et al., 1994): ⎡ y1 (s ) ⎤ α1α 4 1 ⎡ ⎢ ⎥= ⎢ ⎣ y2 (s ) ⎦ d (s ) ⎣ α1 ( Js + α 7 − α 5 )
α 6 (s + α 2 ) ⎤ ⎡ u1 (s ) ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ −α 3 α 6 ⎦ ⎣u2 (s ) ⎦
where y1 (t ) = engine speed, y2 (t ) = relative air pressure of manifold, u1 (t ) = duty cycle of the throttle valve, and u2 (t ) = spark advance position. The polynomial d(s) is deﬁned as follows: d (s ) = Js 2 + ( J α 2 + α 7 − α 5 )s + (α 3α 4 + α 2 α 7 − α 2 α 5 ) Parameters J (massmoment of inertia) and α1 − α 7 are provided in Table 2.P.1 for three different operating conditions I, II, and III.
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77
TABLE 2.P1 Parameters of a Spark Engine
I II III
J
α1
α2
α3
α4
α5
α6
α7
1 1 10
2.1608 3.4329 2.1608
0.1027 0.1627 0.1027
0.0357 0.1139 0.0357
0.5607 0.2539 0.5607
2.0183 1.7993 1.7993
4.4962 2.0247 4.4962
2.0283 1.8201 1.8201
a. Develop a minimumorder state space realization. b. Find poles and zeros of the transfer function matrix for each operating condition.
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3
State Feedback Control and Optimization
First, the design of a full state feedback control system is presented for a single input/single output (SISO) system along with its impact on poles and zeros of the closedloop system. Next, the full state feedback control system is presented for a multiinput/multioutput (MIMO) system. The necessary conditions for the optimal control are then derived and used to develop the linear quadratic (LQ) control theory and the minimum time control.
3.1 STATE VARIABLE FEEDBACK FOR A SINGLE INPUT SYSTEM Consider the state space realization {A, b, c} ; i.e., dx = Ax (t ) + bu (t ) dt
(3.1.1)
y (t ) = cx (t )
(3.1.2)
The openloop transfer function is given as cAdj (sI − A)b y (s ) = c(sI − A)−1 b = u (s ) det(sI − A)
(3.1.3)
The state variable feedback system is shown in Figure 3.1, in which u (t ) = v (t ) − kx (t )
(3.1.4)
where v (t ) is the external input and k is the state feedback vector. Using (3.1.1) and (3.1.4), dx = ( A − bk ) x (t ) + bv (t ) dt
(3.1.5)
79
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v (t )
u(t )
x (t ) x
Ax (t )
bu (t )
y (t ) c
k
FIGURE 3.1 A state feedback control system.
Equation 3.1.5 represents the state dynamics of the closedloop system. The transfer function of the closedloop system is y (s ) cAdj (sI − A + bk )b = c(sI − A + bk )−1 b = v (s ) det(sI − A + bk)
(3.1.6)
It is desirable to study the effects of state feedback on poles and zeros of the closedloop transfer function.
3.1.1 EFFECTS OF STATE FEEDBACK ON POLES OF THE CLOSEDLOOP TRANSFER FUNCTION: COMPUTATION OF STATE FEEDBACK GAIN VECTOR It will be shown here that poles of the closedloop transfer function can be located anywhere in the splane by the full state feedback, provided the state space realization is controllable. In other words, it is always possible to ﬁnd the state feedback vector k corresponding to any desired locations of closedloop poles, provided the state space realization is controllable. Let y( s ) b1s n−1 + … + bn−1s + bn = n u ( s ) s + a1s n−1 + a2 s n−2 + … + an−1s + an
(3.1.7)
Hence, the characteristic polynomial of the openloop system is a( s ) = det( sI − A) = s n + a1s n−1 + a2 s n−2 + … + an−1s + an
(3.1.8)
Let the desired characteristic polynomial of the closedloop system be α( s ) = det( sI − A + bk ) = s n + α1s n−1 + α 2 s n−2 + … + α n−1s + α n where α1 , α 2 , …, α n are arbitrary real numbers.
(3.1.9)
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81
Now, α( s ) = det( sI − A + bk ) = det{( sI − A)( I + ( sI − A)−1 bk )} = a( s ).det( I + ( sI − A)−1 bk )
(3.1.10)
Using the identity det( I n − PQ ) = det( I m − QP ) , where P and Q are n × m and m × n matrices, respectively, Equation 3.1.10 can be written (Kailath, 1980) as α(s ) = a (s )[1 + k (sI − A)−1 b]
(3.1.11)
α(s ) − a (s ) = kadj (sI − A)b
(3.1.12)
or
Using Equation 2.3.4 and equating coefﬁcients of s n−1 , s n−2 , …, s 0 on both sides, we obtain α1 − a1 = kb α 2 − a2 = kAb + a1kb α 3 − a3 = kA 2 b + a1kAb + a2 kb
(3.1.13)
α n − an = kA n−1b + a1kA n−2 b + a2 kA n−3b + … + an−1kb Representing the system of equations in matrix form, α − a = kCUt
(3.1.14)
where C is the controllability matrix, α = [α1
α2
α3
.
.
αn ]
(3.1.15)
a = ⎡⎣ a1
a2
a3
.
.
an ⎤⎦
(3.1.16)
and U t is the upper triangular Toeplitz matrix deﬁned as
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⎡1 ⎢ 0 Ut = ⎢ ⎢. ⎢ ⎢⎣0
a1 1 . 0
.
a2 a1 . .
a2 . .
. . . 0
an −1 ⎤ ⎥ an −2 ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(3.1.17)
It can be seen that U t is always nonsingular. Hence, for any choice of α , k can be found, provided C is nonsingular (or the system is controllable). The result is k = (α − a )Ut−1C −1
(3.1.18)
This is also known as the Bass–Gura formula for computing k . The fact that the eigenvalues can be arbitrarily relocated by state feedback is known as modal controllability. This can be understood by realizing that states of a system possess all the information about system dynamics. Hence, feeding back all the states is equivalent to using all the information in deciding the control input. Another important point to note is that the order of the closedloop system is the same as that of the openloop system, which is not always true for the output feedback via a compensator. EXAMPLE 3.1: BALANCING
A
POINTER
Consider the balancing of a pointer (Kailath, 1980) on your ﬁngertip (Figure 3.2). If you try to do it yourself, you will ﬁnd that the pointer will fall down when the ﬁngertip does not move. Furthermore, the ﬁngertip must move to balance the pointer. In fact, the acceleration of the ﬁngertip serves as the control input. To develop a mathematical model, the following assumptions are made (Kailath, 1980): 1. The mass of the pointer is concentrated at the top end. 2. The angle φ is small. 3. The force F from the ﬁngertip is applied only along the direction of the pointer. y
m
mg L
0
FIGURE 3.2 A pointer on the ﬁngertip.
xc
x
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83
Applying Newton’s second law of motion, mxc = F sin φ ≈ F φ
(3.1.19)
where xc is the xcoordinate of the center of mass. For a small φ, the acceleration of the center of mass along the ydirection can be neglected. Therefore, mg = F cos φ ≈ F
(3.1.20)
xc = gφ
(3.1.21)
xc (t ) = ξ(t ) + L φ(t )
(3.1.22)
From (3.1.19) and (3.1.20),
Now,
where ξ(t ) is the xcoordinate of the ﬁngertip. Substituting (3.1.22) into (3.1.21), = g φ − u (t ) φ L
(3.1.23)
where
u (t ) =
ξ L
(3.1.24)
The variable u (t ) , which is proportional to the ﬁngertip acceleration ξ , will be treated as the control input. The state variable equations are described as ⎡0 ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥= ⎢g ⎣q2 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣L
1⎤ ⎥ ⎡ q1 ⎤ + ⎡ 0 ⎤ u ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎣q2 ⎦ ⎣ −1⎦ ⎥⎦
(3.1.25)
where q1 = φ Furthermore,
and
q2 = φ
(3.1.26)
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⎡0 A= ⎢g ⎢ ⎢⎣ L
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥⎦
⎡0⎤ b=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −1⎦
and
(3.1.27)
OpenLoop Stability det(sI − A) = s 2 −
g L
(3.1.28)
g g and − . Hence, the openloop system is unstable L L which is exhibited by the fact that the pointer falls down if the ﬁngertip does not have any acceleration, i.e., u(t) = 0. Furthermore, if L is smaller, the magnitude of Openloop eigenvalues are
g is larger. This matches with the fact that it is harder L to balance a small pointer. Try it. the unstable eigenvalue
Controllability The controllability matrix is
C = ⎡⎣b
⎡0 Ab ⎤⎦ = ⎢ ⎣ −1
−1⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
(3.1.29)
The matrix C is nonsingular. Hence, the state space realization is controllable. State Feedback Control
u (t ) = − k1q1 − k2 q2 = − ⎡⎣ k1
⎡0 A − bk = ⎢ g ⎢ ⎢⎣ L
1⎤ ⎥ − ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡k ⎢ ⎥⎣ 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ −1⎦ ⎥⎦
⎡ s ⎢ det( sI − A + bk ) = det ⎢ ⎛ g ⎞ − ⎜ + k1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎣⎢ ⎝ L
⎡q ⎤ k2 ⎤⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣q2 ⎦
⎡ 0 k2 ⎤⎦ = ⎢ g ⎢ +k 1 ⎢⎣ L
(3.1.30)
1⎤ ⎥ k2 ⎥ ⎥⎦
−1 ⎤ ⎛g ⎞ ⎥ 2 = s − k2 s − ⎜ + k1 ⎟ s − k2 ⎥ ⎝L ⎠ ⎥⎦
(3.1.31)
(3.1.32)
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Let the desired closedloop poles be –1 and –2. In this case, the desired closedloop characteristic equation will be det(sI − A + bk ) = (s + 1)(s + 2 ) = s 2 + 3s + 2
(3.1.33)
Matching the coefﬁcients of polynomials, − k2 = 3 ⇒ k2 = −3
(3.1.34)
⎛g ⎞ g − ⎜ + k1 ⎟ = 2 ⇒ k1 = − − 2 ⎝L ⎠ L
(3.1.35)
Comments 1. To determine state feedback vector, the Bass–Gura formula (3.1.18) can also be used. But for a loworder problem, it is more straightforward to directly match the coefﬁcients of polynomials. The Bass–Gura formula is extremely useful to solve higher order problems via a computer software such as MATLAB®. 2. The control input is u (t ) = − k1φ − k2 φ . Its implementation requires measurements of φ and φ , and realtime computation of − k1φ − k2 φ . When a human being tries to balance a pointer, one can say that the eyes are estimating the values of φ and φ , and the brain is deciding on a suitable control input and instructing the motor to move the ﬁngertip with proper acceleration.
3.1.2 EFFECTS OF STATE FEEDBACK ON ZEROS OF THE CLOSEDLOOP TRANSFER FUNCTION If the state space realization is controllable, it can be converted to the controller canonical form {Ac , b c , c c } described in Chapter 2, Section 2.2. Under the state feedback, the system matrix of the closedloop system is given as ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Ac − b c k = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢− a − k 1 ⎣ n
1 0
0 1
0
0
− an −1 − k2
.
. 0 . .
. . . .
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥ − a1 − kn ⎥⎦ 0 0
(3.1.36)
Hence, the realization {Ac − b c k, b c , c c } remains in the controller canonical form. Therefore, the transfer function of the closedloop system is given as
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c c ( sI − Ac + b c k )−1 b c =
b1s n−1 + … + b n−1 s + bn s n + (a1 + kn )s n−1 + … + (an + k1 )
(3.1.37)
This expression clearly indicates that the numerator polynomial of the transfer function remains unchanged. In other words, the state feedback has no inﬂuence on the zeros of the transfer function (Kailath, 1980). EXAMPLE 3.2: BICYCLE DYNAMICS Consider a simple model of a bicycle (Lowell and McKell, 1982; Astrom et al., 2005), in which the rider, wheels, frontfork assembly, and the rear frame are treated as a single rigid body as shown by the plane in Figure 3.3. The total mass is m and the location of the center of gravity (cg) is shown in the ﬁgure. Assume that the forward velocity v of the bicycle is a constant. The small angle θ is the perturbation from the bicycle’s upright position. As the weight mg will further try to increase this angle, the rider turns the handlebar by a small angle α, so that the bicycle begins to travel in a circle with the instant radius r and the instant center of rotation O. This circular travel is represented by the angle φ about the vertical axis passing through the rearwheel contact point. Therefore, the acceleration of the cg in the direction normal to the plane is + bφ + hθ
v2 r
(3.1.38)
where v 2 / r is the centripetal acceleration, and b is the distance of cg from the vertical axis passing through the rearwheel contact point. Applying Newton’s second law, 2⎞ ⎛ + bφ + v ⎟ = mgθ m ⎜ hθ r ⎠ ⎝
(3.1.39)
where mgθ is the component of the weight along the direction normal to the frame for small θ. v
cg
mg h Front Wheel Contact Point
a
Rear Wheel Contact Point
r O
FIGURE 3.3 Fundamentals of bicycle dynamics.
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From the deﬁnition of the instantaneous center for rotation: r φ = v
and
rα = a
(3.1.40a,b)
Substituting (3.1.40) into (3.1.39), the input/output equation is obtained: 2 − g θ = − bv α − v α θ h ha ah
(3.1.41)
where angles θ(t ) and α(t ) are the output and the input, respectively. Taking the Laplace transform of (3.1.41) with zero initial conditions: θ(s ) b s + b2 = 2 1 α(s ) s + a1s + a2
(3.1.42)
where
b1 = −
bv ; ha
b2 = −
v2 ; ha
a1 = 0 ;
a2 = −
g h
(3.1.43)
Now, a state space model can be constructed via either Method I or Method II in Chapter 2, Section 2.2. There are two poles of the system:
−
g h
and
−
g h
(3.1.44)
And there is one zero:
−
v b
(3.1.45)
The openloop system is unstable, and has a zero in the left half plane. The system can be stabilized by a simple feedback law: α = kpθ Substituting (3.1.46) into (3.1.39), the closedloop system is
(3.1.46)
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⎛ 2 ⎞ + bv k pθ + ⎜ v k p − g ⎟ θ = 0 θ ha h⎠ ⎝ ah
(3.1.47)
For stability,
kp >
ag v2
(3.1.48)
Note that the control law (3.1.46) has to be implemented by the rider using his or her eye, brain, or hand. Equation 3.1.48 indicates that the lower bound of k p is smaller at a higher velocity. In fact, the damping is also higher at a higher velocity, Equation 3.1.47. Therefore, the rider ﬁnds it easier to stabilize the bicycle at a higher velocity. State Feedback Control Using Method I (Chapter 2, Section 2.2): x = Ax (t ) + bu (t )
(3.1.49)
y (t ) = cx (t )
(3.1.50)
where ⎡ 0 A=⎢ ⎣g / h
1⎤ ⎥; 0⎦
⎡0 ⎤ b=⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦
and
c = ⎡⎣b1
b2 ⎤⎦
(3.1.51)
and ⎡ s det(sI − A + bk ) = det ⎢ ⎣ − g / h + k1
−1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ = s + k2 s + ( k1 − g / h ) s + k2 ⎦
(3.1.52)
Let the desired characteristic polynomial be det(sI − A + bk ) = s 2 + α1s + α 2
(3.1.53)
Matching coefﬁcients of polynomials in (3.1.52) and (3.1.53), k1 = α 2 + g / h
(3.1.54)
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and k2 = α1
(3.1.55)
And, the closedloop transfer function is c(sI − A + bk )−1 b =
b1s + b2 s + α1s + α 2 2
(3.1.56)
Note that the zero of the transfer function remains unchanged, whereas the poles have been located arbitrarily via state feedback control: u (t ) = ur (t ) − kx (t )
(3.1.57)
where ur (t ) is the reference input, which will be zero in this case. Compared to the state feedback law (3.1.57), the proportional controller (3.1.46) is simpler and hence easier to be implemented by a rider. This may explain why a person can ride a bicycle for hours, whereas he or she can balance a pointer on a ﬁnger only for a few minutes as full state feedback (Equation 3.1.30) is necessary for stability.
3.1.3 STATE FEEDBACK CONTROL CONSTANT OUTPUT
FOR A
NONZERO
AND
Let the external input v(t) be a constant v0 . From Equation 3.1.5, the steady state value of the state vector x s is given by 0 = ( A − bk ) x s + bv0
(3.1.58)
x s = −( A − bk )−1 bv0
(3.1.59)
or
Hence, the steady state output is given as ys = cx s = −c( A − bk )−1 bv0
(3.1.60)
If the desired value of the output is y d , the corresponding command input v0 is obtained by setting ys = y d and solving (3.1.60). The result is v0 = −
yd provided c( A − bk )−1 b ≠ 0 c( A − bk )−1 b
(3.1.61)
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Now, let us examine the conditions under which c( A − bk )−1 b ≠ 0 . Substituting s = 0 in Equation 3.1.6, it is clear that c( A − bk )−1 b ≠ 0 if there is no zero of the closedloop transfer function at s = 0. As locations of zeros remain unchanged under state feedback, the command input for the nonzero set point can be found, provided the openloop transfer function does not have any zero located at s = 0 (Kailath, 1980). EXAMPLE 3.3: SPRINGMASS SYSTEM For the springmassdamper system (Chapter 2, Figure 2.4), state equations are deﬁned by (2.5.16) and (2.5.17). Case I: Position Output If the position of the mass, x, is measured by a sensor, y (t ) = cx (t )
(3.1.62)
c = [1
(3.1.63)
where 0]
Let the state feedback control law be u (t ) = v0 − kx (t )
(3.1.64)
It can be shown that −1
⎛ β⎞ c( A − bk )−1 b = − ⎜ k1 + ⎟ ⎝ m⎠
(3.1.65)
From Equation 3.1.61, to achieve the desired set point y d for the output, v0 = −
⎛ β⎞ yd = yd ⎜ k1 + ⎟ −1 ⎝ c( A − bk ) b m⎠
(3.1.66)
If f0 is the force corresponding to v0 , v0 = From (3.1.66) and (3.1.67),
f0 m
(3.1.67)
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f0 = y d (mk1 + β)
(3.1.68)
f (t ) = f0 − mk1 x − mk2 x
(3.1.69)
From (3.1.64),
Substituting (3.1.69) into the differential Equation 2.5.14, mx + (α + mk2 ) x + (β + mk1 ) x = f0
(3.1.70)
Therefore, position and velocity feedback coefﬁcients k1 and k2 add to the stiffness and damping coefﬁcient, respectively. Furthermore, conditions (3.1.66) and (3.1.68) represent the static equilibrium condition. Case II: Velocity Output If the velocity of the mass, x , is measured by a sensor, y (t ) = cx (t )
(3.1.71)
c = [0
(3.1.72)
where 1]
In this case, c( A − bk )−1 b = 0
(3.1.73)
And a nonzero set point y d cannot be achieved. Mathematically, this is due to the presence of a zero at s = 0 as the transfer function is y (s ) ms = u (s ) ms 2 + αs + β
(3.1.74)
Physically, nonzero constant velocity is not possible when the applied force is a constant.
3.1.4 STATE FEEDBACK CONTROL UNDER CONSTANT INPUT DISTURBANCES: INTEGRAL ACTION Consider the following system:
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dx = Ax + bu (t ) + w dt
(3.1.75)
y (t ) = cx (t )
(3.1.76)
where w is a constant disturbance vector of unknown magnitudes. The objective is to develop a state feedback control algorithm such that lim y(t ) = 0. The reader can t →∞
verify that the algorithm (3.1.4) will not be able to achieve this goal. The required algorithm is developed by deﬁning a new variable q(t) as follows: dq = y (t ) = cx (t ); dt
q(0 ) = 0
(3.1.77)
Deﬁning a new state vector, ⎡ x (t ) ⎤ p(t ) = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ q (t ) ⎦
(3.1.78)
⎡w⎤ dp = Aa p(t ) + b a u (t ) + ⎢ ⎥ dt ⎣0 ⎦
(3.1.79)
⎡A Aa = ⎢ ⎣c
(3.1.80)
Using (3.1.75) to (3.1.77),
where 0⎤ ⎥; 0⎦
⎡b ⎤ ba = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 ⎦
Lemma The augmented system {Aa , b a } is controllable provided that the original system {A, b} is controllable and ⎡A rank ⎢ ⎣c
b⎤ ⎥ = n +1 0⎦
Proof The controllability matrix (Gopal, 1984) for the system {Aa , b a } is
(3.1.81)
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⎡b Ca = ⎢ ⎣0
93
A2 b cAb
Ab cb ⎡A = ⎢ ⎣c
. .
b ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣1
. .
Anb ⎤ ⎥ cA n −1b ⎦
C⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
(3.1.82)
(3.1.83)
The matrix ⎡0 ⎢ ⎣1
C⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
(3.1.84)
is nonsingular if the original system {A, b} is controllable; i.e., the matrix C is nonsingular. Therefore, Ca is nonsingular if the condition (3.1.81) is satisﬁed. Now, the state feedback control for the augmented system is u (t ) = −kx (t ) − kq q (t )
(3.1.85)
Substituting (3.1.85) into (3.1.79), ⎡ dx ⎤ ⎢ dt ⎥ ⎡ A − bk ⎢ ⎥= ⎢ ⎢ dq ⎥ ⎢⎣ c ⎢⎣ dt ⎥⎦
−bkq ⎤ ⎡ x (t ) ⎤ ⎡ w ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ q (t ) ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦
(3.1.86)
Assuming that Ca is nonsingular, it is always possible to ﬁnd k and kq such that eigenvalues of system (3.1.86) are in the left half of the splane. Because w is a constant vector, steady state values of x(t) and q(t) will be constants for a stable closedloop dq = 0. From Equation 3.1.77, lim y(t ) = 0. Finally, t →∞ dt the control law (3.1.85) can be represented as system. Hence, in steady state,
t
∫
u (t ) = −kx (t ) − kq y (t ) dt
(3.1.87)
0
Hence, by feeding back the integral of the output in addition to states, we can have the output go to zero in the presence of a constant disturbance vector with unknown magnitudes (Kailath, 1980).
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EXAMPLE 3.4: INTEGRAL OUTPUT FEEDBACK For the springmassdamper system (Chapter 2, Figure 2.4), state equations are deﬁned by (2.5.16) and (2.5.17). In addition, consider a constant but unknown disturbance force acting on the mass. Case I: Position Output If the position of the mass, x, is measured by a sensor, y (t ) = cx (t )
(3.1.88)
c = [1
(3.1.89)
where 0]
In this case, ⎡ 0 b⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = rank ⎢ −α / m 0⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎣
⎡A rank ⎢ a ⎣c
1 −β / m 0
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ = 3 0 ⎥⎦
(3.1.90)
Therefore, the condition (3.1.81) is satisﬁed and the augmented system is controllable. For the control law (3.1.52), deﬁne k a = [k
kq ] = [ k1
k2
kq ]
(3.1.91)
Then, the closedloop characteristic polynomial is ⎞ ⎛β ⎛α ⎞ det( sI − ( Aa − b a k a )) = s 3 + ⎜ + k2 ⎟ s 2 + ⎜ + k1 ⎟ s + kq ⎠ ⎝m ⎠ ⎝m
(3.1.92)
Let the desired characteristic polynomial be det(sI − ( Aa − b a k a )) = s 3 + α1s 2 + α 2 s + α 3
(3.1.93)
Matching the coefﬁcients of polynomials,
k1 = α 2 −
β ; m
k2 = α1 −
α ; m
and
kq = α 3
(3.1.94)
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Case II: Velocity Output If the velocity of the mass, x , is measured by a sensor, y (t ) = cx (t )
(3.1.95)
c = [0
(3.1.96)
where 1]
In this case,
⎡A rank ⎢ a ⎣c
⎡ 0 b⎤ ⎢ rank = ⎥ ⎢ −α / m 0⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎣
1 −β / m 1
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ = 2 0 ⎥⎦
(3.1.97)
Therefore, the condition (3.1.48) is not satisﬁed, and the augmented system is not controllable.
3.2 COMPUTATION OF STATE FEEDBACK GAIN MATRIX FOR A MULTIINPUT SYSTEM The state feedback control law is u(s ) = r(s ) − Kx (s )
(3.2.1)
where r(s) and K are reference input vector and state feedback gain matrix, respectively. Using (2.13.8) and (2.13.18), u( s ) = r( s ) − K Ψ ( s )ξ( s )
(3.2.2)
Substituting (3.2.2) into (2.13.6),
[ DhcS(s ) + ( Dlc + K )Ψ (s )] ξ(s ) = r(s )
(3.2.3)
ξ( s ) = Dk−1 ( s )r( s )
(3.2.4)
Equation 3.2.3 yields
where
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Dk (s ) = Dhc S (s ) + ( Dlc + K )Ψ (s ) = D (s ) + K Ψ (s )
(3.2.5)
Substituting (3.2.4) into (2.13.5), y (s ) = GK (s )r(s )
(3.2.6)
GK (s ) = N (s ) DK−1 (s )
(3.2.7)
where
GK (s ) is the closedloop transfer function with full state feedback. Examining the structures of (3.2.5) and (3.2.7), the following points (Kailath, 1980) should be noted: • •
State feedback does not alter the numerator polynomial N(s). State feedback does not alter Dhc . Therefore, the state feedback control cannot change the column degrees of D(s).
Let the characteristic polynomial of the closedloop system be described by the following monic polynomial: α( s ) = s n + α1s n−1 + … + α n−1s + α n
(3.2.8)
Assume that the column degrees (Chapter 2, Section 2.8) of D(s) are arranged as m
k1 ≤ k2 ≤ … ≤ km ;
∑k = n i
(3.2.9)
i =1
Rewrite the characteristic polynomial (3.2.8) as follows: α( s ) = s n + α1 ( s )s n−k1 + α 2 ( s )s n−k1−k2 + … + α m ( s )
(3.2.10)
where α i (s ) is a polynomial of degree less than ki . Then, it can be veriﬁed that ⎡s k1 ⎢ ⎢ det ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
+ α1 (s ) −1 . 0 0
α 2 (s ) s k2 . 0 0
. . . . .
0 0 . s
km −1
−1
α m (s ) ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . ⎥ = α(s ) ⎥ 0 ⎥ s km ⎥⎦
(3.2.11)
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From (3.2.7), the closedloop characteristic polynomial is given by det( DK (s )) . Because α(s ) is a monic polynomial, −1 det(sI − Ac + Bc K ) = det( Dhc DK ) = α(s )
(3.2.12)
−1 det( S (s ) + Dhc ( Dlc + K )Ψ (s )) = α(s )
(3.2.13)
From (3.2.5),
Comparing (3.2.11) and (3.2.13), ⎡s k1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
+ α1 (s ) −1 . 0 0
α 2 (s ) s k2 . 0 0
. . . . .
0 0 . s km −1 −1
α m (s ) ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −1 . ⎥ = S (s ) + Dhc ( Dlc + K )Ψ (s ) (3.2.14) ⎥ 0 ⎥ s km ⎥⎦
Using the deﬁnition of S (s ) , Equation 3.2.14 yields ⎡α1 (s ) ⎢ ⎢ −1 K Ψ(s ) = Dhc ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣
α 2 (s ) 0 . 0 0
. . . . .
0 0 . 0 −1
α m (s ) ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . ⎥ − Dlc Ψ (s ) ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(3.2.15)
Factoring out Ψ(s ) on the righthand side yields the state feedback gain matrix K. Equation 3.2.11 is not a unique way to express the desired characteristic polynomial α(s ). As shown in Example 3.5, there are other matrices with their determinants equal to α(s ). Therefore, the state feedback gain matrix K is not unique to obtain the desired closedloop characteristic polynomial α(s ) for a multiinput system (Kailath, 1980). EXAMPLE 3.5 For DH (s ) in Equation 2.13.32, k1 = 2 and k2 = 1. And, ⎡2 / 3 Dhc = ⎢ ⎣ 0
−2 / 3 ⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎦
and
Let the desired characteristic polynomial be
⎡16 / 3 Dlc = ⎢ ⎣ 0
10 0
−2 ⎤ ⎥ 4⎦
(3.2.16)
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α(s ) = s 3 + 30 s 2 + 300 s + 1000
(3.2.17)
Because k1 = 2 and k2 = 3, this polynomial can be rearranged to be α(s ) = s 3 + α1 (s )s + α 2 (s )
(3.2.18)
where α1 (s ) = 30 s + 300
α 2 (s ) = 1000
and
(3.2.19)
From (3.2.15), ⎡α (s ) ( K c + Dlc )Ψ(s ) = Dhc ⎢ 1 ⎣ −1
α 2 (s ) ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(3.2.20)
where ⎡s ⎢ Ψ(s ) = ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ⎣
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(3.2.21)
From (3.2.20), ⎡30 ( K c + Dlc )Ψ(s ) = Dhc ⎢ ⎣0
300 −1
1000 ⎤ ⎥ Ψ (s ) 0 ⎦
(3.2.22)
300 −1
1000 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(3.2.23)
2006 / 3 ⎤ ⎥ −4 ⎦
(3.2.24)
Equating coefﬁcients of Ψ(s ) on both sides, ⎡30 K c + Dlc = Dhc ⎢ ⎣0 Therefore, ⎡ 44 / 3 Kc = ⎢ ⎣ 0 Alternatively,
572 / 3 −1
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⎡α (s ) ( K c + Dlc )Ψ (s ) = Dhc ⎢ 1 ⎣ −10
α 2 (s ) / 10 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(3.2.25)
Using (3.2.19), ⎡30 ( K c + Dlc )Ψ (s ) = Dhc ⎢ ⎣0
300 −10
100 ⎤ ⎥ Ψ (s ) 0 ⎦
(3.2.26)
300 −10
100 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(3.2.27)
Equating coefﬁcients of Ψ(s) on both sides, ⎡30 K c + Dlc = Dhc ⎢ ⎣0 Therefore, ⎡ 44 / 3 Kc = ⎢ ⎣ 0
50 / 3 −10
206 / 3 ⎤ ⎥ −4 ⎦
(3.2.28)
There exists another K c matrix to achieve the desired characteristic polynomial (3.2.18).
3.3 STATE FEEDBACK GAIN MATRIX FOR A MULTIINPUT SYSTEM FOR DESIRED EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS The closedloop system is described by GK (s ) = N (s ) DK−1 (s )
(3.3.1)
Dk (s ) = Dhc S (s ) + ( Dlc + K )Ψ (s ) = D (s ) + K Ψ (s )
(3.3.2)
D (s ) = Dhc S (s ) + Dlc Ψ (s )
(3.3.3)
where
and
Let the desired eigenvalues of the closedloop system be μ i ; i = 1, 2,..., n . In this case,
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det Dk (μ i ) = 0; i = 1, 2,...., n
(3.3.4)
It can be shown that eigenvectors fi associated with the system matrix of the controller form realization (Chapter 2, Section 2.13) of the transfer matrix GK (s ) can be expressed as fi = Ψ(μ i )p i
(3.3.5)
DK (μ i )p i = 0
(3.3.6)
D (μ i )p i + K Ψ (μ i )p i = 0
(3.3.7)
where the vector p i satisﬁes
Using (3.3.2) and (3.3.6),
Substituting (3.3.5) into (3.3.7), Kfi = −g i ;
i = 1, 2, …, n
(3.3.8)
where g i = D (μ i )p i
(3.3.9)
Equation 3.3.8 can be put in the following form (Kailath, 1980): K ⎡⎣f1
f2
.
.
f n ⎤⎦ = − ⎡⎣g1
g2
.
.
g n ⎤⎦
(3.3.10)
Assuming that eigenvectors {fi } are linearly independent, K = − ⎡⎣g1
g2
.
.
g n ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣f1
f2
.
.
f n ⎤⎦
−1
(3.3.11)
Linear independence of eigenvectors fi is guaranteed when eigenvalues μ i are distinct. Although it is possible to get a unique solution for K, even when some of the eigenvalues are repeated, it will be assumed that eigenvalues μ i are distinct for the following discussion. To use Equation 3.3.11, g i and fi are obtained (Kailath, 1980) as follows:
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1. Choose unrepeated closedloop eigenvalues μ i . 2. Choose the desired closedloop eigenvectors fi to satisfy the following constraints: a. With reference to Equation 3.3.5, fi must belong to the range space of Ψ(μ i ) . b. All the eigenvectors fi are linearly independent. c. If fi corresponds to a complex eigenvalue μ i , the complex conjugate of fi must correspond to the eigenvalue which is the complex conjugate of μ i . 3. Use Equation 3.3.5 to solve for p i . Premultiply both sides of Equation 3.3.5 by Ψ T (μ i ): Ψ T (μ i )Ψ (μ i )p i = Ψ T (μ i )fi
(3.3.12)
Because the matrix Ψ(μ i ) is of full rank, the square matrix Ψ T (μ i )Ψ (μ i ) is nonsingular. Therefore, p i = (Ψ T (μ i )Ψ(μ i ))−1 Ψ T (μ i )fi
(3.3.13)
4. From Equation 3.3.9, g i is computed. EXAMPLE 3.6: ELECTRONICS NAVIGATION OR GYRO BOX (SCHULTZ AND INMAN, 1994) An electronics navigation or gyro box is mounted on passive springdamper isolators located at the bottom four corners (Figure 3.4). There are isolators along x and z directions at each bottom four corner. There are also three actuators providing active control forces u1 , u2, and u3 as shown in Figure 3.4. Free body diagram of the system is shown in Figure 3.5. Applying Newton’s law, the system of differential equations of motion is written as + Eq + K s q(t ) = v (t ) Mq
(3.3.14)
v (t ) = B f u(t )
(3.3.15)
where the mass matrix M, the damping matrix E, the stiffness matrix K s , and the input force matrix B f are expressed as: ⎡m ⎢ M = ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 m 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ I yy ⎥⎦
⎡ 4c z ⎢ E=⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣
0 4c x −4 z c x
⎤ 0 ⎥ −4 z c x ⎥ 4(c z 2x + c x 2z ) ⎥⎦
(3.3.16a,b)
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x
x
qz
cg
qx
z
cx
cx
u2 kx
kx u1 cz
u3
kz
cz
kz
FIGURE 3.4 Electronics navigation or gyro box.
x
x
qz
cg
qx
z
u1 k x (qx
z ) c x (q x
k z (qz
u3
z ) x )
k x (q x
u2 cz (q z
x )
FIGURE 3.5 Free body diagram of gyro box.
k z (qz
x )
cz (q z
z ) x )
c x (q x
z )
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⎡ 4 kz ⎢ Ks = ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣
0 4kx −4 z k x
⎤ 0 ⎥ −4 z k x ⎥ 4( kz 2x + k x 2z ) ⎥⎦
103
⎡1 ⎢ Bf = ⎢ 0 ⎢ x ⎣
0 −1 z
1 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − x ⎥⎦
(3.3.17a,b)
For a mechanical system, it is usual to deﬁne states as p1 = q
and
p 2 = q
(3.3.18a,b)
Then, p 1 = p 2
(3.3.19)
p 2 = − M −1K s p1 − M −1Ep 2 + M −1v (t )
(3.3.20)
and from (3.3.14),
Putting (3.3.19) and (3.3.20) in the matrix form, p = Ap p(t ) + Bp v (t )
(3.3.21)
where ⎡p ⎤ p = ⎢ 1⎥ ; ⎣p 2 ⎦
⎡ 0 Ap = ⎢ −1 ⎣− M Ks
I ⎤ ⎥; − M −1E ⎦
⎡ 0 ⎤ Bp = ⎢ −1 ⎥ ⎣M ⎦
(3.3.22a,b,c)
Expressing (3.3.14) in the matrix fraction description (MFD) form, q(s ) = N (s ) D −1 (s )v (s )
(3.3.23)
where N (s ) = I
and
D (s ) = ( Ms 2 + Es + K s )
(3.3.24a,b)
Here, ⎡s 2 ⎢ D (s ) = Dhc ⎢ 0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 s2 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ + Dc Ψ (s ) s 2 ⎥⎦
(3.3.25)
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where Dhc = M
(3.3.26)
Dc = ⎡ 4 cz ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0
4 kz 0 0
0 4 cx −4 z cx
0 4 kx −4 z k x
0 −4 z cx 4 (cz 2x + cx 2z )
⎤ 0 ⎥ −4 z k x ⎥ 4 ( kz 2x + k x 2z )⎥⎦
(3.3.27)
and ⎡s ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢0 Ψ(s ) = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ s⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
0 0 s 1 0 0
(3.3.28)
Let the desired characteristic polynomial for the closedloop system be α(s ) = s 6 + β1s 5 + β2 s 4 + β3 s 3 + β 4 s 2 + β5 s + β6
(3.3.29)
Here, k1 = k2 = k3 = 2 . Therefore, Equation 3.3.29 should be expressed as α(s ) = s 6 + s 4 α1 (s ) + s 2 α 2 (s ) + α 3 (s )
(3.3.30)
where α1 (s ) = β1s + β2 ,
α 2 (s ) = β3 s + β 4 ,
and
α 3 (s ) = β5 s + β6
(3.3.31)
It can be easily veriﬁed that ⎡ 2 ⎢s + α1 (s ) ⎢ α(s ) = det ⎢ − γ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
α 2 (s ) γ s2 −λ
α 3 (s ) ⎤ γλ ⎥⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ s2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦
(3.3.32)
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105
where γ and λ are any arbitrary real numbers. Factoring out Ψ(s ) on both sides of Equation 3.2.15, K= ⎡β1 ⎢ Dhc ⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0
β2 −γ 0
β3 / γ 0 0
β4 / γ 0 −λ
β5 / ( γλ ) 0 0
β6 / ( γλ )⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − Dc 0 ⎥⎦
(3.3.33)
This result clearly indicates the gain matrix K is not unique because γ and λ can be chosen arbitrarily. Furthermore, this gain matrix is associated with the controller form state space realization (Chapter 2, Section 2.13), which is developed below. Following deﬁnitions (2.13.16) and (2.13.17), ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢0 Ac0 = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥, 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 Bc0 = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(3.3.34)
Therefore, −1 Ac = Ac0 − Bc0 Dhc Dlc =
⎡ 4 cz ⎢ ⎢ m ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
4 kz m 0
0
0
0
0 4 cx m 1
0
0
4 kx m 0
−4 z cx m 0
0
−4 z cx I yy
−4 z k x I yy
4 (cz 2x + cx 2z ) I yy
0
0
0
1
0 0
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ −4 z k x ⎥ m ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 2 2 4 ( kz x + k x z ) ⎥ ⎥ I yy ⎥ ⎥⎦ 0 0
(3.3.35)
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⎡1 / m ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 −1 Bc = Bc0 Dhc =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0
0 0 1/ m 0 0 0
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ 1 / I yy ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(3.3.36)
The state equations are x = Ac x (t ) + Bc u(t )
(3.3.37)
u(t ) = − Kx (t )
(3.3.38)
with the control law
where K is given by Equation 3.3.33. The control law is not directly implementable because sensors provide the states p(t), not x(t). Therefore, to implement this controller, it is necessary to ﬁnd the similarity transformation that will convert the state space realization (3.3.21) to the state space realization (3.3.37). This is where the similarity transformation (2.13.46) can be used for parameter values as follows. z = 0.11 m, kz = 17500 N/m, c z = 0.002 kz x = 0.08 m, k x = 8750 N/m, c x = 0.002 k x m = 10 kg, I yy = 0.0487 kgmm Then ⎡ −14 ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 Ac = ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
700 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 −7 1 158.11 0
0 0 −350 0 79055.44 0
0 0 0.77 0 −35.79 1
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 385 ⎥ 0 ⎥ −17895.277 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(3.3.39)
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107
Deﬁne p(t ) = Tz (t )
(3.3.40)
where the similarity transformation matrix T is deﬁned by Equation 2.13.46. Substituting (3.3.40) into (3.3.21), z = Acc z (t ) + Bcc v (t )
(3.3.41)
where Acc = T −1ApT = ⎡−14 ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0
700 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 −7 1 0.77 0
0 0 −350 0 385 0
0 0 158.11 0 −35.79 1
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ 79055.44 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −17895.277⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(3.3.42)
and Bcc = T −1Bp = Bc0
(3.3.43)
It is seen that structures of Acc and Bcc are similar to those of Ac and Bc , respectively. Using (2.13.21) and (2.3.22), new Dhc = Dhcc and new Dc = Dcc are obtained as follows: Dhcc = I 6
(3.3.44)
and ⎡14 ⎢ Dcc = ⎢ 0 ⎢0 ⎣
−700 0 0
0 7 −0.77
0 350 −385
0 −158.11 35.79
⎤ 0 ⎥ −79055.44 ⎥ (3.3.45) 17895.277 ⎥⎦
Now, formulae (3.2.15) and (3.3.11) should be used with these new Dhc = Dhcc and new Dc = Dcc. A Matlab code 3.1 is attached to do the following:
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1. Locate the eigenvalues of the closedloop system, μ i , such that the damping factor of each vibratory mode is ﬁve times the corresponding value of the openloop system, and undamped natural frequencies remain unchanged. 2. Locate the eigenvalues of the closedloop system as described in part (1), and eigenvectors as: ⎡ μ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎢0⎥ f1 = ⎢ ⎥ ; ⎢0⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡μ 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎢0⎥ f2 = ⎢ ⎥ ; ⎢0⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢μ ⎥ f3 = ⎢ 3 ⎥ ; ⎢1⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢μ ⎥ f4 = ⎢ 4 ⎥ ; ⎢1⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢0⎥ f5 = ⎢ ⎥ ; ⎢0⎥ ⎢μ ⎥ ⎢ 5⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 ⎥⎦
⎡0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢0⎥ f6 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢μ ⎥ ⎢ 6⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 ⎥⎦
(3.3.46)
It should be noted the choice of eigenvectors (3.3.46) satisﬁes the required constraints. MATLAB PROGRAM 3.1: FULL STATE FEEDBACK CONTROL NAVIGATION OR GYRO BOX % clear all close all % lz=0.11; m=10; kz=17500; Iyy=0.0487; lx=0.08; kx=8750; %
OF
ELECTRONICS
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M=diag([m m Iyy]); Ks=[4*kz 0 0;0 4*kx 4*lz*kx;0, 4*lz*kx 4*((kx*lz*lz)+(kz*lx*lx))]; E=0.002*Ks; Bf=[1 0 1;0 1 0;lx lz lz]; % Ac0=zeros(6,6); Ac0(2,1)=1.; Ac0(4,3)=1; Ac0(6,5)=1; % Bc0=zeros(6,3); Bc0(1,1)=1; Bc0(3,2)=1; Bc0(5,3)=1; % Dhc=M; Dlc=[E(1,1) Ks(1,1) 0 0 0 0;0 0 E(2,2) Ks(2,2) E(2,3) Ks(2,3);0 0 E(3,2) Ks(3,2) E(3,3) Ks(3,3)]; Ac=Ac0Bc0*inv(Dhc)*Dlc; Bc=Bc0*inv(Dhc); % Ap=[0*eye(3) eye(3);inv(M)*Ks inv(M)*E]; eigop=eig(Ap); Bp=[0*eye(3);inv(M)]; CI=[Bp Ap*Bp]; %Soloution of Eq. (2.13.39) Coeff=inv(CI)*Ap*Ap*Bp; Beta=Coeff(4:6,:); % %Similarity Transformation Matrix T, Eq. (2.13.46)
109
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for i=1:3 T(:,2*i1)=Bp(:,i); T(:,2*i)=Ap*Bp(:,i)Bp*Beta(:,i); end % Acc=inv(T)*Ap*T; Bcc=inv(T)*Bp; % %New Dhc=Dhcc and New Dlc=Dlcc % Accd=AccAc0; Dhcc=eye(3); Dlcc=[Accd(1,:);Accd(3,:);Accd(5,:)]; % %Find ClosedLoop Eigenvalues % im=sqrt(1); for i=1:6 rp=real(eigop(i)); if (imag(eigop(i))<0.)imm=im; end if (imag(eigop(i))>0.)imm=im; end %Open Loop Frequencies and Damping Factors ogg(i)=abs(eigop(i)); zeta(i)=rp/ogg(i); %Closed Loop Damping Factor=5* Open Loop Damping Factor zetacl(i)=5*zeta(i);
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%Desired Closed Loop Eigenvalues mu(i)=zetacl(i)*ogg(i)+imm*ogg(i)*sqrt(1.zetacl(i)^2); end % % Desired ClosedLoop Characteristic Polynomial % chcl=poly(mu); % %Nonunique State Feedback Gain Matrix KU for %Specified Eigenvalues %gamma and lambda can be chosen arbitrarily. % gamma=10; lambda=1000; % ve1=[chcl(2) chcl(3)]; ve2=[chcl(4) chcl(5)]/gamma; ve3=[chcl(6) chcl(7)]/(gamma*lambda); % mave=[ve1 ve2 ve3;0 gamma 0 0 0 0;0 0 0 lambda 0 0]; % KU=Dhcc*maveDlcc; % % Unique State Feedback Gain Matrix KK for Specified %Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors %Choose eigenvectors appropriately ff(:,1)=[mu(1) 1 0 0 0 0].'; ff(:,2)=[mu(2) 1 0 0 0 0].'; ff(:,3)=[0 0 mu(3) 1 0 0].';
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ff(:,4)=[0 0 mu(4) 1 0 0].'; ff(:,5)=[0 0 0 0 mu(5) 1].'; ff(:,6)=[0 0 0 0 mu(6) 1].'; % for i=1:6 psi=[mu(i) 1 0 0 0 0;0 0 mu(i) 1 0 0;0 0 0 0 mu(i) 1].'; DD=Dhcc*(mu(i)^2)+Dlcc*psi; pp=inv(psi.'*psi)*psi.'*ff(:,i); %Equation (3.3.9) gg(:,i)=DD*pp; end % %Solution of Eq. (3.3.11) % KK=gg*inv(ff);
3.4 FUNDAMENTALS OF OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY Consider a general dynamic system of order n, dx = f ( x (t ), u(t )); dt
x (0 ) = x 0
(3.4.1)
where x(t ) and u(t ) are ndimensional state and mdimensional input vectors, respectively. The objective is to determine u(t ); 0 ≤ t ≤ tf , such that the following objective function (Ray, 1981) is minimized or maximized: tf
I (u(t )) = G ( x (t f )) +
∫ F (x, u)dt
(3.4.2)
0
Note that state equations serve as constraints for the optimization of I. In addition, constraints on the input of the following types will be considered:
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ui* ≤ ui ≤ ui*
3.4.1 NECESSARY CONDITIONS
FOR
(3.4.3)
OPTIMALITY
Let u o (t ) be a candidate for the optimal input vector, and let the corresponding state vector be x o (t ) , i.e., dx 0 (t ) = f ( x o (t ), u o (t )) dt
(3.4.4)
In order to see whether u o (t ) is indeed an optimal solution, this candidate optimal input is perturbed (Ray, 1981) by a small amount δu(t ) ; i.e., u(t ) = u o (t ) + δu(t )
(3.4.5)
The change in the value of the objective function can be written as δI = I (uo (t ) + δu(t )) − I (uo (t )) ⎛ ∂G ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ δx(t f ) + ⎝ ∂x ⎠
tf
∫ 0
(3.4.6) ⎤ ⎡ ⎡⎛ ∂F ⎞ ⎛ ∂G ⎞ ⎛ ∂F ⎞ ⎤ t t dt + F t + δ x δ u ( ) f( ) δ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ f ⎥ f ⎢ f ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂u ⎠ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣⎝ ∂x ⎠
If the solution of (3.4.1) with u(t ) given by (3.4.5) is x o (t ) + δx (t ), d (x o (t ) + δx(t )) = f (x o (t ) + δx(t ), uo (t ) + δu(t )) dt
(3.4.7)
Linearizing (3.4.7), d (δx ) ∂f ∂f = ( )δx (t ) + ( )δu(t ) dt ∂x ∂u
(3.4.8)
Multiplying Equation 3.4.8 by λ T (t ) and integrating from 0 to t f , tf
∫ 0
λ T (t )
d (δx ) dt − dt
tf
⎡⎛
⎞
⎛
⎞
⎤
∫ λ (t )⎢⎣⎜⎝ ∂∂xf ⎟⎠ δx(t ) + ⎜⎝ ∂∂uf ⎟⎠ δu(t )⎥⎦ dt = 0 T
(3.4.9)
0
where λ (t ) is an ndimensional vector. Adding (3.4.9) to (3.4.6) and evaluating the ﬁrst integral in (3.4.9) by parts (Ray, 1981),
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⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡⎛ ∂G ⎞ ⎛ ∂G ⎞ δI = ⎢F (t f ) + ⎜ ⎟ f (t f )⎥ δt f + λ T (0 )δx(0)) + ⎢⎜ ⎟ − λ T (t f )⎥ δx(t f ) ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣⎝ ∂x ⎠ tf
+
∫ 0
⎡⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎛ ∂H ⎞ dλT ⎤ δx⎥dt ⎟ δx + ⎜ ⎟ δu(t ) + ⎢⎜ ⎝ ∂u ⎠ dt ⎦ ⎣⎝ ∂x ⎠
(3.4.10)
where the function H is known as Hamiltonian, deﬁned as follows: H = F (x, u) + λ T (t )f (x, u)
(3.4.11)
Because λ (t ) is arbitrary, it is chosen to satisfy ⎛ ∂H ⎞ dλT = −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ dt
(3.4.12)
Terms outside the integral in (3.4.10) are known as boundary conditions terms, which are removed for the speciﬁed problem. For example, if t f and x(0 ) are speciﬁed, δt f = 0 and δx(0 ) = 0 , and the third outside term in (3.4.10) vanishes under the following condition: ⎛ ∂G ⎞ λ T (t f ) = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ t =t f
(3.4.13)
Hence, the Equation 3.4.10 can be written as tf
δI =
⎛
⎞
∫ ⎜⎝ ∂∂Hu ⎟⎠ δudt
(3.4.14)
0
Minimization of I If u o (t ) is an optimal solution, δI ≥ 0
for any perturbation δu(t )
(3.4.15)
Case I: No Constraint on Input For condition (3.4.15) to be true, ⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎜ ⎟=0 ⎝ ∂u ⎠
for every t
This is the necessary condition for optimality.
(3.4.16)
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115
Case II: With Constraints (3.4.3) on Inputs In view of the condition (3.4.15), If uio = ui* ,
⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎜ ⎟≤0 ⎝ ∂ui ⎠
(3.4.17)
If uio = ui*,
⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎜ ⎟≥0 ⎝ ∂ui ⎠
(3.4.18)
Maximization of I If u o (t ) is an optimal solution, δI ≤ 0
for any perturbation δu(t )
(3.4.19)
Case I: No Constraint on Input For condition (3.4.19) to be true, ⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0 for every t ⎝ ∂u ⎠
(3.4.20)
This is the necessary condition for optimality and is identical to Equation 3.4.16. Case II: With Constraints (3.4.3) on Inputs In view of the condition (3.4.19), If uio = ui*,
⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎟≥0 ⎜ ⎝ ∂ui ⎠
(3.4.21)
If uio = ui* ,
⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎜ ⎟≤0 ⎝ ∂ui ⎠
(3.4.22)
3.4.2 PROPERTIES OF HAMILTONIAN FOR AN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM For an autonomous system, the function f is not an explicit function of time. Therefore, from Equation 3.4.11, dH ∂H dx ∂H du ∂H d λ = + + dt ∂x dt ∂u dt ∂λ dt But
(3.4.23)
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∂H = fT ∂λ
(3.4.24)
Substituting (3.4.1) and (3.4.12) into (3.4.23), dH ∂H du = dt ∂u dt
(3.4.25)
∂H = 0 . When there are constraints, inputs ∂u can be either maximum or minimum constant values according to Equation 3.14.17 and Equation 3.4.18 or Equation 3.14.21 and Equation 3.4.22, respectively. In this Without any constraints on inputs,
case,
du = 0 . Therefore, for optimal inputs, dt dH =0 dt
(3.4.26)
In other words, Hamiltonian H is a constant along an optimal trajectory for an autonomous system. Special Case Final time t f not speciﬁed; i.e., δt f ≠ 0 . In this case, to remove the corresponding boundary condition term in Equation 3.4.10, ⎛ ∂G ⎞ F (t f ) + ⎜ ⎟ f (t f ) = 0 ⎝ ∂x ⎠
(3.4.27)
When ﬁnal conditions on states are not speciﬁed, the condition (3.4.13) holds, and Equation 3.4.27 reduces to H (t f ) = F (t f ) + λ T (t f )f (t f ) = 0
(3.4.28)
The condition (3.4.28) is valid even when some or all states are speciﬁed at the ﬁnal time. For example, consider that all states are speciﬁed at the ﬁnal time. In this case, with the ﬁrstorder term in the Taylor series expansion (Ray, 1981), x o (t f ) = x (t f + δt f ) = x (t f ) + x (t f )δt f or
(3.4.29)
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δx (t f ) = x (t f ) − x o (t f ) = −f (t f )δt f
(3.4.30)
It is interesting to note that δx(t f ) ≠ 0 . Substituting Equation 3.4.30 into (3.4.10) and using (3.4.12), tf
δI = [ F (t f ) + λ (t f )f (t f )]δt f + λ (0 )δx(0 ) + + T
T
⎛
⎞
∫ ⎜⎝ ∂∂Hu ⎟⎠ δu(t )dt
(3.4.31)
0
Therefore, the condition (3.4.28) is again needed to remove boundary condition terms. In summary, H (t f ) = 0 when t f is not speciﬁed. Because H is a constant, it is concluded that H(t) = 0 along an optimal trajectory for an autonomous system when t f is not speciﬁed. EXAMPLE 3.7: TRAVEL OVER MAXIMUM DISTANCE CONSTRAINT ON FINAL VELOCITY
IN
SPECIFIED TIME
WITHOUT
Consider the simple mass m, which is subjected to force f (t ) . The differential equation of motion is x = u
(3.4.32)
where u (t ) =
f (t ) m
(3.4.33)
Find the optimal control input u (t ) , such that the vehicle covers the maximum distance (Biegler, 1982) in a ﬁxed time t f , subject to the following constraints: a ≤ u (t ) ≤ b
(3.4.34)
Without any loss of generality take x(0 ) = 0 . Assume that the vehicle starts from rest; i.e., 0) = 0 x(
(3.4.35)
Solution Deﬁne the following state variables: x1 = x
and
x2 = x
(3.4.36)
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Hence, state equations are ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ x2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥= ⎢ ⎥ =f ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ u ⎦
(3.4.37)
The objective in this problem is to maximize I = x1 (t f )
(3.4.38)
Therefore, G = x1 (t )
and
F =0
(3.4.39)
The Hamiltonian H for this problem is H = F + λ T f = [ λ1
⎡ x2 ⎤ λ 2 ] ⎢ ⎥ = λ1 x 2 + λ 2 u ⎣u⎦
(3.4.40)
Adjoint equations are d λ1 ∂H =− =0 dt ∂x1
(3.4.41)
d λ2 ∂H =− = − λ1 dt ∂x2
(3.4.42)
Then, conditions on state variables are as follows: x1 (0 ) = 0 ⇒ δx1 (0 ) = 0
(3.4.43a)
x2 (0 ) = 0 ⇒ δx2 (0 ) = 0
(3.4.43b)
x1 (t f )unspecified ⇒ δx1 (t f ) ≠ 0
(3.4.43c)
x2 (t f )unspecified ⇒ δx2 (t f ) ≠ 0
(3.4.44d)
Also, because the ﬁnal time t f is ﬁxed,
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δt f = 0
(3.4.45)
For the boundary condition terms to be zero, ⎛ ∂G ⎞ λ T (t f ) = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∂x ⎠t =t f
(3.4.46)
⎛ ∂G ⎞ λ1 (t f ) = ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⎝ ∂x1 ⎠t =t f
(3.4.47a)
⎛ ∂G ⎞ λ 2 (t f ) = ⎜ ⎟ =0 ⎝ ∂x2 ⎠t =t f
(3.4.47b)
Therefore,
Solutions of adjoint equations are λ1 (t ) = c
and
λ 2 (t ) = −ct + d
(3.4.48a,b)
where c and d are constants. To satisfy the ﬁnal conditions, c =1
d = tf
and
(3.4.49a,b)
In other words, λ1 (t ) = 1
and
λ 2 (t ) = −t + t f
(3.4.50a,b)
Optimality condition: ∂H = λ2 ∂u
(3.4.51)
∂H ∂H is not equal to zero for a ﬁnite time interval. = λ 2 is plotted in Figure 3.6. ∂u ∂u This implies that the optimal u cannot take any intermediate value between a and b. Furthermore, control input is
∂H > 0 for 0 ≤ t < tf . Equation 3.4.21 implies that the optimal ∂u
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H u
tf
0
FIGURE 3.6
tf
t
∂H = λ 2 vs. time t. ∂u
u=b
for 0 ≤ t ≤ t f
(3.4.52)
The optimal strategy is the maximum acceleration, which is employed by a rider out of common sense, when the objective is to cover the maximum distance in a ﬁxed time, without any constraint on the vehicle velocity at the ﬁnal time. Now, the optimal state trajectory can be easily obtained by solving the state equations with given initial conditions: x2 (t ) = bt
and
x1 (t ) =
1 2 bt 2
(3.4.53)
1 Therefore, the maximum value of the objective function I is bt 2f . Along the 2 optimal trajectory, H = bt + (t f − t )b = bt f
(3.4.54)
As expected, the Hamiltonian H is a constant along the optimal trajectory. EXAMPLE 3.8: TRAVEL OVER MAXIMUM DISTANCE IN SPECIFIED TIME CONSTRAINT THAT FINAL VELOCITY IS EQUAL TO ZERO.
WITH
Consider the system, which is same as that in Example 3.7. Find the optimal control input u (t ) such that the vehicle covers the maximum distance in a ﬁxed time t f and ends at rest (Biegler, 1982) subject to the following constraints: a ≤ u (t ) ≤ b
(3.4.55)
Here, it is also given that a < 0 and b > 0. Solution Deﬁne the following state variables: x1 = x
and
x2 = x
(3.4.56)
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Hence, state equations are ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ x2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥= ⎢ ⎥ =f ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ u ⎦
(3.4.57)
The objective in this problem is to maximize I = x1 (t f )
(3.4.58)
Therefore, G = x1 (t )
and
F =0
(3.4.59a,b)
The Hamiltonian H for this problem is H = F + λ T f = [ λ1
⎡ x2 ⎤ λ 2 ] ⎢ ⎥ = λ1 x 2 + λ 2 u ⎣u⎦
(3.4.60)
Adjoint equations are ∂H d λ1 =− =0 ∂x1 dt
(3.4.61)
∂H d λ2 =− = − λ1 ∂x2 dt
(3.4.62)
Then, conditions on state variables are as follows: x1 (0 ) = 0 ⇒ δx1 (0 ) = 0
(3.4.63a)
x2 (0 ) = 0 ⇒ δx2 (0 ) = 0
(3.4.63b)
x1 (t f )unspecified ⇒ δx1 (t f ) ≠ 0
(3.4.63c)
x2 (t f ) = 0 ⇒ δx2 (t f ) = 0
(3.4.63d)
Also, because the ﬁnal time t f is ﬁxed,
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δt f = 0
(3.4.64)
Now, consider the following boundary condition term: ⎤ ⎡⎛ ∂G ⎞ T ⎢⎜ ⎟ − λ (t f )⎥ δx(t f ) = ⎦ ⎣⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎡⎛ ∂G ⎞ ⎤ ⎡⎛ ∂G ⎞ ⎤ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − λ1 (t f )⎥ δx1 (t f ) + ⎢⎜ ⎟ − λ 2 (t f )⎥ δx2 (t f ) ⎣⎝ ∂x1 ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝ ∂x2 ⎠ ⎦
(3.4.65)
Because δx2 (t f ) = 0 , ⎡⎛ ∂G ⎞ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡⎛ ∂G ⎞ T ⎢⎜ ⎟ − λ (t f )⎥ δx(t f ) = ⎢⎜ ⎟ − λ1 (t f )⎥ δx1 (t f ) ⎦ ⎣⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎣⎝ ∂x1 ⎠ ⎦
(3.4.66)
Hence, for all boundary condition terms to be zero, ⎛ ∂G ⎞ λ1 (t f ) = ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⎝ ∂x1 ⎠t =t f
(3.4.67)
Solutions of adjoint equations are λ1 (t ) = c
and
λ 2 (t ) = −ct + d
(3.4.68)
where c and d are constants. To satisfy the ﬁnal condition, c =1
(3.4.69)
In other words, λ1 (t ) = 1
and
λ 2 (t ) = −t + d
(3.4.70a,b)
Optimality condition: ∂H = λ 2 = −t + d ∂u
(3.4.71)
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123
2
d
0
d
0
0
tf
d
t
0
∂H = λ 2 vs. time t. FIGURE 3.7 ∂u
The value of d is not known. Any of these three possibilities exists: d < 0, d = 0, or d > 0.
∂H = λ 2 is plotted in Figure 3.7 for all these possibilities. The ﬁrst thing to ∂u
∂H is not equal to zero for a ﬁnite time interval. This implies that the ∂u optimal u(t) cannot take any intermediate value between a and b. Secondly, d < 0 and d = 0 are ruled out because they will lead to u(t) = a < 0 (Equation 3.4.22). Hence, d > 0 and the optimal control input is note is that
⎧b u (t ) = ⎨ ⎪⎩ a
for for
t ≤ ts t > ts
(3.4.72)
where ts is the switching instant, which is, when λ 2 (t ) changes sign in Figure 3.7, d > 0 . Solving the second state equation, x2 (ts ) = bts
and
x2 (t f ) = bts + a (t f − ts )
(3.4.73)
−a tf b−a
(3.4.74)
For x2 (t f ) = 0 , ts =
3.5 LINEAR QUADRATIC REGULATOR (LQR) PROBLEM Consider the linear system dx = Ax (t ) + Bu(t ); dt
x (0 ) = x 0
(3.5.1)
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The objective is to drive the state vector x(t ) to the origin of the state space (zero state vector) from any nonzero initial values of states. If a state feedback control law is used, x(t ) will quickly die out provided closedloop poles are located far inside the left half of the splane. However, elements of the feedback gain vector can be large in magnitudes and the control cost can be high. On the other hand, if closedloop poles are located close to the openloop poles, there will not be much increase in the rate of decay of x(t ) and a relatively small amount of control action will be required. Hence, the location of closedloop poles is a tradeoff between the rate of decay of x(t ) and the magnitude of control input. To make this tradeoff, the following objective function is chosen: tf
∫
1 1 I = x T (t f ) S f x (t f ) + [ x T (t )Qx (t ) + u T (t ) Ru(t )]dt 2 2
(3.5.2)
0
where the ﬁnal time t f is ﬁxed. Without any loss of generality, matrices S f , Q , and R are chosen to be symmetric (Appendix B). In addition, S f and Q are chosen to be positive semideﬁnite, and R to be positive deﬁnite. Symbolically, these are expressed as S f = S Tf ≥ 0 ,
Q = QT ≥ 0 ,
and
R = RT > 0
Problem Find u(t ); 0 ≤ t ≤ t f , such that the objective function (3.5.2) is minimized.
3.5.1 SOLUTION (OPENLOOP OPTIMAL CONTROL) For this optimal control problem, the Hamiltonian (3.4.11) is H=
1 T (x (t )Qx(t ) + uT (t )Ru(t )) + λ T (t )( Ax(t ) + Bu(t )) 2
(3.5.3)
The necessary condition (3.4.16) for optimality yields ∂H = Ru(t ) + BT λ (t ) = 0 ∂u or u(t ) = − R−1BT λ (t )
(3.5.4)
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The dynamics of λ(t ) is given by Equation 3.4.12 with ﬁnal conditions (3.4.13). Hence, dλ = −Qx(t ) − AT λ (t ); dt
λ (t f ) = S f x(t f )
(3.5.5)
Equation 3.5.1 and Equation 3.5.5 represent a twopoint boundary value problem (TPBVP) which can be solved to ﬁnd λ (t ) and x(t ). Putting (3.5.1) and (3.5.5) in the matrix form, ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡x⎤ ⎢ ⎥= M ⎢ ⎥ ⎣λ ⎦ ⎣λ ⎦
(3.5.6)
where ⎡ A M=⎢ ⎣ −Q
− BR −1BT ⎤ ⎥ − AT ⎦
(3.5.7)
Solving (3.5.6), ⎡ x(t )⎤ Mt ⎡ x(0 )⎤ ⎢ ⎥= e ⎢ ⎥ ⎣λ (t )⎦ ⎣λ (0 )⎦
(3.5.8)
To determine λ (0 ) , the matrix e Mt is partitioned as follows: ⎡ Ε (t ) e Mt = ⎢ 11 ⎣Ε 21 (t )
Ε11 (t ) ⎤ ⎥ Ε 22 (t ) ⎦
(3.5.9)
From (3.5.8) and (3.5.9), x (t ) = Ε11 (t ) x (0 ) + Ε12 (t )λ(0 )
(3.5.10)
λ(t ) = Ε 21 (t ) x (0 ) + Ε 22 (t )λ(0 )
(3.5.11)
Imposing the condition λ (t f ) = S f x(t f ) , Ε 21 (t f )x(0 ) + Ε 22 (t f )λ (0 ) = S f [Ε11 (t f )x(0 ) + Ε12 (t f )λ (0 )]
(3.5.12)
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From (3.5.12), λ (0 ) = [Ε 22 (t f ) − S f Ε12 (t f )]−1[ S f Ε11 (t f ) − Ε 21 (t f )]x(0 )
(3.5.13)
Substituting this λ (0 ) into (3.5.8), λ (t ) is obtained. Then, the optimal u(t ) is found from (3.5.4). However, this TPBVP must be solved again if initial conditions change. Furthermore, the control inputs are implementable in an openloop fashion only, as they are not in the forms of functions of states.
3.5.2 SOLUTION (CLOSEDLOOP OPTIMAL CONTROL) Use the following transformation (Ray, 1981): λ (t ) = S (t )x(t )
(3.5.14)
where S (t ) is a symmetric n × n matrix. Substituting (3.5.14) into (3.5.5), dS dx x (t ) + S (t ) = −Qx (t ) − AT S (t ) x (t ) dt dt
(3.5.15)
⎛ dS −1 T T ⎞ ⎜ + SA − SBR B S + Q + A S ⎟ x(t ) = 0 ⎝ dt ⎠
(3.5.16)
Using (3.5.1),
Because Equation 3.5.16 is true for all x(t ) , dS + SA − SBR −1BT S + Q + AT S = 0 dt
(3.5.17)
Equation 3.4.13 and Equation 3.5.14 yield S (t f ) = S f
(3.5.17b)
Equation 3.5.17 is known as the Riccati equation. This nonlinear differential equation can be numerically solved backward in time to determine S (t ). From (3.5.4) and (3.5.14), u(t ) = − K (t ) x (t ) where
(3.5.18)
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K (t ) = R −1BT S (t )
127
(3.5.19)
The structure of (3.5.18) indicates that the K (t ) is the optimal state feedback gain matrix. Because the solution of S (t ) does not depend on system states, this gain is optimal for all initial conditions on states.
3.5.3 CROSS TERM
IN THE
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Consider a more general form of the quadratic objective function (Anderson and Moore, 1990): tf
I=
∫
1 T 1 x (t f ) S f x (t f ) + [ x T (t )Qx (t ) + u T (t ) Ru(t ) + 2x T (t ) Nu(t )]dt 2 2
(3.5.20)
0
It can be seen that x T (t )Qx (t ) + 2 x T (t ) Nu(t ) + u T (t ) Ru(t ) = x T (t )Qm x (t ) + v T (t ) Rv (t ) (3.5.21) where Qm = Q − NR −1N T
(3.5.22)
v (t ) = u(t ) + R −1N T x (t )
(3.5.23)
and
Equation 3.5.21 can be proved by simply multiplying out the terms on the righthand side. Hence, Equation 3.5.20 can be rewritten as tf
∫
1 1 I = x T (t f ) S f x (t f ) + [ x T (t )Qm x (t ) + v T (t ) Rv (t )]dt 2 2
(3.5.24)
0
and the plant equation (3.5.1) is modiﬁed with Equation 3.5.23: x = Am x (t ) + Bv (t ) where
(3.5.25)
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Am = A − BR −1N T
(3.5.26)
Assuming that Qm ≥ 0 , Equation 3.5.24 and Equation 3.5.25 constitute a standard LQ problem for which the optimal state feedback control law is v (t ) = − R −1BT Sm (t ) x (t )
(3.5.27)
where Sm = − Sm Am − AmT Sm + Sm BR −1BT Sm − Qm;
Sm (t f ) = S f
(3.5.28)
From (3.5.23) and (3.5.27), u(t ) = − K m (t ) x (t )
(3.5.29)
where the optimal state feedback gain matrix is given by K m (t ) = R −1 ( BT Sm (t ) + N T ) EXAMPLE 3.9: MINIMUM ENERGY CONTROL
OF A
(3.5.30)
DC MOTOR
Consider the position controller shown in Figure 3.8. The actuator is an armaturecontrolled DC motor (Kuo, 1995). The torque produced by the motor Tm (t ) is proportional to the armature current ia (t ) ; i.e., Tm (t ) = ki ia (t )
(3.5.31)
Let the back emf developed across the armature be eb (t ) , i.e., eb (t ) = kb θ m (t )
(3.5.32)
where kb is the back emf constant and θm (t ) is the angular position of the rotor. Applying Kirchoff’s law to the armature, u (t ) = Ra ia (t ) + eb (t )
(3.5.33)
where u (t ) is the input voltage and Ra (t ) is the armature resistance. The inductance of the armature windings has been neglected.
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129
Ra o ia u (t )
eb
Tm m
o
FIGURE 3.8 An armaturecontrolled DC motor.
Applying Newton’s second law, + B θ = T (t ) Jm θ m m m m
(3.5.34)
where Jm and Bm are mass moment of inertia and equivalent viscous damping, respectively. From (3.5.31) to (3.5.33), ki kk u (t ) − i b θ m Ra Ra
Tm (t ) =
(3.5.35)
From (3.5.34) and (3.5.35), + αθ = βu (t ) θ m m
(3.5.36)
where α=
Bm kk + i b J m Ra J m
(3.5.37)
ki Ra J m
(3.5.38)
and β= From (3.5.36), state equations are x = Ax (t ) + bu (t ) where
(3.5.39)
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⎡θ (t ) ⎤ x(t ) = ⎢ m ⎥ ; ⎣θm (t ) ⎦
⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣0
1 ⎤ ⎥; −α ⎦
⎡0 ⎤ b=⎢ ⎥ ⎣β ⎦
(3.5.40)
Let us deﬁne an optimal control problem: Find the input u(t), 0 ≤ t ≤ t f , such that the energy consumed by the DC motor is minimized over a ﬁxed ﬁnal time t f , with the following initial and ﬁnal conditions on the states: ⎡0 ⎤ x(0 ) = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 ⎦
⎡θ f x(t f ) = ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
and
⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦
(3.5.41)
The energy consumed by the DC motor over a ﬁxed ﬁnal time t f is given by the following integral: tf
tf
∫ T (t)dθ = ∫ T θ dt
Id =
m m
(3.5.42)
(ux2 −kb x22 ) dt
(3.5.43)
m
m
t =0
0
Using (3.5.35), (3.5.40), and (3.5.42) tf
Id =
∫R
ki
0
a
To satisfy the requirements for the existence of solution to the LQ control, the objective function (3.5.43) is modiﬁed to be tf
I=
∫R
ki
0
(ux2 −kb x22 ) + γx22 + ρu 2 dt ;
γ >0
and
ρ>0
(3.5.44)
a
Hence, with respect to the deﬁnition (3.5.20), tf
1 I= 2 ⎡0 Q = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣
∫ x Qx + 2 x Nu + u Rudt T
T
T
(3.5.45)
0
⎤ ⎥; kk 2(ρ − i b ) ⎥ Ra ⎥⎦ 0
⎡ 0 N = ⎢⎢ ki ⎢⎣ Ra
⎤ ⎥; ⎥ ⎥⎦
R = 2ρ
(3.5.46)
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and ⎤ ⎥ 2k k k (2 γ − i b − )⎥ Ra 2 R ρ ⎥⎦
⎡0 ⎢ Qm = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣
0
2 i 2 a
(3.5.47)
For Qm ≥ 0 , ρ and γ must be chosen to satisfy 2γ −
2 ki kb k2 − i2 ≥ 0 Ra 2 Ra ρ
(3.5.48)
In order to have ﬁnal conditions on states to be zero, the following transformation of the state vector is introduced: x (t ) = x (t ) − x (t f )
(3.5.49)
Then, x (0 ) = − x (t f )
and
x (t f ) = 0
(3.5.50a,b)
Substituting (3.5.49) into (3.5.39), and noting that Ax(t f ) = 0 , x = Ax (t ) + bu (t )
(3.5.51)
Because the objective function does not contain x1 and x2 = x2 , Equation 3.5.45 can be rewritten as tf
1 I= 2
∫ x Qx + 2 x Nu + u Rudt T
T
T
(3.5.52)
0
In the LQ control, there is no constraint on the ﬁnal conditions. Therefore, the objective function is modiﬁed to contain the ﬁnal state vector:
I=
where
1 T 1 x (t f )S f x (t f ) + 2 2
tf
∫ x Qx + 2x Nu + u Rudt T
0
T
T
(3.5.53)
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⎡a Sf = ⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥; b⎦
a > 0 and b > 0
(3.5.54)
Relaxing constraints on ﬁnal states, the LQ problem can be solved to minimize (3.5.53) for the linear system (3.5.51) with nonzero x (0 ) . By choosing a and b to be large numbers, x (t f ) can be forced to be close to zero.
3.5.4 IMPORTANT CASE: INFINITE FINAL TIME When the ﬁnal time t f → ∞ , the optimal gain K m (t ) or Sm (t ) turns out to be a constant (Kwakernaak and Sivan, 1972). The system of differential equations (3.5.28) reduces to a system of algebraic equations: Sm Am − Sm BR −1BT Sm + Qm + AmT Sm = 0
(3.5.55)
This is known as the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) and is probably one of the most commonly used equations in modern control theory. Since the matrix Sm is a constant, the feedback gain matrix also turns out to be a constant as follows: K o = R −1 ( BT Sm + N T )
(3.5.56)
Hence from (3.5.1) and (3.5.56), the closedloop system dynamics is represented by dx = ( A − BK o ) x (t ) dt
(3.5.57)
The eigenvalues of the matrix A − BK o are the optimal closedloop poles. In the next section, a method is described to determine these optimal closedloop poles ﬁrst via root locus plots. Then, the optimal feedback gain can be obtained via pole placement techniques. Because Qm ≥ 0 , there exists a matrix H known as the square root of Qm , such that Qm = ΗΗ T
(3.5.58)
If ( A, Η ) is observable, Sm is positive deﬁnite and is the only solution of ARE, Equation 3.5.55, with this property. Furthermore, the optimal closedloop system (3.5.57) is asymptotically stable (Anderson and Moore, 1990; Kailath, 1980). EXAMPLE 3.10: A FIRSTORDER SYSTEM Consider a ﬁrstorder system
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x = x + u
(3.5.59)
and the objective function tf
5 1 I = x 2 (t f ) + 2 2
∫ 2x
2
+ 3u 2 dt
(3.5.60)
0
Here, A = 1, b = 1, Q = 2, R = 3, S f = 5
(3.5.61)
Therefore, the Riccati equation becomes S2 S = −2 S + −2 ; 3
S (t f ) = 5
(3.5.62)
Nonlinear differential equation (3.5.62) has to be numerically solved backward in time to determine S(t) for 0 ≤ t ≤ t f . Matlab routine ODE23 or ODE45 can be used for this purpose. Then, the optimal control law will be
u (t ) = −
S (t ) x (t ) ; 3
0 ≤ t ≤ tf
(3.5.63)
If t f → ∞ , ARE becomes
0 = −2 S +
S2 −2 3
(3.5.64)
Solving (3.5.64), S = 3 ± 15
(3.5.65)
In order to have a stable closedloop system, a “+” sign must be chosen. The optimal state feedback law is u (t ) = − Kx (t ) where
(3.5.66)
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15 3
K = 1+
(3.5.67)
Substituting (3.5.66) into (3.5.59), the closedloop system dynamics is 15 x 3
x = −
(3.5.68)
which is stable. EXAMPLE 3.11: ACTIVE SUSPENSION (THOMSON, 1976)
WITH
OPTIMAL LINEAR STATE FEEDBACK
Differential equations of motion for the linear vehicle model shown in Figure 3.9 are m2 x2 = u
(3.5.69)
m1 x1 + λ1 ( x1 − x0 ) = −u
(3.5.70)
x1 = x3
(3.5.71)
x2 = x 4
(3.5.72)
Deﬁning x3 = x1 and x 4 = x2 ,
x2
Body m2 u(t ) Actuator
? u(t ) Wheel
x1
m1 Tire Road
FIGURE 3.9 A quarter car model.
1
x0
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λ1 u (t ) ( x1 − x0 ) − m1 m1
x3 = −
x 4 =
(3.5.73)
u (t ) m2
(3.5.74)
Assume that the road proﬁle is a step function. In this case, x0 is a constant, and a new set of state variables is deﬁned as xˆ1 = x1 − x0
(3.5.75)
xˆ2 = x2 − x0
(3.5.76)
xˆ3 = xˆ1 = x1
(3.5.77)
xˆ 4 = xˆ2 = x2
(3.5.75)
and the new set of state equations can be written as
⎡ xˆ1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ xˆ2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − λ1 ⎢ xˆ3 ⎥ ⎢ m1 ⎢ xˆ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 0
0 0
1 0
0
0
0
0
⎡ 0 ⎤ 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎡ xˆ1 ⎤ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎥ xˆ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ + ⎢− ⎥ u (t ) 0 ⎥ ⎢ xˆ3 ⎥ ⎢ m1 ⎥ ⎥⎢ˆ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢x ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢⎣ m2 ⎥⎦
(3.5.76)
The performance index is chosen as
I=
1 2
∞
∫ [ρu + q (x − x ) + q (x − x ) ]dt 2
2
1
0
1
2
2
1
2
(3.5.77)
0
Note the following: ( x0 − x1 ) : tire dynamic deﬂection
(3.5.78)
( x1 − x2 ): relative wheel travel
(3.5.79)
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Moreover, the actuator force u(t), which is proportional to the vertical acceleration of the body, is also a measure of the ride discomfort. Hence, the minimization of the objective function I will result in a tradeoff between the minimization of the actuator input or ride discomfort and minimization of the weighted sum of tire dynamic deﬂection and relative wheel travel. Weighting parameters are ρ , q1, and q2 . Because q1 ( x0 − x1 )2 + q2 ( x1 − x2 )2 = q1 xˆ12 + q2 ( xˆ1 − xˆ2 )2
(3.5.80)
= (q1 + q2 )xˆ12 + q2 xˆ22 − 2 q2 xˆ1 xˆ2 the objective function I can be expressed as
1 I= 2
∞
∫ [ρu
2
+ xˆ T Qxˆ ]dt
(3.5.81)
0
where ⎡q1 + q2 ⎢ −q2 Q=⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
−q2 q2 0 0
0 0 0 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
and
⎡ xˆ1 ⎤ ⎢ˆ ⎥ x xˆ = ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ xˆ3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ xˆ 4 ⎥⎦
(3.5.82a,b)
The optimal control law is u (t ) = −kxˆ = − ⎡⎣ k1
k2
k3
k4 ⎤⎦ xˆ = − k1 xˆ1 − k2 xˆ2 − k3 xˆ3 − k4 xˆ 4
(3.5.83)
where k = ρ−1b T S
(3.5.84)
SA + AT S − Sbρ−1b T S + Q = 0
(3.5.85)
and
Physical realization of the control law:
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x2
Body m2
Active Feedback x2
Passive Feedback
f (t ) x2 2
x0
2
f (t ) Wheel
x1
m1 Tire
1
Road
x0
FIGURE 3.10 Active or passive vehicle suspension system.
u (t ) = −k1 ( xˆ1 − xˆ2 ) − k3 ( xˆ 3 − xˆ 4 ) − ( k1 + k2 ) xˆ2 − ( k3 + k4 )xˆ 4 = u p + f (t )
(3.5.86)
where u p (t ) = λ 2 ( x1 − x2 ) + β2 ( x1 − x2 )
(3.5.87)
f (t ) = −( k1 + k2 )( x2 − x0 ) − ( k3 + k4 ) x2
(3.5.88)
and
The part of the control input u p (t ) has been applied by a spring and a damper that provide passive feedback of ( x1 − x2 ) and ( x1 − x2 ) (Figure 3.10). The remaining part f(t) is applied by active feedback via sensors to measure ( x2 − x0 ) and x2 , and an actuator to apply the force f(t). In the study by Thompson (1976), the relative distance ( x2 − x0 ) is measured by an ultrasonic transmitter/receiver, and the velocity x2 is obtained by integrating the signal from an accelerometer. The actuator is shown to be an electrohydraulic system.
3.6 SOLUTION OF LQR PROBLEM VIA ROOT LOCUS PLOT: SISO CASE Let the quadratic objective function be
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1 I= 2
∞
∫ y (t) + ru (t)dt 2
2
(3.6.1)
0
where u (t ) and y (t ) are input and output of a SISO linear system. Note that y 2 (t ) = y T (t ) y (t ) = x T (t )cT cx (t )
(3.6.2)
Referring to (3.5.2), Q = cT c
and
R=r
(3.6.3)
Hence, from Equation 3.5.1, Equation 3.5.4, and Equation 3.5.5, ⎡ dx(t ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎡ x(t )⎤ ⎢ dt ⎥ = M ⎢ ⎥ ⎣λ (t )⎦ ⎢ d λ (t ) ⎥ ⎢⎣ dt ⎥⎦
(3.6.4)
where ⎡ A M=⎢ T ⎣ −c c
−r −1bb T ⎤ ⎥ − AT ⎦
(3.6.5)
The matrix M is known as the Hamiltonian matrix. It can be shown (Kwakernaak and Sivan, 1972) that (−1) n Δ(s ) = a1 (s ) a1 (−s ) + r −1a2 (s ) a2 (−s )
(3.6.6)
Δ(s ) = det(sI − M )
(3.6.7)
where
and a1 (s ) and a2 (s ) are denominator and numerator polynomials of the openloop transfer function, i.e., c(sI − A)−1 b =
a2 (s ) a1 (s )
(3.6.8)
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It will be assumed that there are no common factors between a2 (s ) and a1 (s ) . Equation 3.6.6 establishes the fact that if s * is a root of Δ(s ) = 0, −s * would also be the root. Hence, eigenvalues of M are symmetric with respect to the imaginary axis of the splane. Recall that eigenvalues of any real matrix are always symmetric with respect to the real axis. Hence, eigenvalues of M are symmetric with respect to both real and imaginary axes. Furthermore, (−1) n Δ( jω ) = a1 ( jω ) a1 (− jω ) + r −1a2 ( jω ) a2 (− jω ) 2
= a1 ( jω ) + r −1 a2 ( jω )
(3.6.9)
2
Note that ai ( jω ) , i = 1 and 2, will be zero only when s = 0 is a root of ai (s ) = 0 . Because it has been assumed that there are no common factors between a1(s) and a2(s), a1(jω) and a2(jω) cannot simultaneously be zero. As a result, Δ( jω ) > 0 ; i.e., none of the eigenvalues is on the imaginary axis of the splane. Fact The optimal poles are the stable eigenvalues of M (Kailath, 1980).
THE SYMMETRIC ROOT LOCUS From (3.6.6), a1 (s ) a1 (−s ) + r −1a2 (s ) a2 (−s ) = 0
(3.6.10)
Hence,
r −1
a2 (s ) a2 (−s ) = −1 a1 (s ) a1 (−s )
(3.6.11)
Let m
a2 (s ) =
∏ (s − z ) i
(3.6.12)
i=1
n
a1 (s ) =
∏ (s − p ) i
i =1
(3.6.13)
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m
∏ (s − z )(s + z ) i
−1
r (−1)
m−n
i
i =1 n
∏ (s − p )(s + p ) i
= −1
(3.6.14)
i
i=1
Equation 3.6.14 is in the standard root locus form (Kuo, 1995). When n − m is even, the 180° root locus plot will be constructed. If n − m is odd, the 0° root locus will be constructed. Case I: High Cost of Control (r → ∞) When the cost of control action is high, it is desired to use a small value of input u(t). This can be achieved by selecting a very large value of r. When r → ∞ , Equation 3.6.6 yields Δ(s ) = a1 (s ) a1 (−s ) = 0
(3.6.15)
Because the optimal poles are the stable roots of Δ(s ) = 0 , we have the following two situations: 1. Stable openloop system: If all the eigenvalues of the matrix A are in the left half of the splane, optimal closedloop poles are the same as openloop poles. 2. Unstable openloop system: Optimal closedloop poles are: (a) stable openloop poles and (b) reﬂections of unstable openloop poles about the imaginary axis. Case II: Low Cost of Control (r → 0) When r → 0 , Equation 3.6.10 yields a2 (s ) a2 (−s ) = 0
(3.6.16)
Hence, m optimal closedloop poles are the stable roots of a2 (s ) a2 (−s ) = 0 . They are either openloop lefthalf zeros or the reﬂections of openloop righthalf zeros about the imaginary axis. The remaining (n − m) optimal closedloop poles are located near inﬁnity. To ﬁnd their locations, Equation 3.6.10 is written as follows for large s by ignoring lower powers of s: s n (−s ) n + r −1s m (−s )m (b0 )2 = 0 where
(3.6.17)
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a2 ( s ) = b0 s m + … + bm
(3.6.18)
s 2 ( n −m ) = (−1) n −m +1 b02 r −1
(3.6.19)
From (3.6.17),
or 1
1
s = [(−1)( n −m +1) ]2 ( n −m ) (b02 r −1 ) 2 ( n −m )
(3.6.20)
n − m + 1 odd 1
1
s = (−1) 2 ( n −m ) (b02 r −1 ) 2 ( n −m )
(3.6.21)
Recall that −1 = e jπ(2 +1) , where is an integer Hence 1
j π ( 2 +1)
(−1) 2 ( n −m ) = e 2 ( n −m ) ;
= 0,1, 2,…, 2(n − m ) − 1
(3.6.22)
Substitution of (3.6.22) into (3.6.21) yields 2(n – m) roots of Equation 3.6.19. n − m + 1 even 1
1
s = (1) 2 ( n −m ) (b02 r −1 ) 2 ( n −m )
(3.6.23)
1 = e jπ 2 , where is an integer
(3.6.24)
Recall that
Hence 1
jπ 2
(1) 2 ( n −m ) = e 2 ( n −m ) ;
= 0, 1, 2,......., 2 ( n − m ) − 1
(3.6.25)
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Substitution of (3.6.25) into (3.6.23) yields 2( n − m ) roots of Equation 3.6.19. To summarize, the 2(n – m) roots of equation (3.6.19) lie on a circle of radius 1
(b02 r −1 ) 2 ( n −m ) in a pattern described by (3.6.21) and (3.6.25). This pattern is known as Butterworth conﬁguration (Kailath, 1980). EXAMPLE 3.12: NONCOLOCATED SENSOR
AND
ACTUATOR (BRYSON, 1979)
Consider the twodegreeoffreedom springmass system shown in Figure 3.11, where the force u0 (t ) is applied on the left mass and the position of the right mass y (t ) is the output. This model has been extensively used to simulate noncolocated sensor and actuator in the structural vibration control. The governing differential equations of motion are m0 x + k ( x − y ) = u0 (t )
(3.6.26)
m0 y + k ( y − x ) = 0
(3.6.27)
Nondimensional time t ′ is deﬁned as k m0
t′ = t
(3.6.28)
Therefore, d (.) = dt ′
m0 d (.) k dt
and
d 2 (.) m0 d 2 (.) = k dt 2 dt ′ 2
(3.6.29a,b)
Hence, Equation 3.6.26 and Equation 3.6.27 can be written as x ′′ + ( x − y ) = u (t ′)
where u =
y ′′ + ( y − x ) = 0 x (t ) u0
k
FIGURE 3.11 A twodegreeoffreedom system.
(3.6.30)
(3.6.31) y (t )
m0
u0 k
m0
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Taking the Laplace transform of (3.6.30) and (3.6.31) with zero initial conditions, s 2 x (s ) + ( x (s ) − y (s )) = u (s )
(3.6.32)
s 2 y (s ) + ( y (s ) − x (s )) = 0
(3.6.33)
Some simple algebra yields the SISO transfer function: y (s ) a (s ) 1 = = 2 u (s ) s 2 (s 2 + 2 ) a1 (s )
(3.6.34)
Hence, the root locus equation is r −1
a2 (s ) a2 (−s ) = −1 a1 (s ) a1 (−s )
(3.6.35)
r −1
1 = −1 s (s + 2 )2
(3.6.36)
or
4
2
The 180° root locus is shown in Figure 3.12. There are eight branches and all of them end at inﬁnity. Angles of asymptotes are (2 l + 1)
π ; 8
l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
(3.6.37)
All these asymptotes intersect the real axis at the origin of complex plane.
3.7 LINEAR QUADRATIC TRAJECTORY CONTROL It is desired to ﬁnd an optimal control law in such a way as to cause the output y(t ) to track or follow a desired trajectory η(t ) . Hence, the objective function (3.5.2) is modiﬁed (Sage and White, 1977) to be tf
∫
1 1 I = z T (t f ) S f z (t f ) + [z T (t )Qz (t ) + u T (t ) Ru(t )]dt 2 2 0
where z(t ) is the trajectory error deﬁned as
(3.7.1)
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Symmetric Root Locus 3
2 x Imaginary Axis
1
0
–1 x –2
–3 –3
–2
–1
0 Real Axis
1
2
3
FIGURE 3.12 A symmetric root locus plot.
z(t ) = η(t ) − y(t )
(3.7.2)
The state space equation (3.5.1) is modiﬁed (Sage and White, 1977) to include a deterministic external input or the plant noise vector w (t ) : dx = Ax (t ) + Bu(t ) + w(t ); dt
x (0 ) = x 0
(3.7.3)
From Equation 3.4.11, the Hamiltonian H is deﬁned as 1 H = [ z T (t )Qz(t ) + uT (t )Ru(t )] + λ T (t )[ Ax(t ) + Bu(t ) + w(t )] 2
(3.7.4)
The optimality condition (3.4.16) yields u(t ) = − R−1BT λ (t )
(3.7.5)
dλ = −{C T Q[Cx(t ) − η(t )] + AT λ (t )} dt
(3.7.6)
Equation 3.4.12 yields
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with the terminal condition λ (t f ) = C T S (t f )[Cx(t f ) − η(t f )]
(3.7.7)
In order to determine the closedloop control law, the transformation (3.5.14) is modiﬁed (Sage and White, 1977) to be λ (t ) = S (t )x(t ) − ξ(t )
(3.7.8)
where ξ(t ) is to be determined. Differentiating (3.7.8), d λ dS dx d ξ = x(t ) + S (t ) − dt dt dt dt
(3.7.9)
Using (3.7.3), (3.7.5), and (3.7.6), ⎛ dS −1 T T T ⎞ ⎜ + SA − SBR B S + C QC + A S ⎟ x(t ) ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎛ dξ ⎞ + ⎜− + SBR−1BT ξ + Sw(t ) − C T Qη(t ) − AT ξ(t )⎟ = 0 ⎝ dt ⎠
(3.7.10)
Using (3.7.8), the terminal condition (3.7.7) can be written as S (t f )x(t f ) − ξ(t f ) = C T S (t f )Cx(t f ) − C T S (t f )η(t f )
(3.7.11)
The solution of (3.7.10) can be obtained by solving it as two separate problems: dS + SA − SBR −1BT S + C T QC + AT S = 0 dt with S (t f ) = C T S (t f )C and − with
dξ + SBR−1BT ξ + Sw(t ) − C T Qη(t ) − AT ξ(t ) = 0 dt
(3.7.12)
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ξ(t f ) = C T S (t f )η(t f )
(3.7.13)
Lastly, from (3.7.5) and (3.7.8), the control law is u(t ) = − R−1BT [ S (t )x(t ) − ξ(t )] = −K (t )x(t ) + R−1BT ξ(t )
(3.7.14)
The state feedback gain matrix K (t ) is the same as that given by (3.5.19). Hence, the solution of the linear quadratic trajectory control problem is composed of two parts: (1) a linear regulator part and (2) a correction term containing ξ(t ) . The computation of ξ(t ) requires the solution of (3.7.13) backward in time. Hence, it is required that w(t ) and η(t ) are exactly known a priori for all time t. From the disturbance rejection point of view, the control law can be described to be noncausal. EXAMPLE 3.13: OPTIMAL CONTROL (HUGHES, 1979)
OF
SUN TRACKING SOLAR CONCENTRATORS
A solar collector consists of a concentrator and a receiver. As a concentrator, point focusing parabolic dishes have been used. It reﬂects the sun’s energy towards its focal point and the receiver accepts the concentrated energy for further conversions. The axis of the paraboloid must be pointed at the sun in order to produce the required ﬂux densities at the receiver aperture. Whenever there is a pointing error, energy is lost; hence, this energy loss is minimized by an appropriate control technique. A linear model of a single axis of the concentrator, which is driven by an electric motor, is shown in Figure 3.13, where θ0 (t ) : Collector’s line of sight (LOS) θi (t ) : Sun’s position u (t ) : Command input to the motor ξ: Damping ratio K s : System gain ωn: Natural frequency The state space model of the system can be written as
where
dx = Ax + bu (t ) dt
(3.7.15)
y (t ) = Cx (t )
(3.7.16)
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147
i
u (t )
2 n
Ks s( s
2
2
ns
0
(t )
(t )
e (t )
2 n)
FIGURE 3.13 A model for sun tracking solar concentrator. 3
A
2
x2 (t)
1
0
O
–1
–2 B –3 –8
–6
–4
–2
0 x1 (t)
2
4
6
8
FIGURE 3.14 State space trajectories (___ u = 1,  u = 1).
⎡ θ0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x = ⎢θ 0 ⎥ ; ⎥ ⎢θ ⎣ 0⎦ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ b=⎢ 0 ⎥; ⎢ K s ω 2n ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
⎡0 ⎢ A = ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣ and
1 0 −ω 2n ⎡1 ⎢ C = ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 ⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎥; −2 ξω n ⎥⎦ 0 1 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(3.7.17)
Let η(t ) be a vector of the sun’s position, velocity, and acceleration, i.e.,
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⎡θi ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ η(t ) = ⎢θ i ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣θi ⎦
(3.7.18)
To minimize the energy loss, the output vector y(t ) should follow the sun’s trajectory η(t ) as closely as possible. Hence, a linear servomechanism or LQ tracking problem is solved. The objective function is
1 J= 2
t f − t0
∫ z Qz + ru dt T
2
(3.7.19)
0
where z(t ) = η(t ) − y(t )
(3.7.20)
t0 is the time of sunrise, and t f is the time of sunset. Using (3.7.14), the control law is given as u (t ) = −K (t )x(t ) + r −1bT ξ(t )
(3.7.21)
The variable ξ(t ) is obtained by solving Equation 3.7.13 with w(t ) = 0 . Because the desired trajectory η(t ) changes every day, the variable ξ(t ) has to be computed every day.
3.8 FREQUENCYSHAPED LQ CONTROL Let the quadratic objective function be ∞
I=
∫ x(t) Qx(t) + u(t) Ru(t)dt T
T
(3.8.1)
0
Using Parseval’s Theorem (Appendix B),
I=
1 2π
∞
∫x
T
(− jω )Qx ( jω ) + u T (− jω ) Ru( jω ) d ω
(3.8.2)
−∞
Modify the objective function by making Q and R functions of the frequency ω (Gupta, 1980):
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1 I= 2π
149
∞
∫x
T
(− jω )Q (ω ) x ( jω ) + u T (− jω ) R (ω )u( jω ) d ω
(3.8.3)
−∞
Assume that Q(ω ) and R(ω ) are rational functions of ω2 . Factoring these matrices, Q (ω ) = N qT (− jω ) N q ( jω )
(3.8.4)
R (ω ) = N rT (− jω ) N r ( jω )
(3.8.5)
Let the rank of the matrix Q(ω ) be p. Then, N q ( jω ) will be an p × n matrix. For the existence of the solution of an LQ problem, the matrix R(ω ) has to be of full rank. Therefore, N r ( jω ) will be an m × m matrix Deﬁne x T (− jω )Q (ω ) x ( jω ) = z T (− jω )z ( jω )
(3.8.6)
N q ( jω ) x ( jω ) = z ( jω )
(3.8.7)
uT (− jω)R(ω)u( jω) = χ T (− jω)χ( jω)
(3.8.8)
N r ( jω)u( jω) = χ( jω)
(3.8.9)
where
Similarly,
where
The objective function (3.8.3) can be expressed as
I=
1 2π
∞
∫ z (− jω)z( jω) + χ (− jω)χ( jω)dω T
T
(3.8.10)
−∞
Using Parseval’s Theorem (Appendix B), ∞
I=
∫ z (t )z(t ) + χ (t )χ(t )dt T
0
T
(3.8.11)
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From (3.8.7), z(t ) is the output of the linear system with the transfer function matrix N q (s ) and input x(t ) ; i.e., z (s ) = N q (s ) x (s )
(3.8.12)
Similarly, from (3.8.9), χ(t ) is the output of the linear system with the transfer function matrix N r (s ) and input u(t ) ; i.e., χ( s ) = N r ( s )u( s )
(3.8.13)
Let the state space model of the MIMO system (3.8.12) be ξ = Aq ξ + Bq x(t )
(3.8.14)
z(t ) = Cq ξ + Dq x(t )
(3.8.15)
Similarly, let the state space model of the MIMO system (3.8.13) be ν = Ar ν + Br u(t )
(3.8.16)
χ(t ) = Cr ν + Dr u(t )
(3.8.17)
Deﬁne the augmented state vector x a (t ): ⎡x⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x a (t ) = ⎢ ξ ⎥ ⎢⎣ν⎥⎦
(3.8.18)
Let the augmented state space model be x a (t ) = Aa x a (t ) + Ba u(t )
(3.8.19)
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ A r ⎥⎦
(3.8.20)
where ⎡A ⎢ Aa = ⎢ Bq ⎢0 ⎣ Now, it can be shown that
0 Aq 0
and
⎡B⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Ba = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ Br ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
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z T z + χ T χ = xTa Q f x a + 2 xTa N f u + uT R f u
(3.8.21)
where ⎡ DqT Dq ⎢ Q f = ⎢C qT Dq ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥, ⎥ C rT C r ⎦⎥
DqT C q T q
C Cq 0
⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Nf = ⎢ 0 ⎥ , ⎢C rT Dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
and
R f = DrT Dr (3.8.22)
+ 2 x Ta N f u + u T R f udt
(3.8.23)
Therefore, the objective function (3.8.11) is ∞
I=
∫x Q x T a
f
a
0
Using (3.5.29), the optimal control law will be u(t ) = − K a x a (t )
(3.8.24)
T K a = R −1 f ( PBa + N f )
(3.8.25)
where
and T P( Aa − Ba R−f 1 N Tf ) + ( Aa − Ba R−f 1 N Tf )T P − PBa R−f 1 BaT P + Q f − N f R−1 f N f = 0 (3.8.26)
Representing K a as K a = ⎡⎣ K x
Kξ
K ν ⎤⎦
u(t ) = −K x x(t ) − K ξ ξ(t ) − K ν ν(t )
(3.8.27) (3.8.28)
EXAMPLE 3.14: A SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR Consider a secondorder system: y + ω 2n y = u (t ) for which the state equations are
(3.8.29)
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x = Ax + bu (t )
(3.8.30)
y (t ) = x1 (t )
(3.8.31)
where x = ⎡⎣ x1 ⎡ 0 A=⎢ 2 ⎣ −ω n
x2 ⎤⎦
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
T
and
(3.8.32) ⎡0 ⎤ b=⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦
(3.8.33a,b)
Standard LQ Control Let the objective function be ∞
I=
∫ (y
2
+ u 2 ) dt
(3.8.34)
0
The optimal state feedback control law is u (t ) = −kx (t )
(3.8.35)
where k is the state feedback gain vector. For ω n = 10 rad/sec, k = ⎡⎣0.005
0.1⎤⎦
(3.8.36)
and the eigenvalues of the optimal closedloop system are −0.05 ± 10 j . Therefore, if the disturbance to the system is a sinusoidal function with the frequency equal to 10 rad/sec, its effects will be extremely large. FrequencyShaped LQ Control Let the objective function be 1 I= 2π where
∞
∫ [ y ( jω )
−∞
2
2
2
Q ( jω ) + u ( jω ) ]d ω
(3.8.37)
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ω 2n s s + 2 ςω n s + ω 2n
Q (s ) =
(3.8.38)
2
For a small value of the damping ratio ς , Q ( jω n ) will be extremely large, and as a result the response of the optimal closedloop system is expected to be insensitive to external disturbance at the frequency ω = ω n . Now, let Q (s ) y (s ) = z(s )
(3.8.39)
The state space realization of the system (3.8.39) can be written as ⎡ ξ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⎣ ξ 2 ⎦ ⎣ −ω n
1 ⎤ ⎡ ξ1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ y (t ) −2 ςω n ⎦ ⎣ ξ 2 ⎦ ⎣ω 2n ⎦
(3.8.40)
and z(t ) = ξ 2 (t )
(3.8.41)
Combining (3.8.30) and (3.8.40), ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎢ x2 ⎥ = ⎢ −ω n ⎢ ξ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎢⎣ ξ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ω n
1 0 0 0
0 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ u (t ) + 1 ⎥ ⎢ ξ1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −2 ςω n ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ξ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦
0 0 0 −ω 2n
(3.8.42)
From (3.8.39), the objective function (3.8.37) can be written as ∞
I=
∫ (z
2
+ u 2 ) dt
(3.8.43)
0
Equation 3.8.42 and Equation 3.8.43 constitute a standard LQ control problem. The optimal state feedback control law is u (t ) = −k a [ x1
x2
ξ1
ξ 2 ]T
(3.8.44)
where k a is the optimal state feedback gain vector. For ω n = 10 rad/sec and ς = 0.1 , k a = [ 4.1717
2.8885
−4.1717
0.0178]
(3.8.45)
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And the eigenvalues of the optimal closedloop system are −1.217 ± 10.9791 j and −1.2272 ± 8.96921 j . Therefore, if the disturbance to the system is a sinusoidal function with frequency 10 rad/sec, its effect will be small.
3.9 MINIMUMTIME CONTROL OF A LINEAR TIMEINVARIANT SYSTEM Consider the linear system dx = Ax(t ) + Bu(t ); x(0 ) = x 0 dt
(3.9.1)
It is desired to apply a control u(t ) , such that the system reaches the origin of the state space, in a minimum time when inputs must satisfy the following constraints: ui (t ) ≤ α i ;
i = 1, 2,…, m
(3.9.2)
If the ﬁnal time is denoted by t f , the objective is to minimize the following objective function: tf
I = tf =
∫ 1dt
(3.9.3)
0
Therefore, the Hamiltonian H is H = 1 + λ T ( Ax + Bu)
(3.9.4)
dλ ∂H =− = − AT λ dt ∂x
(3.9.5)
The adjoint equations are
The solution of (3.9.5) is T
λ (t ) = e− A t λ (0 )
(3.9.6)
H = 1 + λ T (0 )e− At Ax + λ T (0 )e− At Bu
(3.9.7)
Substituting (3.9.6) into (3.9.4),
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Therefore, ∂H = pi ∂ui
(3.9.8)
pi = λ T (0 )e− At b i
(3.9.9)
where
B = ⎡⎣b1
b2
.
.
b m ⎤⎦
(3.9.10)
u T = ⎡⎣u1
u2
.
.
um ⎤⎦
(3.9.11)
Using (3.4.17) and (3.4.18), the optimal control inputs are ⎧+α u0 i (t ) = ⎨ i ⎪⎩−α i
NORMALITY
OF
if if
pi < 0 pi > 0
(3.9.12)
LINEAR SYSTEMS
When pi (t ) = 0 over a ﬁnite interval [t1 t 2 ] , it is called a singular control case. This also implies that higher derivatives of pi (t ), with respect to time, are zero over this ﬁnite interval. Therefore, for t ∈ [t1, t 2 ] , pi = λ T (0 )e− At b i = 0 −
dpi = λ T (0 )e− At Ab i = 0 dt
d 2 pi = λ T (0 )e− At A 2 b i = 0 dt 2
(3.9.13)
(−1)n−1
d n−1 pi = λ T (0 )e− At A n−1b i = 0 dt n−1
Equation 3.9.13 can be expressed as λ T (0 )e− At Ci = 0 where
(3.9.14)
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C i = [b i
Ab i
A2 b i
.
.
A n −1b i ]
(3.9.15)
is the controllability matrix with respect to ui . It should be noted that λ (0 ) ≠ 0 because H = 1 otherwise; i.e., H ≠ 0 and the solution will not be optimal (Section 3.4.2). Therefore, for Equation 3.9.14 to be true, rank (C i ) < n
(3.9.16)
This analysis implies that there are no ﬁnite intervals on which pi (t ) = 0, provided C i is not singular for any i, i = 1, 2, … m. A system for which C i is not singular for any i is called normal (Gopal, 1984).
EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS THEOREMS CONTROL (GOPAL, 1984)
ON
MINIMUMTIME
1. If the linear timeinvariant system is controllable, and if all the eigenvalues of A have nonpositive real parts, a timeoptimal control exists that transfers any initial state to the origin of the state space in a minimum time. 2. If the linear timeinvariant system is normal, and if the timeoptimal control exists, it is unique. 3. If eigenvalues of the matrix A are real and a unique timeoptimal exists, each control component can switch at the most (n–1) times, where n is the dimension of the state space. EXAMPLE 3.15: TIMEOPTIMAL CONTROL INTEGRATOR SYSTEM
OF A
RIGID BODY
OR A
DOUBLE
Consider the system dx = Ax (t ) + Bu (t ) dt
(3.9.17)
where ⎡0 A =⎢ ⎣0
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
and
⎡0 ⎤ B =⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 ⎦
(3.9.18)
and u ≤1
(3.9.19)
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The objective is to ﬁnd the optimal control u(t), such that the system reaches the origin of the state space in a minimum time from an initial state x(0 ) . First, note that eigenvalues of A are 0 and 0, which are real and nonpositive. Furthermore, ⎡0 C=⎢ ⎣1
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
(3.9.20)
Therefore, the system is controllable and normal as well. Application of the existence and uniqueness theorem indicates that a unique optimal control exists with at the most one switching. Hamiltonian H = 1 + λ1 x2 + λ 2 u
(3.9.21)
∂H = λ2 ∂u
(3.9.22)
Hence, the optimal control input is given by ⎧−1 u (t ) = ⎨ ⎩⎪+1
if if
λ2 > 0 λ2 < 0
(3.9.23)
Equation 3.9.23 can be expressed as u (t ) = − sgn(λ 2 (t ))
(3.9.24)
∂H d λ1 =− =0 dt ∂x1
(3.9.25)
d λ2 ∂H =− = − λ1 dt ∂x2
(3.9.26)
λ1 (t ) = λ1 (0 )
(3.9.27)
Adjoint equations are
The solution of (3.9.25) is
Substituting (3.9.27) into (3.9.26),
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λ 2 (t ) = − λ1 (0 )t + λ 2 (0 )
(3.9.28)
Because states are speciﬁed at initial and ﬁnal time, there are no constraints on adjoint variables. Hence, state equations must be used to determine adjoint variables. If u = 1 , the solution to (3.9.17) is x2 (t ) = t + x2 (0 )
x1 (t ) =
t2 + x2 (0 )t + x1 (0 ) 2
(3.9.29)
(3.9.30)
Eliminating t between (3.9.29) and (3.9.30),
x1 =
x22 ( x (0 ))2 + x1 (0 ) − 2 2 2
(3.9.31)
Equation 3.9.31 describes state space trajectories (which are parabolas) when u = 1 . These trajectories are shown as solid curves in Figure 3.14. If u = −1 , solution to (3.9.17) is x2 (t ) = −t + x2 (0 )
x1 (t ) = −
t2 + x2 (0 )t + x1 (0 ) 2
(3.9.32)
(3.9.33)
Eliminating t between (3.9.32) and (3.9.33),
x1 = −
x22 ( x (0 ))2 + x1 (0 ) + 2 2 2
(3.9.34)
Equation 3.9.34 describes state space trajectories (which are parabolas) when u = −1. These trajectories are shown as dashed curves in Figure 3.14. Because it is known that the optimal control input can only have one switching at the most, only four cases exist: Case I: u = 1 , 0 ≤ t ≤ tf
(3.9.35)
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Initial states must be such that the system is on segment BO in Figure 3.14. Case II: u = −1 , 0 ≤ t ≤ t f
(3.9.36)
Initial states must be such that the system is on segment AO in Figure 3.14. Case III: ⎪⎧ +1 u=⎨ ⎪⎩−1
0 ≤ t ≤ ts ts < t ≤ t f
(3.9.37)
Initial states must be such that the system will follow one of solid parabolas, which intersect the segment AO. At the switching instant ts, the system will reach the segment AO and go to the origin of the state space along the segment AO. Case IV: ⎧⎪ −1 u=⎨ ⎩⎪+1
0 ≤ t ≤ ts ts < t ≤ t f
(3.9.38)
Initial states must be such that the system will follow one of dashed parabolas, which intersect the segment BO. At the switching instant ts , the system will reach the segment BO and go to the origin of the state space along the segment BO. The switching curve is composed of segments AO and BO (Figure 3.14). For segment AO,
x1 (0 ) +
( x2 (0 ))2 =0 2
(3.9.39)
Equation 3.9.39 implies the following equation for the curve AO: x1 (t ) = − For segment BO,
1 ( x2 (t ))2 2
(3.9.40)
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x1 (0 ) −
( x2 (0 ))2 =0 2
(3.9.41)
Equation 3.9.41 implies the following equation for the curve BO: x1 (t ) =
1 ( x2 (t ))2 2
(3.9.42)
Combining (3.9.40) and (3.9.42), the equation of the switching curve AOB can be expressed as x1 (t ) = −
1 x2 (t ) x2 (t ) 2
(3.9.43)
On the basis of (3.9.43), a switching function (Gopal, 1984) is deﬁned as follows: s ( x (t )) = x1 (t ) +
1 x2 (t ) x2 (t ) 2
(3.9.44)
If s > 0 , x(t) lies above the curve AOB. In this case, u = −1 because dotted parabolas are directed toward the switching curve. If s < 0 , x(t) lies below the curve AOB. In this case, u = 1 because solid parabolas are directed toward the switching curve. If s = 0 and x2 > 0 , x (t) lies on the curve AO. In this case, u = −1 . If s = 0 and x2 < 0 , x (t) lies on the curve BO. In this case, u = 1 . In summary, the timeoptimal control in feedback form is ⎧−1 ⎪ ⎪+1 u (t ) = ⎨ ⎪+1 ⎪⎩−1
when when when when
s(x(t )) > 0 s(x(t )) = 0 s(x(t )) < 0 s(x(t )) = 0
and
x2 (t ) < 0
and
x2 (t ) > 0
(3.9.45)
The structure of the optimal feedback control system is shown in Figure 3.15. Control Law Eq. (3.9.45)
u(t )
x1
x2
x2
u( t )
x (t )
FIGURE 3.15 Implementation of bangbang control via state feedback.
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161
q1
q2
k u
m
m
b
FIGURE 3.16 A system with rigid and ﬂexible modes.
EXAMPLE 3.16: MINIMUMTIME CONTROL FLEXIBLE MODES
OF A
SYSTEM
WITH
RIGID
AND
The differential equations of motion of the mechanical system shown in Figure 3.16 are ⎡m ⎢ ⎣0
0 ⎤ ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎡ b ⎥⎢ ⎥+ ⎢ m ⎦ ⎣q2 ⎦ ⎣ −b
−b ⎤ ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎡ k ⎥⎢ ⎥+ ⎢ b ⎦ ⎣q2 ⎦ ⎣ − k
− k ⎤ ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎡u (t ) ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ k ⎦ ⎣q2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦
(3.9.46)
Natural frequencies are found to be ω 20 = 0
(3.9.47)
2k m
(3.9.48)
and
ω 12 = Modal vectors are as follows: ⎡⎣1
1⎤⎦
T
corresponding to ω 20 = 0 (Rigid mode)
(3.9.49)
corresponding to ω 12 = 2 k / m (Flexible mode)
(3.9.50)
and ⎡⎣1
−1⎤⎦
T
Now, the displacement vector can be represented as a linear combination of these modal vectors: ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎡ r1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = Φ⎢ ⎥ ⎣q2 ⎦ ⎣r2 ⎦
(3.9.51)
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where ⎡1 Φ=⎢ ⎣1
1⎤ ⎥ −1⎦
(3.9.52)
Substituting (3.9.51) into (3.9.46), and premultiplying both sides by ΦT ,
r1 =
1 u 2m
(3.9.53)
and
r2 + 2 ςω1r2 + ω12 r2 =
1 u 2m
(3.9.54)
where ς = 2 b / (2 m ω1 ) . Deﬁning state variables as x1 = r1 , x2 = r1 , x3 = r2 , and x 4 = r2
(3.9.55)
x = Ax (t ) + bu (t )
(3.9.56)
State equations are
where ⎡0 ⎢ 0 A=⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 −ω 12
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎥ −2 ςω 1 ⎥⎦
and
⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 0.5m ⎥ b=⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣0.5m ⎥⎦
and
x(t f ) = 0
(3.9.57)
Let the initial and ﬁnal states be x (0 ) = ⎡⎣ − L and
0
0
0 ⎤⎦
T
(3.9.58a and b)
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u (t ) ≤ α
(3.9.59)
The minimum time control will be bangbang and unique. However, because all eigenvalues are not real, the maximum number of switching is not necessarily (n–1). Let switching instants be ti , i = 1, 2, …, k, and initially u (t ) = α as the position of the system has to be increased. Solving state equations with this input and initial condition (3.9.58a), and then imposing the ﬁnal condition (3.9.58b), the following nonlinear equations (Pao and Singhose,1998; Singhose and Pao, 1997) are obtained: k
(−1) k t f + 2
∑ (−1)
i−1
ti
(3.9.60)
i=1
k
(−1)
k +1 2 f
t +2
∑ (−1) (t ) i
=
2
i
i =1
4mL α
(3.9.61)
k
1 + (−1) k +1 e
ςω1t f
cos(ω d t f ) + 2
∑ (−1) e
i ςω1ti
cos(ω d ti ) = 0
(3.9.62)
i =1
k
(−1) k +1 e
ςω1t f
sin(ω d t f ) + 2
∑ (−1) e
i ςω1ti
sin(ω d ti ) = 0
(3.9.63)
i =1
where ω d = ω n 1 − ς 2 . There are many solutions of ti , i = 1, 2, …, k, that satisfy (3.9.60) to (3.9.63). However, only one of them will satisfy Equation 3.9.12. EXAMPLE 3.17: INPUT SHAPING Consider the prototype secondorder system (Kuo, 1995): y + 2 ξω n y + ω 2n y = ω 2n u (t )
(3.9.64)
where ξ , ω n , and u(t) are the damping ratio, undamped natural frequency, and the reference input, respectively. The reference input is often a unit step function for which the response of an underdamped system is y (t ) = 1 − e − ξω nt cos ω d t − χe − ξω nt sin ω d t ;
t≥0
(3.9.65)
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u(t)
1 Ap Ap 1
A2 A1 t1
t2
tp 1
tp
t
FIGURE 3.17 A staircase input.
where χ=
ξ 1 − ξ2
and
ω d = ω n 1 − ξ2
(3.9.66a,b)
The value of the steady state error is guaranteed to be zero. However, there is a large amount of oscillation, and the settling time can be large for a small damping level. The concept of input shaping is to modify the command input so that that the system reaches the ﬁnal position with zero oscillation. For the staircase input shown in Figure 3.17, the response can be written as p
y (t ) =
∑ A [1 − e i
− ξω n ( t − ti )
(cos ω d (t − ti ) + χ sin ω d (t − ti ))]us (t − ti ) (3.9.67)
i =1
where us (t − ti ) is a unit step function applied at t = ti . For t > t p , p
y (t ) = g (t ) +
∑A
i
i =1
where
(3.9.68)
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165
g (t ) = −e −ξω nt [α sin ω d t + β cos ω d t ]
(3.9.69)
p
α=
∑e
ξω n ti
Ai (sin ω d ti + χ cos ω d ti )
(3.9.70)
ξω n ti
Ai (cos ω d ti − χ sin ω d ti )
(3.9.71)
i=1
p
β=
∑e i=1
The conditions for g(t) to be zero for t > t p are p
α=
∑e
ξω n ti
Ai (sin ω d ti + χ cos ω d ti ) = 0
(3.9.72)
ξω n ti
Ai (cos ω d ti − χ sin ω d ti ) = 0
(3.9.73)
i=1
p
β=
∑e i=1
Equation 3.9.72 and Equation 3.9.73 are equivalent to the following wellknown conditions (Singer and Seering, 1990): p
∑e
ξω n ti
Ai sin ω d ti = 0
(3.9.74)
ξω n ti
Ai cos ω d ti = 0
(3.9.75)
i=1
p
∑e i=1
Consider the case of p = 2 . Without any loss of generality, assume that t1 = 0
and
A1 + A2 = 1
(3.9.76a and b)
In this case, Equation 3.9.74 and Equation 3.9.75 can be solved for two unknowns. The results are
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1 π t2 = , A1 = , and K = e 1+ K ωd
−
ξπ 1− ξ2
(3.9.77a, b, and c)
Therefore, from (3.9.68), y (t ) = 1
for t > t2
(3.9.78)
In other words, the system reaches the desired value without any oscillation for t > t2 , when the input u(t) is as follows: ⎧⎪(1 + K )−1; 0 < t ≤ π / ω d u (t ) = ⎨ 1; t > π / ω d ⎩⎪
(3.9.79)
Time Optimality of the Shaped Input Deﬁne x2 = y ,
x1 = y − 1 ,
v = u −1
(3.9.80)
The state equations are x = Ax + bv (t )
(3.9.81)
where x = ⎡⎣ x1 ⎡ 0 A=⎢ 2 ⎣ −ω n
1 ⎤ ⎥ −2 ξω n ⎦
x2 ⎤⎦
T
and
(3.9.82) ⎡0 ⎤ b=⎢ 2⎥ ⎣ω n ⎦
(3.9.83a,b)
Now, initial and ﬁnal states are x(0 ) = ⎡⎣ −1
0 ⎤⎦
T
and
x(t f ) = ⎡⎣0
0 ⎤⎦
T
(3.9.84a,b)
where t f is the ﬁnal time. Another constraint for a positive shaper is that the input u(t) should be between 0 and 1. This implies the following constraint on v(t): −1 ≤ v (t ) ≤ 0
(3.9.85)
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For minimumtime control, the Hamiltonian H is deﬁned as follows: H = 1 + λ1 x2 + λ 2 (−ω 2n x1 − 2 ξω n x2 + ω 2n v )
(3.9.86)
where adjoint variables λ1 (t ) and λ 2 (t ) satisfy the following equations: ∂H λ 1 = − = ω 2n λ 2 ∂x1
(3.9.87)
∂H = − λ1 + 2 ξω n λ 2 λ 2 = − ∂x2
(3.9.88)
∂H = ω 2n λ 2 ∂v
(3.9.89)
and
Therefore, the minimumtime control will depend on the sign of λ 2 (t ). Differentiating (3.9.88) and using (3.9.87), − 2 ξω λ + ω 2 λ = 0 λ 2 n 2 n 2
(3.9.90)
⎤ ⎡ λ (0 ) − ξωn λ 2 (0 ) λ 2 (t ) = eξωnt ⎢ 2 sin ωd t + λ 2 (0 )cos ωd t ⎥ ωd ⎦ ⎣
(3.9.91)
λ 2 (0 ) = − λ1 (0 ) + 2 ξω n λ 2 (0 )
(3.9.92)
Solving (3.9.90),
From (3.9.88),
Substituting (3.9.92) into (3.9.91), ⎡ −λ (0 ) + ξωn λ 2 (0 ) ⎤ λ 2 (t ) = eξωnt ⎢ 1 sin ωd t + λ 2 (0 )cos ωd t ⎥ ωd ⎣ ⎦
(3.9.93)
Because both x(0) and x(t f ) are speciﬁed, λ1 (0 ) and λ 2 (0 ) are not speciﬁed, and have to be determined so that the resulting input leads to satisfaction of initial
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and ﬁnal conditions of states. To achieve the control input (3.9.79) that leads to satisfaction of initial and ﬁnal conditions of states, λ 2 (0 ) = 0
and
λ1 (0 ) < 0
(3.9.94)
Then, from (3.9.93), λ 2 (t ) = − λ1 (0 )e ξω nt sin ω d t > 0
for 0 < t <
λ 2 (t ) = − λ1 (0 )e ξω nt sin ω d t < 0
for
π ωd
(3.9.95)
and π ωd
2π ωd
(3.9.96)
The control input (3.9.79) is minimumtime and bangbang if the constraint (3.9.85) is modiﬁed as follows: −1 + (1 + K )−1 ≤ v (t ) ≤ 0
(3.9.97)
EXERCISE PROBLEMS P3.1
Consider a linear system described by the following transfer function: y (s ) 10 = u (s ) s (s + 1)
P3.2
Design a state feedback controller such that the eigenvalues of the closedloop system are at –2 and –3. Consider a linear system described by the following state space equation: dx1 = x2 dt dx2 = − x2 + u (t ) dt y (t ) = x1 (t ) + x2 (t ) i. Find the openloop eigenvalues.
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ii. Find the state feedback gain vector such that both eigenvalues for the closedloop system are located at –2. iii. Let u (t ) = − k1 x1 (t ) − k2 x2 (t ) , and k1 and k2 be as calculated in part ii. Furthermore, y(0) = 0 and
P3.3
dy (0 ) = 1. dt
a. Determine x1 (0 ) and x2 (0 ) b. Determine the response x1 (t ) and x2 (t ) via the matrix exponential. Consider a linear system described by the transfer function y (s ) 10 (s + 3) = u (s ) s (s + 1)(s + 2 )
P3.4
a. Develop a state space realization and construct the block diagram. b. Find the state feedback gain vector such that eigenvalues of the closedloop system are located at –2, –3, and –4. c. Examine the controllability and observability of the closedloop system. Consider the singlelink ﬂexible robot manipulator (Figure P3.4) which is driven at one end by a DC motor. The input torque is represented by u (t ) . Assume that the response of the system can be adequately represented by considering only two modes of vibration. Parameters for the manipulator are given as follows: Tip
w( L, t ) torque u(t) w( x, t ) x (t )
L
FIGURE P3.4 A singlelink ﬂexible manipulator.
EI = 2.04146 Nm 2 , L = 1.05 m m = 0.4252 kg, Iα = 0.15628 kgm2 where E = Young’s modulus of elasticity, I = area moment of inertia of the beam crosssection, L = length of the beam, ρ = mass of the beam per unit length, m = mass of the beam, and I α = mass moment of inertia of the beam about the torque axis = mL2/3.
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The governing partial differential equation (PDE) of motion is
EI
∂4 y ∂2 y +ρ 2 =0 4 ∂x ∂t
where y ( x, t ) = w ( x, t ) + xθ(t )
with the following boundary conditions:
EI
∂2 y ∂x 2
x =0
+ u (t ) = 0
w (0, t ) = 0
EI
EI
∂2 y ∂x 2
x=L
∂3 y ∂x 3
x=L
=0
=0
The solution of this PDE can be expressed as ∞
y ( x, t ) =
∑ ψ ( x)q (t) i
i
i=0
where i = 0 corresponds to the rigid body mode with ψ 0 ( x) = x
and
q0 (t ) = θ(t )
ψ i ( x ) with i ≥ 1 are mode shapes of a pinnedfree beam, which are expressed as ψ i ( x ) = sin α i x +
sin α i L sinh α i x sinh α i L
where α i is the solution of the following transcendental equation: tan α i L = tanh α i L
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Natural frequencies ω i of the pinnedfree beam are related to α i as follows: ω 2i =
EI α i4 ρ
Finally, it can be shown that d 2 q0 u (t ) = Iα dt 2 d 2 qi ψ i/ (0 ) 2 + ω = q u (t ); i i ρai dt 2
P3.5
i = 1, 2,…, ∞
Design a full state feedback controller such that all the closedloop poles are located at −σ , −σ , − σ ± jω1 , and − σ ± jω 2 . Choose σ such that the damping ratio in each vibratory mode is higher than 0.1. Consider a linear system for which the transfer function is given as y (s ) s = u (s ) (s − 1)(s + 1)
P3.6
i. Construct a suitable state space realization and ﬁnd the state feedback gain vector such that the closedloop poles are located at –2 and –3. ii. Consider the control law u (t ) = v (t ) − k1 x1 (t ) − k2 x2 (t ) , where x1 (t ) and x2 (t ) are states. Can a nonzero value of the steady state output be obtained? Explain your answer. iii. Let u (t ) = v (t ) − k1 x1 (t ) − k2 x2 (t ) . Determine the zeros of the closedloop transfer function. Consider the following system: dx = − x (t ) + u (t ) + w dt
P3.7
where w is a scalar constant disturbance of unknown magnitude and u(t) is the control input. a. Let u(t) = –k x(t). Find an expression for the steady state value of x and show that the steady state value of x cannot be zero for a ﬁnite value of k. b. Develop a suitable state feedback control law such that x (t ) → x d ≠ 0 as t → ∞ for ﬁnite values of state feedback gains. Justify your answer. Consider a system with the following transfer function matrix:
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⎡ s−2 − 1] ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎢⎣ s
G(s) = [0
P3.8
P3.9
s⎤ 2 ⎥⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
−1
i. Find a state space realization in controller form. ii. Determine the state feedback gain matrix corresponding to the controller form state space realization such that the closedloop eigenvalues are located at –1 and –2 and the closedloop eigenvectors are [1 0]T and [0 1]T . Consider the ﬂexible tetrahedral truss structure (Appendix F) with collocated sensors and actuators. The controller is to be designed on the basis of the ﬁrst four modes of vibration. Design a full state feedback controller such that all the closedloop poles are located at −0.1ω i ± jω i; i = 1, 2, 3, and 4. Find at least two state feedback gain matrices. Find the openloop optimal control inputs u1 (t ) (and u2 (t ) ) for the system dx1 = x2 + u1 dt dx2 = u2 (t ) dt which minimizes 1 I= 2
2
∫ [u (t) + u (t)]dt 2 1
2 2
0
Given: x1 (0 ) = x 2 (0 ) = 1 and x1 (2 ) = 0 . P3.10 The system dx = − x (t ) + u (t ) dt is to be transferred from x(0) = 5 to x(4) = 0 such that
I=
1 2
4
∫ u (t)dt 2
0
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is minimized. Find the optimal control input u(t). P3.11 Consider the Example 3.9. It is desired to move the load shaft with inertia 1 kgm2 by 30° in 2 sec and minimize the work done by the DC motor. Furthermore, this load shaft must start from rest and end at rest. The parameters for the DC motor are as follows: kb = 0.04297 Vsec/rad, Ra = 1.025 Ω, and ki = 0.04297 Nm/A. i. Set up a suitable objective function such that the optimal controller can be implemented in a closedloop fashion. Find the optimal feedback gain vector. ii. Find the openloop optimal input voltage for the DC motor such that the constraints on ﬁnal states are exactly satisﬁed. Compare the optimal control input to that for item i. P3.12 Consider the following system: dx = x (t ) + u (t ) dt It is desired to develop an optimal state feedback law such that the following objective function is minimized: tf
I=
1 2
∫ [ x (t) + u (t)]dt 2
2
0
a. For a ﬁnite time t f , determine the equation for ﬁnding the optimal state feedback gain. b. If t f → ∞ , what is the optimal state feedback gain? P3.13 Consider the secondorder system dx1 = x2 dt dx2 = − x1 − 2 x2 + u (t ) dt and the performance index 5
I = 20 x (5) + 2 1
∫ x (t) + 2 x (t) + x (t) x (t) + u (tt)dt 2 1
2 2
2
1
2
0
a. Set up the Riccati differential equations with proper boundary conditions.
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b. Solve the Riccati differential equation using the Matlab routine ode23 or ode45, and ﬁnd the timevarying state feedback gain vector and the closedloop response. Also, ﬁnd the optimal value of I. P3.14 Consider a plant consisting of a DC motor, the shaft of which has the angular velocity ω(t ). The DC motor is driven by the input voltage u(t). The dynamics of the deviation in the angular speed from its constant nominal value ω is given by dω = −0.5(ω (t ) − ω ) + (u (t ) − u ) dt where u is the voltage corresponding to ω . A feedback control system is to be designed such that the following objective function is minimized: ∞
I=
∫ [(ω(t) − ω)
2
+ r (u (t ) − u )2 ]dt ;
r>0
0
i. Find the optimal state feedback gain by solving the algebraic Riccati equation. ii. Using the gain found in item i, ﬁnd the response of the closedloop system for a speciﬁed ω (0 ) − ω . iii. Assuming that ω (0 ) − ω = 1 unit, determine the value of r such that the magnitude of optimal u (t ) − u never exceeds 1 unit. P3.15 An unstable springmassdamper is described by the following differential equation: d 2 x dx − + x = u (t ) dt dt 2 where u(t) is the control input. It is desired to design a state feedback control system such that ∞
I=
∫x
2
+ ru 2 dt
0
is minimized. Assuming r → ∞ , ﬁnd the optimal location of poles and the corresponding state feedback gain vector. P3.16 A simple springmassdamper system is shown in Figure P3.16a. Because of some external disturbances, the initial displacement x(0) and velocity
dx (0 ) are not equal to zero. It is desired to introduce additional spring dt
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(stiffness = k1) and viscous damper (damping coefﬁcient = c1) such that the following objective function is minimized: x (t )
k u(t ) m c
FIGURE P3.16A A springmass system. ∞
I=
∫x
2
+ ru 2 dt ;
r→0
0
where u(t) is the force acting on the unit mass because of additional spring and viscous damper (Figure P3.16b). Calculate the optimal values of k1 and c1. x (t )
k1
c1
m k
c
FIGURE P3.16B Additional spring and damper.
P3.17 Consider a plant with the following transfer function: y (s ) (s + 1)(s − 1) = 2 u (s ) (s − s + 1)(s + 2 ) It is desired to develop a state feedback law such that the following objective function is minimized:
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1 I= 2
∞
∫ y (t) + ru (t)dt 2
2
where r > 0
0
a. Draw the symmetric root locus plot. b. Find the optimal closedloop poles when r → 0 . c. Find the optimal closedloop poles when r → ∞ . P3.18 Consider the system shown in Figure 5.11.4 in which the torque T(t) is the control input. Design a full state feedback controller such that the following objective function is minimized: 1 2
I=
∞
∫θ
2 1
+ rT 2 dt
where r > 0
0
Construct the symmetric root locus plot to determine optimal closedloop pole locations. Show the performance of your controller as r changes from 0 to ∞. Parameters (ECP Manual): J1 = 0.0024 kgm2, J2 = 0.0019 kgm2, J3 = 0.0019 kgm2 k1 = k2 = 2.8 Nm/rad c1 = 0.007 Nm/rad/sec, c2 = c3 = 0.001 Nm/rad/sec khw =
100 units 6
P3.19 Refer to Example 3.11. Select q1 = 10 and q2 = 1. a. Find optimal state feedback gain for three different values of ρ: 10 −7 , 10 −8 , and 10 −9 . In each case, assume that the initial condition on state vector is −[1 1 0 0 ]T and plots x1 (t ) , x2 (t ) , and u(t) vs. time. Discuss your results. b. Refer to Equation 3.5.88 and Figure 3.10. For all the three aforementioned values of ρ, ﬁnd λ 2 and β2 . Also, plot f(t) vs. time for initial state vector chosen in part a. Discuss your results. P3.20 The following model is developed for longitudinal pressure oscillation in a uniform chamber (Yang et al., 1992): n
i + ω i2 ηi + η
∑ (D η + E η ) = v (t) ; i = 1, 2, …, n i
=1
i
i
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2a 2 vi (t ) = α
177
m
∑ ψ (z i
=1
a
)
u (t ) p
where p and u (t ) are the mean pressure and the pressure excitation supplied by the actuator# located at za , respectively. The normal mode# i of the chamber is described by ψi ( z ) = cos(i πz / α); 0 ≤ z ≤ α where α is the length of the chamber. Di i i i i
= = = =
1 2 3 4
Ei i i i i
= = = =
1 2 3 4
=1
=2
=3
=4
0.007 0.1 0.01 –0.005
–0.001 0.007 0.75 0.01
0.007 –0.001 0.008 1.50
=1
=2
=3
=4
–0.005 –0.0025 –0.005 0.01
–0.005 –0.015 0.0 0.02
0.0025 0.01 –0.02 0.02
0.0016 0.01 0.02 –0.025
–0.01 0.01 –0.01 0.02
a. Develop a state space realization and ﬁnd the openloop poles with n = 4. b. Select a suitable location of a single actuator with n = 4, and ﬁnd the state feedback gain vector to locate the poles such that closedloop frequencies are same as those of the open loop, and there is at least a 5% damping ratio in each mode. c. With the location of the actuator in part b, draw the symmetric root locus for the following objective function: ∞
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
n
∫∑ 0
i =1
⎞ ηi ⎟ + ru12 dt ⎟ ⎠ 2
d. Select suitable locations for two actuators, and ﬁnd a state feedback gain matrix to locate the poles, such that closedloop frequencies are same as those of open loop, and there is at least a 5% damping ratio in each mode. e. With the location of the actuator in part b, draw the symmetric root locus for the following objective function:
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∞
⎡⎛ ⎢⎜ ⎢⎜ ⎢⎣⎝
n
∫ ∑ 0
i=1
2 ⎤ ⎞ 2 2⎥ ⎟ ηi + u1 + u2 ⎥dt ⎟ ⎠ ⎥⎦
P3.21 Consider the ﬂexible tetrahedral truss structure (Appendix F). The controller is to be designed on the basis of ﬁrst four modes of vibration. Design a full state feedback LQR controller such that 1 2
∞
∫y
T
(t )y (t ) + ρu T (t )u(t ) dt
0
is minimized. Demonstrate your controller performance for two values of ρ = 0.1 and 1. P3.22 Consider the singlelink ﬂexible manipulator described in Problem P3.4. Consider two vibratory modes for the link. It is given that u < 1 Nm. If the link is to be rotated by 30°, ﬁnd the switching instants and move time for the bangbang (minimumtime) control. The link starts from the rest and there should not be any vibration when the arm reaches its ﬁnal position.
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4
Control with Estimated States
In Chapter 3, a state feedback control system was developed under the assumption that all states are available to us. In general, it will be impractical to measure all the states. Therefore, methods to estimate states are developed on the basis of inputs and outputs of a deterministic and a stochastic system as well. Then, theories and examples of optimal state estimation and linear quadratic Gaussian control are presented.
4.1 OPENLOOP OBSERVER Consider the system x = Ax (t ) + Bu(t )
(4.1.1)
If the initial conditions are estimated to be xˆ (0 ) = x(0 ) + ε
(4.1.2)
where ε is the error in the estimate of the initial state vector. Then, states can be computed by the solution of the following equation (Kailath, 1980): xˆ = Axˆ + Bu(t )
(4.1.3)
x = x (t ) − xˆ (t )
(4.1.4)
Define
Errors in the state vector can be obtained as the solution of x = Ax (t );
x (0 ) = −εε
(4.1.5)
Hence, if the matrix A is stable, x (t ) → 0 as t → ∞ . On the other hand, if the matrix A is unstable, x (t ) → ∞ as t → ∞ .
179
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This strategy of estimating states will be useful only when all the eigenvalues of the matrix are far inside the left half of the splane because only in this case will errors die out quickly. But, in most cases that need control, the eigenvalues of the matrix A will be close to the imaginary axis, or the matrix A will be unstable. In these cases, initial state errors will either persist for a long time or lead to unbounded state errors.
4.2 CLOSEDLOOP OBSERVER The algorithm presented in Section 4.1 works in an openloop fashion. Measured outputs, y(t ), are not used at all. At any instant, estimated outputs are yˆ (t ) = Cxˆ (t )
(4.2.1)
δy (t ) = y (t ) − yˆ (t )
(4.2.2)
Define an error signal,
If there is no estimation error, δy(t ) = 0 . The signal δy(t ) can be used as feedback variables to influence the dynamics of estimated states as follows (Kailath, 1980): xˆ = Axˆ + Bu(t ) + L ( y (t ) − yˆ (t )) ;
xˆ (0 ) = xˆ 0
(4.2.3)
where L is an observer gain matrix (Figure 4.1). Here, the following questions arise: 1. What is the role of L in having estimated states xˆ (t ) converge to true states x(t ) ? 2. Is it possible to select L for a guaranteed convergence of estimated states xˆ (t ) to true states x(t )? 3. Can we select L to achieve a desired rate of convergence of estimated states xˆ (t ) to true states x(t ) ? 4. What should be the value of xˆ (0 )? To answer these questions, the estimator equation (4.2.3) is subtracted from the state equation (4.1.1): x = Ax − L ( y (t ) − Cxˆ (t )) = ( A − LC ) x ;
x (0 ) = x (0 ) − xˆ (0 )
(4.2.4)
If the matrix ( A − LC ) is stable, lim x (t ) → 0 as t → ∞ , or x (t ) → xˆ (t ) as t → ∞ . Equation 4.2.3 is also called the Luenberger observer. Usually, xˆ (0 ) = 0 .
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181
u(t )
y (t )
plant xˆ (t )
yˆ (t )
xà (t )
B
C
A
y (t )
y (t )
yˆ (t )
L
FIGURE 4.1 Schematic drawing of the closedloop observer.
Theorem Eigenvalues of ( A − LC ) can be arbitrarily located in the complex plane, provided the realization ( A, C ) is observable. Proof As eigenvalues of a square matrix and its transpose are identical, det(sI − ( A − LC )) = det(sI − ( A − LC )T ) = det(sI − ( AT − C T LT ))
(4.2.5)
With the interpretation (Kailath, 1980) A → AT ;
B → CT ;
and
K → LT
(4.2.6)
the problem of finding L is dual to that of finding K (see Chapter 3). Therefore, eigenvalues of ( AT − C T LT ) can be arbitrarily placed in the complex plane, provided ( AT , C T ) is controllable. It is easy to see that the controllability of ( AT , C T ) is equivalent to the observability of ( A, C ) . This completes the proof. Definition 4.1.1: Detectability The detectability of a system is a weaker condition than the observability. It only requires that all the unstable modes of the system are observable. The system (A, C) is called detectable if there exists a matrix L such that the matrix (ALC) is stable (Zhou et al., 1996).
4.2.1 DETERMINATION OF OBSERVER GAIN VECTOR L SINGLEOUTPUT SYSTEM
FOR A
Let α be the vector of the coefficients of desired characteristic polynomial of the matrix ( A − Lc) ; i.e.,
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α = [α1
α2
.
.
αn ]
(4.2.7)
det( sI − ( A − Lc)) = s n + α1s n−1 + … + α n−1s + α n
(4.2.8)
(α − a ) = LT C*Ut
(4.2.9)
Therefore,
where C* = [cT
AT cT
.
.
( AT ) n −1 cT ] = O T
(4.2.10)
where O is the observability matrix. Hence, from Equation 3.1.18, LT = (α − a )(OT Ut )−1 = (α − a )(Ut )−1 (OT )−1
(4.2.11)
Because the matrix U t is nonsingular, the solution of L can be obtained, provided O T or, equivalently, O is nonsingular. In other words, the existence of L is guaranteed for an arbitrary choice of α , provided the realization ( A, C ) is observable.
4.2.2 DETERMINATION OF OBSERVER GAIN MATRIX L MULTIPLEOUTPUT SYSTEM
FOR A
For a multioutput system, the gain matrix L is not unique for specified locations of observer poles. A method, dual to that presented in Chapter 3, Section 3.2, can be developed to determine the gain matrix L.
4.2.3 LOCATIONS
OF
OBSERVER POLES
When observer poles are located farther into the left half of the splane, errors in estimated states go to zero at a faster rate. In general, this will also imply higher values of observer gains, which do not cost anything in terms of the actuator size or the magnitude of the control input. However, the observer starts behaving like a differentiator as the poles are pushed farther into the left half of the splane. As a result, highfrequency stochastic noises in the system can get amplified, and the system performance can be reduced. Therefore, the optimal selection of observer poles requires considerations of stochastic disturbances in the system, and will be presented in Section 4.6 as the Kalman filter (Kalman and Bucy, 1961). EXAMPLE 4.1: AN AORTIC PRESSURE OBSERVER
FOR AN
ARTIFICIAL HEART
The Penn State electric ventricular assist device (EVAD) consists of a high torque brushless DC motor coupled to a pusher plate by a rollerscrew mechanism (Tsach
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183
Blood Flow
Brushless DC Motor roller
Flexible Blood Sac
screw
Pusher Plate
FIGURE 4.2 Schematic drawing for Penn State electric ventricular assist device (EVAD).
et al., 1990). The blood flow is generated by moving the pusher plate against a flexible blood sac (Figure 4.2). The state space equations can be written as x = Ax (t ) + bu (t ) ⎡ x1 (t ) ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x(t ) = ⎢ x2 (t ) ⎥ A = ⎢0 ⎢ x3 (t ) ⎥ ⎢0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣
1 −68.3 3.2
(4.2.12)
⎡ 0 ⎤ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −7.2 ⎥ b = ⎢ 425.4 ⎥ (4.2.13a,b,c) ⎢ 0 ⎥ −0.7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦
where states x1, x2 , and x3 are pusher plate’s position (mm), velocity (mm/sec), and aortic pressure (mm Hg), respectively. The input, u (t ) , is the DC motor voltage. The position of the pusher plate is measured by a sensor; i.e., the output is x1, and the output equation is y (t ) = cx (t )
(4.2.14)
where c = [1
0
0]
(4.2.15)
In this case, eigenvalues of A are 0, –1.0426, and –67.9574. The openloop characteristic polynomial is det(sI − A) = s 3 + 69s 2 + 70.85s The observability matrix is
(4.2.16)
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⎡1 ⎢ O = ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 1 −68.3
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −7.2 ⎥⎦
(4.2.17)
As det O ≠ 0 , the state space realization is observable. Now, det( sI − A + Lc) = s 3 + (69 + 1 )s 2 + ( 70.85 + 69 1 + 2 )s + 70.85 1 + 0.7 2 − 7.2 3
(4.2.18)
where L = ⎡⎣ 1
2
3 ⎤⎦
T
(4.2.19)
Let the eigenvalues of the observer be –3, –27, and –67.9574. Then, the desired characteristic polynomial is det(sI − A + Lc) = s 3 + 98s 2 + 2119.7s + 5504.5
(4.2.20)
Comparing coefficients, 69 + 1 = 98
(4.2.21)
70.85 + 69 1 + 2 = 2119.7
(4.2.22)
70.85 1 + 0.7 2 − 7.2 3 = 5504.5
(4.2.23)
1 = 29 , 2 = 47.5 , and 3 = −474.527
(4.2.24)
Therefore,
EXAMPLE 4.2: A DISTURBANCE OBSERVER Consider a springmassdamper system (Chapter 2, Figure 2.4) subjected to a sinusoidal excitation. Then, the state equation (2.5.16) will be modified to be x = Ax (t ) + bu (t ) + bw (t ) where
(4.2.25)
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w (t ) = w0 sin(ωt + φ)
(4.2.26)
It is assumed that the excitation frequency ω is known. However, the amplitude w0 and phase φ are not known. The objective is to design an observer to determine w(t) or, equivalently, the amplitude w0 and the phase φ . The excitation w(t) satisfies the following secondorder equation: + ω 2 w = 0 w
(4.2.27)
Converting (4.2.27) into a state space model, ⎡ w 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ 2 ⎣w 2 ⎦ ⎣ −ω
1 ⎤ ⎡ w1 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ; 0 ⎦ ⎣w2 ⎦
w1 = w
(4.2.28)
Combining (4.2.25) and (4.2.28), x a = Aa x a (t ) + b a u (t )
(4.2.29)
where ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x xa = ⎢ 2 ⎥ ; ⎢ w1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣w2 ⎥⎦
⎡ 0 ⎢ −β / m Aa = ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
1
0 1 0
−α / m 0 0
−ω 2
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ; 1⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ba = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦
(4.2.30a,b,c)
If the position of the mass is measured by a sensor, the output equation is y (t ) = cx a (t )
(4.2.31)
where c = [1
0
0
(4.2.32)
0]
The observability matrix is ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 O=⎢ ⎢ −β / m ⎢ ⎢⎣αβ / m 2
0 1 −α / m −(β / m ) + (α 2 / m 2 )
0 0 1 −α / m
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦
(4.2.33)
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Therefore, det O = 1
(4.2.34)
And the realization is observable for all system parameters. Let m = 1 kg, α = 1 Nsec/m, β = 1N /m , and ω = 1 rad/sec. In this case, eigenvalues of Aa are –0.5 ± 0.86603j and ±1j . The openloop characteristic polynomial is det(sI − Aa ) = s 4 + s 3 + 2 s 2 + s + 1 a = [1
1
1
1]
(4.2.35) (4.2.36)
Let the eigenvalues of the observer be −0.5 ± 0.86603 j and −0.5 ± 1 j . Then, the desired characteristic polynomial is det(sI − Aa + Lc) = s 4 + 2 s 3 + 3.25s 2 + 2.25s + 1.25
(4.2.37)
and α = [2
3.25
2.25
1.25 ]
(4.2.38)
Using Equation 4.2.11, LT = [1
0.25
0.25
−1]
Simulation results are shown in Figure 4.3, in which the estimated disturbance is shown by the dotted line.
4.3 COMBINED OBSERVER–CONTROLLER In Chapter 3, we designed the control system with the full state feedback. Because all states are not available, we can only feed back estimated states. Let the control law be defined (Figure 4.4) as u (t ) = v (t ) − K xˆ (t )
(4.3.1)
xˆ = Axˆ + Bu(t ) + L ( y (t ) − yˆ (t ))
(4.3.2)
where
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1
187
w(t) we(t)
0.8
Disturbance and its Estimate
0.6 0.4 0.2 0 –0.2 –0.4 –0.6 –0.8 –1 0
5
10
15
20
25
Time (sec)
FIGURE 4.3 Estimation of the disturbance. u(t )
v (t )
y (t ) plant
B xˆ (t )
xˆ
K
L
A yˆ (t )
C
FIGURE 4.4 Combined observer–controller system.
Recall the plant dynamics x = Ax + Bu(t )
(4.3.3)
Subtracting (4.3.2) from (4.3.3), the state error x = x − xˆ is still governed by
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x = ( A − LC ) x
(4.3.4)
x = ( A − BK ) x + BK x + Bv (t )
(4.3.5)
From (4.3.1) and (4.3.3),
Representing Equation 4.3.4 and Equation 4.3.5 in the matrix form, ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡( A − BK ) ⎢⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎣ x ⎦ ⎣
BK ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ B ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ v(t ) ( A − LC ) ⎦ ⎣ x ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦
(4.3.6)
Equation 4.3.6 represents the dynamics of the closedloop system (Figure 4.4). Note that the order of the closedloop system is 2n where the dynamics of the plant is of the order n and observer dynamics is also of the order n. The system matrix for the closedloop system is ⎡( A − BK ) Asys = ⎢ 0 ⎣
BK ⎤ ⎥ A − LC ⎦
(4.3.7)
Therefore, ⎡sI − ( A − BK ) det(sI 2 n − Asys ) = det ⎢ n 0 ⎣
⎤ − BK ⎥ sI n − ( A − LC ) ⎦
(4.3.8)
= det(sI n − ( A − BK )) det(sI n − ( A − LC )) The eigenvalues of the closedloop system, Asys, are same as those of ( A − BK ) and ( A − LC ). Hence, K and L are to be chosen such that eigenvalues of ( A − BK ) and ( A − LC ) are located at desired places in the left half of the complex plane, respectively. In other words, K can be chosen as if all states are available for feedback, and L can be chosen as if only an observer as described in Section 4.2 is to be designed. This is called the separation property, which implies that the observer and controller can be designed independent of each other and the stability of the closedloop system is guaranteed. However, as far as the performance of the closedloop system is concerned, there is certainly a coupling between selection of K and L. A rule of thumb that has often been used is to have eigenvalues of ( A − LC ) at least four times faster than those of ( A − BK ). But, more precisely, they can be selected to minimize certain performance criteria; e.g., LQG, H ∞ control, etc. The control law, (4.3.1) and (4.3.2), can be represented as a classical output feedback control system shown in Figure 4.5. Assuming v(t ) = 0 , Equation 4.3.1 and Equation 4.3.2 can also be written as
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v(t )
189
y (t )
0
G (s )
u (t ) H (s )
FIGURE 4.5 Combined observer–controller system as an output feedback compensator.
xˆ = ( A − BK − LC ) xˆ + Ly (t )
(4.3.9)
u (t ) = − K xˆ (t )
(4.3.10)
and
Hence, the controller transfer function H (s ) can be expressed as H (s ) = − K (sI − ( A − BK − LC ))−1 L
(4.3.11)
It is important to realize that the stability of H (s ) or, equivalently, ( A − BK − LC ) is not guaranteed. It is possible to have an unstable ( A − BK − LC ) while ( A − BK ) and ( A − LC ) are stable. The transfer function of the closedloop system is
y (s ) = ⎡⎣C
⎡B⎤ 0 ⎤⎦ (sI 2 n − Asys )−1 ⎢ ⎥ v (s ) ⎣0 ⎦
(4.3.12)
Because of the blockdiagonal structure of Asys, ⎡(sI − ( A − BK ))−1 (sI 2 n − Asys )−1 = ⎢ n 0 ⎣
⎤ ? −1 1⎥ (sI n − ( A − Lc )) ⎦
(4.3.13)
Substituting (4.3.13) into (4.3.12), y (s ) = C (sI n − ( A − BK ))−1 Bv (s )
(4.3.14)
This transfer function does not depend on the observer dynamics (Kailath, 1980), and it is exactly the same as that obtained with the full state feedback in Chapter 3.
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This can be understood by realizing that a transfer function is defined for zero initial conditions. In this case, x (0 ) = 0 , and the solution of Equation 4.3.4 yields x (t ) = 0
for all t ≥ 0
(4.3.15)
Therefore, an observer is not needed at all to estimate states. This result also highlights what an observer really guarantees. It basically drives the state errors caused by errors in initial values of states to zero. It may not compensate for modeling errors and unknown external disturbances. EXAMPLE 4.3: BALANCING
A
POINTER
Consider Example 3.1, Balancing a Pointer, in Chapter 3. If the length of the pointer is 0.98 m, ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣10
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
and
⎡0⎤ b=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −1⎦
(4.3.16)
Let the output y (t ) be the angular position of the pointer φ(t ); i.e., c = ⎡⎣1
0 ⎤⎦
(4.3.17)
To locate the controller poles at –1 and –1, Equation 3.1.32 yields k = ⎡⎣ −11
−2 ⎤⎦
(4.3.18)
Next, det(sI − ( A − Lc )) = s 2 + 1s + ( 2 − 10 )
(4.3.19)
Let the observer poles be at –4 and –4. Then, the desired characteristic equation will be det(sI − ( A − Lc )) = (s + 4)2 = s 2 + 8s + 16
(4.3.20)
Comparing coefficients of polynomials (4.3.19) and (4.3.20), 1 = 8
and
2 = 16
(4.3.21)
The controller equations (4.3.9 and 4.3.10), which are to be solved in real time, are as follows:
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4 xˆ1
11
xˆ1
4 y (t )
u(t )
17 16 xˆ 2
2
xˆ 2
2
FIGURE 4.6 Observerbased state feedback controller to balance a pointer.
u (t ) = 11xˆ1 (t ) + 2 xˆ2 (t )
(4.3.22)
where xˆ1 (t ) = −4 xˆ1 + xˆ2 (t ) + 4 y (t ) ; xˆ2 (t ) = −17 xˆ1 − 2 xˆ2 (t ) + 16 y (t ) ;
xˆ1 (0 ) = 0 xˆ2 (0 ) = 0
(4.3.23) (4.3.24)
The analog computer simulation diagram for the observerbased state feedback controller is shown in Figure 4.6. The controller transfer function is H (s ) = −k (sI − ( A − bk − Lc))−1 L =
76 s + 256 s 2 + 6 s + 25
(4.3.25)
4.4 REDUCEDORDER OBSERVER Because p outputs y(t) are linear combinations of n states x(t), output equations y (t ) = Cx (t ) represent p equations in n unknowns where p < n . Therefore, there is no need to estimate all the states, and the order of the observer dynamics can be reduced to be n–p. Here, as an example, a singleoutput system (Kailath, 1980) is considered. Let c = ⎡⎣0
0
.
.
0
1⎤⎦
(4.4.1)
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Then, y = x n ; i.e., x n is directly being measured. Therefore, we have only to observe or estimate x r = ⎡⎣ x1
x2
.
.
x n −1 ⎤⎦
T
(4.4.2)
Now, the state space equation is partitioned as ⎡ xr ⎤ ⎡ Ar ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ x n ⎦ ⎣ cr
br ⎤ ⎡ x r ⎤ ⎡ g r ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥u ann ⎦ ⎣ x n ⎦ ⎣ gn ⎦
(4.4.3)
or xr = Ar x r + b r y + g r u
(4.4.4)
x n = cr x r + ann y + gn u
(4.4.5)
yr = c r x r
(4.4.6)
Define
Then, Equation 4.4.5 can be written as yr = y − ann y − gn u
(4.4.7)
Because the righthand side of Equation 4.4.7 is known, yr can be viewed as the output, and cr as the output vector. Also, from Equation 4.4.4, b r y + g r u can be considered as the input for the x r dynamics. Analogous to the equation for the fullorder observer dynamics, the reducedorder observer can be now described by xˆ r = Ar xˆ r + b r y + g r u + r ( yr − cr xˆ r )
(4.4.8)
where r is an ( n − 1) dimensional vector which has to be determined. Define the error in the estimated state vector as x r = x r − xˆ r Subtracting (4.4.9) from (4.4.4),
(4.4.9)
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193
d dt
br y (t )
r
xˆ r
xˆ r
r a nn
xn ( t )
gr
u(t )
r gn
Ar
rc r
FIGURE 4.7 Reducedorder observer with a differentiator.
r
br y (t )
r a nn
q
q
xˆ r
xn ( t )
u(t )
gr
r gn
Ar
rcr
FIGURE 4.8 Reducedorder observer without a differentiator.
x r = ( Ar − r cr ) x r
(4.4.10)
It has been shown that {c r , Ar } is observable, provided {c, A} is observable (Kailath, 1980). Therefore, r can be calculated for any choice of the desired characteristic polynomial for (4.4.10) when the state space realization is observable. We can then guarantee that x r (t ) → 0 as t → ∞ irrespective of the value of x r (0 ) . The problem of observing unmeasured states has been solved only in theory because the knowledge of yr via (4.4.7) implies differentiating the output signal to obtain y. The resulting system is shown in Figure 4.7. From (4.4.7) and (4.4.8), xˆ r = ( Ar − r cr ) xˆ r + b r y + g r u + r ( y − ann y − gn u ) = ( Ar − r cr ) xˆr + (b r − r ann ) y + (g r − r gn )u + r y
(4.4.11)
In order to get rid of the differentiator, the system in Figure 4.7 is modified by changing the path with the block r from the input to the output side of the integrator (Figure 4.8). The output of the integrator is now q(t ) = xˆ r (t ) − r y (t )
(4.4.12)
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x(t )
f (t ) m
FIGURE 4.9 A simple mass.
From (4.4.11) and (4.4.12), q = ( Ar − r cr )q(t ) + ( Ar r − r cr r + b r − r ann ) y (t ) + (g r − r gn )u (t ) (4.4.13) With y (t ) and u (t ) known, Equation 4.4.13 has to be solved in real time to determine q(t). Then the states are estimated by xˆ r (t ) = q(t ) + r y (t )
(4.4.14)
EXAMPLE 4.4: A SIMPLE MASS Consider a simple mass m which is subjected to a control force f (t ) (Figure 4.9). The differential equation of motion is x = u
(4.4.15)
where u (t ) =
f (t ) m
(4.4.16)
Define states as x1 (t ) = x
and
x2 = x
(4.4.17)
Then, the state equations are ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ 1
0 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥u 0 ⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦
(4.4.18)
Let us assume that we have only one sensor that can measure the position of the mass. Then, the output equation is
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195
y (t ) = ⎡⎣0
⎡x ⎤ 1⎤⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣ x2 ⎦
(4.4.19)
The objective is to design a reducedorder observer to estimate the velocity of the mass. This is interesting because the velocity will be estimated from the position of the mass via an integrator, i.e., without using a differentiator. In view of the partitioning shown in Equation 4.4.3, ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣1
0 ⎤ ⎡ Ar ⎥=⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ cr
br ⎤ ⎥ ann ⎦
⎡1⎤ ⎡ g ⎤ b=⎢ ⎥=⎢ r⎥ ⎣0 ⎦ ⎣ gn ⎦
(4.4.20)
(4.4.21)
Hence, the state error dynamics is written as x1 = ( Ar − lr cr ) x1 = −lr x1
(4.4.22)
x1 (t ) = x1 (0 )e − lr t
(4.4.23)
q = −lr q − lr2 y + u = −lr (q + lr y ) + u = −lr xˆ1 + u
(4.4.24)
xˆ1 (t ) = q (t ) + lr y (t )
(4.4.25)
Solving (4.4.22),
Equation 4.4.13 is written as
where
The simulation diagram for the velocity estimator is shown in Figure 4.10.
4.5 RESPONSE OF A LINEAR CONTINUOUSTIME SYSTEM TO WHITE NOISE Consider the following linear system: x = Ax (t ) + Bw(t )
(4.5.1)
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y(t )
x2 ( t )
x(t )
r
u(t )
q
q xˆ1
xˆ (t )
r
FIGURE 4.10 A reducedorder observer to estimate velocity.
where w(t ) is a zeromean white noise vector (Appendix D) with the intensity Q; i.e., E ( w(t )) = 0
(4.5.2)
E [ w(t ) w T (t + τ)] = Q δ(τ)
(4.5.3)
Initial condition x(0 ) is assumed to be a random variable vector independent of w(t ); i.e., E [ x (0 ) w T (τ)] = E [ x (0 )]E [ w T (τ)] = 0
(4.5.4a)
E( x (0 )) = x 0
(4.5.4b)
E [( x (0 ) x T (0 )] = P0
(4.5.5)
and
The solution of (4.5.1) is t
x (t ) = e At x (0 ) +
∫e
A (t − τ )
Bw(τ) d τ
0
Mean of x(t) ⎛ E (x(t )) = E (e At x(0 )) + E ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
t
∫ 0
⎞ e A (t − τ ) Bw( τ )d τ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(4.5.6)
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197
t
= e E ( x (0 )) + At
∫e
A (t − τ )
BE ( w(τ)) d τ = e At x 0
(4.5.7)
0
Variance of x(t) Define the covariance matrix: P (t ) = E ( x (t ) x T (t )]
(4.5.8)
Using (4.5.6), t
∫ x(0)w (τ)B e
T
x (t ) x T (t ) = e At x (0 ) x T (0 )e A t + e At
T
T
AT ( t − τ )
dτ
0
t
t
∫
T
+ e A (t − τ ) Bw(τ) x T (0 )e A τ d τ + 0
(4.5.9)
t
∫ ∫e 0
A (t − τ )
Bw(τ) w T ( ν) BT e A
T
(t − ν)
d τd ν
0
Taking expected values on both sides, t
P (t ) = e E ( x (0 ) x (0 ))e At
T
AT t
+
t
∫ ∫e 0
A (t − τ )
BQ δ( ν − τ) BT e A
T
(t − ν)
d νd τ
(4.5.10)
0
t
T
P (t ) = e At P (0 )e A t +
∫
e A (t − τ ) BQBT e A
T
(t − τ )
dτ
(4.5.11)
0
Differentiating (4.5.11) with respect to t, dP = AP + PAT + BQBT ; dt
P (0 ) = P0
(4.5.12)
For a stable system, dP →0 dt
as
t→∞
(4.5.13)
Therefore, in steady state, the covariance matrix P is governed by the Lyapunov equation (Chapter 2, Section 2.15):
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AP + PAT + BQBT = 0 EXAMPLE 4.5: A SPRINGMASS DAMPER SUBJECTED
(4.5.14)
TO A
STOCHASTIC FORCE
Consider the springmassdamper system (Chapter 2, Figure 2.4) where the force f(t) is a zeromean Gaussian white noise with the following statistics: E ( f (t ) f (t + τ)) = 0.1δ(τ)
(4.5.15)
Let the system have the following parameters: m = 1 kg, α = 0.2 N − s/m , and β = 1N /m . Then, ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣ −1
1 ⎤ ⎥ −0.2 ⎦
and
⎡0 BQBT = 0.1 ⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎦
(4.5.16a,b)
Solving Equation 4.5.14 via the Matlab routine “lyap,” ⎡0.25 P=⎢ ⎣ 0
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0.25 ⎦
(4.5.17)
The response (Figure 4.11) is also generated by numerical solution of the state equations (2.5.16) in Chapter 2. The Matlab program is provided (Program 4.1). Note that the Gaussian white noise is generated by the method presented in Appendix D. Numerical results provide the following value of P: ⎡ 0.2442 Psim = ⎢ ⎣ 4.53e − 5
4.53e − 5 ⎤ ⎥ 0.2516 ⎦
which is close to the analytical solution. MATLAB PROGRAM 4.1: LINEAR SYSTEM SUBJECTED % clear all close all global wC % wone=randn(1,10000); w=sqrt(2)*wone;
TO
WHITE NOISE
(4.5.18)
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199
2
1.5
1
x(t)
0.5
0
–0.5
–1
–1.5
0
50
100
150
200
250 300 time (sec)
350
400
450
500
FIGURE 4.11 Response obtained from Matlab Program 4.1.
% % disp(1)=0; Vel(1)=0; tv(1)=0; tinit=0; delt=0.05; % %PSD of White Noise=2*delt=0.1; for i=2:10000 tf=tinit+delt; wC=w(1,i1); [t,Y]=ode45(@ex4p6,[tinit tf],[disp(i1) Vel(i1)]); yud=flipud(Y); tv(i)=tf;
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disp(i)=yud(1,1); Vel(i)=yud(1,2); tinit=tf; end function dx=ex4p6(t,x) % global wC dx=zeros(2,1); dx(1)=x(2); dx(2)=0.2*x(2)x(1)+wC;
4.6 KALMAN FILTER: OPTIMAL STATE ESTIMATION The Kalman filter deals with optimal selection of observer poles, and is dual to the linear quadratic control presented in Chapter 3.
STATE DYNAMICS x (t ) = Ax (t ) + Bu(t ) + w(t )
(4.6.1)
The vector w(t ) is a stochastic process called process (or plant) noise. It is assumed that w(t ) is a continuoustime Gaussian white noise vector (Appendix D). Its mathematical characterization is E ( w(t )) = 0
(4.6.2)
E ( w(t ) w T (t + τ)) = W δ(τ)
(4.6.3)
and
The matrix W is called the intensity matrix with the property W = W T > 0 .
MEASUREMENT EQUATION y(t ) = Cx(t ) + θ(t )
(4.6.4)
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where y(t ) is the sensor noise vector and θ(t ) is a continuoustime Gaussian white noise vector. It is assumed that E (θ(t )) = 0
(4.6.5)
E (θ(t )θT (t + τ )) = Θδ( τ )
(4.6.6)
and
where Θ = ΘT > 0 . It is also assumed that process and measurement noise vectors are uncorrelated; i.e., E (θ(t )wT (t + τ )) = E (θ(t ))E (wT (t + τ )) = 0
(4.6.7)
OBSERVER DYNAMICS From Equation 4.2.3, xˆ = Axˆ + Bu(t ) + L ( y (t ) − Cxˆ (t ))
(4.6.8)
Define the state error vector as x = x (t ) − xˆ (t )
(4.6.9)
x = ( A − LC )x + ψ(t )
(4.6.10)
ψ(t ) = w(t ) − Lθ(t )
(4.6.11)
E ( ψ(t )) = E (w(t )) − LE (θ(t )) = 0
(4.6.12)
Subtracting (4.6.8) from (4.6.1),
where
Consider ψ(t )ψT (t + τ ) = [ w(t ) − Lθ(t )][ w(t + τ ) − Lθ(t + τ )]T = w((t )wT (t + τ ) − Lθ(t )wT (t + τ ) − w(t )θT (t + τ )LT + Lθ(t )θT (t + τ )LT Using (4.6.3), (4.6.6), and (4.6.7),
(4.6.13)
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E ( ψ(t )ψT (t + τ )) = (W + LΘLT )δ( τ )
(4.6.14)
The state error dynamics (Equation 4.6.10) is represented by a linear system subjected to white noise vector ψ(t ) with the intensity described by (4.6.14). Assuming that the matrix ( A − LC ) is stable, E ( x (t )) → 0
as
t→∞
(4.6.15)
and ( A − LC ) Σ + Σ( A − LC )T + W + L ΘLT = 0
(4.6.16)
where Σ is the steady state error covariance matrix defined as Σ = lim E (x (t )x T (t ))
(4.6.17)
J = tr[ Σ] = E ( x12 (t )) + E ( x 22 (t )) + … + E ( x n2 (t ))
(4.6.18)
t →∞
Problem Find L such that
is minimized subject to constraints (4.6.16). Solution Introducing symmetric matrix P as the Lagrange multiplier, g ( Σ, L, P ) = tr ( Σ) + tr (U ( Σ, L ) P )
(4.6.19)
where U ( Σ, L ) is the lefthand side of Equation 4.6.16. As a result, g( Σ, L, P ) = tr ( Σ) + tr (( A − LC )ΣP ) + tr ( Σ( A − LC )T P ) + tr (WP ) + tr ( LΘLT P )
(4.6.20)
Using the Lemma for the optimal solution (Appendix E), ∂g = I + ( A − LC )T P + P ( A − LC ) = 0 ∂Σ
(4.6.21)
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∂g = − P ΣC T − P ΣC T + PL Θ + PL Θ = 2 P (− ΣC T + L Θ) = 0 ∂L
(4.6.22)
∂g = Σ( A − LC )T + ( A − LC ) Σ + W + L ΘLT = 0 ∂P
(4.6.23)
Assuming that ( A − LC ) is stable, P > 0 from the wellknown result of the solution of the Lyapunov equation (Chapter 2, Section 2.15). Hence, from Equation 4.6.22, − ΣC T + L Θ = 0
(4.6.24)
L = ΣC T Θ −1
(4.6.25)
ΣAT + AΣ − ΣC T Θ −1C Σ + W = 0
(4.6.26)
or
Substituting (4.6.25) into (4.6.16),
Equation 4.6.26 is called the filter algebraic Riccati equation (FARE). The important statistical properties of the Kalman filter (Anderson and Moore, 1990) are as follows: 1. The state error vector is orthogonal to estimate the state vector in the following sense: E ( x xˆ T ) = 0
(4.6.27)
v (t ) = y (t ) − Cxˆ (t )
(4.6.28)
2. The signal
is white noise with zero mean, and is called the innovation process. Furthermore, E (v (t )v T (t + τ)) = Θδ(τ)
(4.6.29)
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EXAMPLE 4.6: A SIMPLE MASS (FIGURE 4.9) OR A DOUBLE INTEGRATOR SYSTEM WITH STOCHASTIC DISTURBANCES Consider the problem of finding an optimal state estimator for the system ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣0
⎡0 ⎤ 1 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ u (t ) + ⎢ ⎥ g (t ) 0 ⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦ ⎣1⎦
(4.6.30)
⎡ x (t ) ⎤ 0 ⎤⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎥ + θ(t ) ⎣ x2 (t ) ⎦
(4.6.31)
and
y (t ) = ⎡⎣1 Let
E ( g (t ) g (t − τ)) = δ(t − τ)
(4.6.32)
E (θ(t )θ(t − τ)) = ρδ(t − τ)
(4.6.33)
and
Therefore, ⎡0 W =⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎦
and
Θ=ρ
(4.6.34)
Define ⎡Σ Σ = ⎢ 11 ⎣ Σ12
Σ12 ⎤ ⎥ Σ 22 ⎦
(4.6.35)
Then, ⎡Σ AΣ = ⎢ 12 ⎣ 0
ΣC T
Σ 22 ⎤ ⎥; 0 ⎦
⎡Σ ΣAT = ( AΣ)T = ⎢ 12 ⎣ Σ 22
1 1 ⎡ Σ2 C Σ = ⎢ 11 ρ ρ ⎣ Σ11Σ12
Σ11Σ12 ⎤ ⎥ 2 Σ12 ⎦
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
(4.6.36a,b)
(4.6.37)
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Equation 4.6.26 yields the following three algebraic equations:
2 Σ12 −
Σ 22 −
1−
2 Σ11 =0 ρ
(4.6.38)
Σ11Σ12 =0 ρ
(4.6.39)
2 Σ12 =0 ρ
(4.6.40)
Solving these three equations simultaneously, ⎡ 2 ρ0.75 Σ=⎢ ⎢⎣ ρ
ρ ⎤ ⎥>0 2 ρ0.25 ⎥⎦
(4.6.41)
From (4.6.25), ⎡ 2 / ρ0.25 ⎤ ⎥ L=⎢ ⎢⎣ 1 / ρ ⎥⎦
(4.6.42)
For ρ = 0.01, Equation 4.6.41 yields ⎡0.0447 Σ=⎢ ⎣ 0.1
0.1 ⎤ ⎥ 0.4472 ⎦
(4.6.43)
The errors in states from numerical simulations are presented in Figure 4.12 and Figure 4.13. Also, ⎡ 0.0461 Σ sim = ⎢ ⎣0.1012 MATLAB PROGRAM 4.2: KALMAN FILTER % clear all close all
0.1012 ⎤ ⎥ 0.4603 ⎦
(4.6.44)
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1 ρ = 0.01 0.8
ΔT = 0.1
Error in Estimate of x1
0.6 0.4 0.2 0
–0.2 –0.4 –0.6 0
5
10
15
20
25 30 time (sec)
35
40
45
50
45
50
FIGURE 4.12 Error x1 (t ) from the Kalman filter (Matlab Program 4.2). 2 ρ = 0.01 1.5 ΔT = 0.1
Error in Estimate of x2
1 0.5 0 –0.5 –1 –1.5 –2 –2.5
0
5
10
15
20
25 30 time (sec)
35
40
FIGURE 4.13 Error x 2 (t ) from the Kalman filter (Matlab Program 4.2).
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global wthC Aobs % rho=0.01; SIGMA=[sqrt(2)*(rho^0.75) sqrt(rho);sqrt(rho) sqrt(2)*(rho^0.25)] delt=0.1; % load rand_chap4 w=wone/sqrt(delt); load th_rand_chap4 th=sqrt(rho)*thone/sqrt(delt); % A=[0 1;0 0]; L=[sqrt(2)/(rho^0.25) sqrt(1/rho)]'; C=[1 0]; Aobs=AL*C; % % disp_er(1)=1; Vel_er(1)=0.0; tv(1)=0; tinit=0; % for i=2:5000 tf=tinit+delt; wC=w(i1); thC=th(i1); wthC=[0;wC]L*thC; [t,Y]=ode45(@ex4p6KF,[tinit tf],[disp_er(i1) Vel_er(i1)]); yud=flipud(Y);
207
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tv(i)=tf; disp_er(i)=yud(1,1); Vel_er(i)=yud(1,2); tinit=tf; end % function dx=ex4p6KF(t,x) % global wthC Aobs % dx=zeros(2,1); dx=Aobs*x+wthC;
4.7 STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL REGULATOR IN STEADY STATE It is assumed that all states are known. However, the plant dynamics is subjected to stochastic disturbances.
STATE DYNAMICS x (t ) = Ax (t ) + Bu(t ) + w(t )
(4.7.1)
The vector w(t ) is a stochastic process called process (or plant) noise. It is assumed that w(t ) is a continuoustime Gaussian white noise vector (Appendix D). Its mathematical characterization is E ( w(t )) = 0
(4.7.2)
E ( w(t ) w T (t + τ)) = W δ(τ)
(4.7.3)
and
The matrix W is called the intensity matrix with the property W = W T > 0.
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OBJECTIVE FUNCTION Minimize ⎧⎪ 1 J = lim E ⎨ t f →∞ ⎪⎩ t f
tf
∫ 0
⎫⎪ [ xT (t )Qx(t ) + uT (t )Ru(t )dt ]⎬ ⎪⎭
(4.7.4)
Let the optimal control be u(t ) = − K x (t )
(4.7.5)
x (t ) = ( A − BK ) x (t ) + w(t )
(4.7.6)
Then, from (4.7.1),
Assuming that the matrix ( A − BK ) is stable, E ( x (t )) → 0
as
t→∞
(4.7.7)
and ( A − BK ) M + M ( A − BK )T + W = 0
(4.7.8)
where M is the steady state covariance matrix defined as M = lim E (x(t )xT (t )) t →∞
(4.7.9)
Assuming the asymptotic stability of the closedloop system, Equation 4.7.4 can also be written as J = lim E {xT (t )Qx(t ) + uT (t ) Ru(t )} t →∞
(4.7.10)
Equation 4.7.10 can be rewritten as J = lim E {tr (x(t )xT (t )Q + u(t )uT (t )R)} t →∞
Using (4.7.5) and interchanging E(.) and tr operations,
(4.7.11)
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J = tr ( MQ + KMK T R )
(4.7.12)
Problem Find K such that J Equation 4.7.12 is minimized subject to constraints (4.7.8). Solution First, Equation 4.7.12 is rewritten as J = tr ( MQ + RKMK T )
(4.7.13)
Introducing a symmetric matrix P as the Lagrange multiplier, g ( M , K , P ) = tr ( MQ + RKMK T ) + tr (U ( M , K ) P )
(4.7.14)
where U ( M , K ) is the lefthand side of Equation 4.7.8. As a result, g( M , K , P ) = tr ( MQ + RKMK T ) + tr (( A − BK )MP ) + tr ( M ( A − BK )T P ) + tr (WP )
(4.7.15)
Using the Lemma for the optimal solution (Appendix E), ∂g = M ( A − BK )T + ( A − BK ) M + W = 0 ∂P
(4.7.16)
∂g = RKM + RKM − BT PM − BT PM = 2 ( RK − BT P ) M = 0 ∂K
(4.7.17)
∂g = Q + K T RK + ( A − BK )T P + P ( A − BK ) = 0 ∂M
(4.7.18)
For a stable ( A − BK ) , M > 0 from the wellknown result of the solution of the Lyapunov equation (Chapter 2, Section 2.15). Hence, from Equation 4.7.17, K = R −1BT P
(4.7.19)
Substituting (4.7.19) into (4.7.18), the Riccati equation is obtained: PA + AT P − PBR −1BT P + Q = 0
(4.7.20)
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211
To find the optimal value of the objective function, Equation 4.7.13 is written as J = tr ( MQ + MK T RK ) = tr ( M (Q + K T RK ))
(4.7.21)
Then, using (4.7.18) and (4.7.16), J = tr (WP ) = tr ( PW )
(4.7.22)
u = −K x (t )
(4.7.23)
K = R −1BT P
(4.7.24)
PA + AT P − PBR −1BT P + Q = 0
(4.7.25)
Summary The optimal control law is
The minimum value of J is J = tr ( PW )
(4.7.26)
EXAMPLE 4.7: ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM Consider that the road profile, x0 (t ), is a white noise (Chapter 3, Example 3.11) with the following statistics: E ( x0 (t ) x0 (t + τ)) = νδ(τ)
(4.7.27)
In this case, the state equations are written as
⎡ 0 ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ x2 ⎥ = ⎢ λ ⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ m1 ⎢⎣ x 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 where
0 0
1 0
0
0
0
0
⎡ 0 ⎤ 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ ⎤ x 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎥ x ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ + ⎢− ⎥ u (t ) + w(t ) ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ x3 m1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢x ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢⎣ m2 ⎥⎦
(4.7.28)
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w(t ) = b w x0 (t )
b Tw = [0
0
λ1 m1
(4.7.29a)
0]
(4.7.29b)
From (4.7.27) and (4.7.29), W = b w b Tw ν2
(4.7.30)
u (t ) = −kx
(4.7.31)
Then the controller
where k computed by (3.5.84) minimizes the following objective function: J = lim E {xT (t )Qx(t ) + ρu 2 } t →∞
(4.7.32)
From (4.7.26) and (4.7.30), the minimum value of the objective function will be
J = (P11 + P22 + P33 + P44 ) ν2
EXAMPLE 4.8: A SIMPLE MASS
OR A
λ12 m12
(4.7.33)
DOUBLE INTEGRATOR SYSTEM
Consider the system (4.6.30) again. Weighting matrices Q and R are chosen as follows: ⎡1 Q=⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
and
p12 ⎤ ⎥ p22 ⎦
with
R = ρc
(4.7.34a,b)
Define ⎡p P = ⎢ 11 ⎣ p21
p12 = p21
(4.7.35)
From Equation 4.7.25, the following nonlinear algebraic equations are obtained:
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−
2 p12 +1= 0 ρc
2 p12 −
p11 −
2 p22 =0 ρc
p12 p22 =0 ρc
(4.7.36a)
(4.7.36b)
(4.7.36c)
Solving Equations 4.7.36a to Equation 4.7.36c simultaneously, ⎡ 2 ρc P=⎢ ⎢⎣ ρc
⎤ ⎥ 2 0.5 ρc0.75 ⎥⎦
(4.7.37)
K = [ ρc
2 0.5 ρc0.75 ]
(4.7.38)
⎡0 PW = ⎢ ⎢⎣0
ρc ⎤ ⎥ 2 ρ0c .75 ⎥⎦
(4.7.39)
J = tr ( PW ) = 2 0.5 ρc0.75
(4.7.40)
ρc
From (4.7.24),
From (4.7.37) and (4.6.34),
0.5
From (4.7.26),
For ρc = 0.05 , Equation 4.7.40 yields J = 0.1495 From numerical simulation (Matlab Program 4.3), Jsim = 0.1581 The response x1 (t ) is shown in Figure 4.14.
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1 ρc = 0.05
0.8
ΔT = 0.1 0.6
Displacement, x2(t)
0.4 0.2 0 –0.2 –0.4 –0.6 –0.8
0
20
40
60
80
100 120 time (sec)
140
160
180
FIGURE 4.14 Displacement x1 (t ) from stochastic regulator (Matlab Program 4.3).
MATLAB PROGRAM 4.3: STOCHASTIC REGULATOR % clear all close all global wC Acl % rhoc=0.05; delt=0.1; % load rand_chap4 w=wone/sqrt(delt); % A=[0 1;0 0]; K=[sqrt(1/rhoc) sqrt(2)/(rhoc^0.25)]; B=[0 1]';
200
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Acl=AB*K; % J=sqrt(2)*(rhoc)^0.75 % disp(1)=1; Vel(1)=0.0; tv(1)=0; tinit=0; % for i=2:5000 tf=tinit+delt; wC=w(i1); [t,Y]=ode45(@ex4stochR,[tinit tf],[disp(i1) Vel(i1)]); yud=flipud(Y); tv(i)=tf; disp(i)=yud(1,1); Vel(i)=yud(1,2); uin(i)=K(1)*disp(i)K(2)*Vel(i); tinit=tf; end function dx=ex4stochR(t,x) % global wC Acl % dx=zeros(2,1); dx=Acl*x+[0;1]*wC;
4.8 LINEAR QUADRATIC GAUSSIAN (LQG) CONTROL It is assumed that all states are not known. The plant dynamics and output measurements are subjected to stochastic disturbances.
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STATE DYNAMICS x (t ) = Ax (t ) + Bu(t ) + w(t )
(4.8.1)
The vector w(t ) is a stochastic process called process (or plant) noise. It is assumed that w(t ) is a continuoustime Gaussian white noise vector. Its mathematical characterization is E ( w(t )) = 0
(4.8.2)
E ( w(t ) w T (t + τ)) = W δ(τ)
(4.8.3)
and
The matrix W is called the intensity matrix with the property W = W T ≥ 0.
MEASUREMENT EQUATION y(t ) = Cx(t ) + θ(t )
(4.8.4)
where y(t ) is the sensor noise vector and θ(t ) is a continuoustime Gaussian white noise vector. It is assumed that E (θ(t )) = 0
(4.8.5)
E (θ(t )θT (t + τ )) = Θδ( τ )
(4.8.6)
and
where Θ = ΘT > 0. It is also assumed that process and measurement noise vectors are uncorrelated; i.e., E (θ(t )wT (t + τ )) = E (θ(t ))E (wT (t + τ )) = 0
(4.8.7)
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION Minimize ⎧ ⎪1 J = lim E ⎨ t f →∞ ⎪⎩ t f
tf
∫ 0
⎫ ⎪ [ xT (t )Qx(t ) + uT (t )Ru(t )dt ]⎬ ⎪⎭
(4.8.8)
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Assuming the asymptotic stability of the closedloop system, Equation 4.8.8 can also be written as J = lim E {xT (t )Qx(t ) + uT (t ) Ru(t )} t →∞
(4.8.9)
Let the states be estimated by the Kalman filter (4.6.8) with the observer gain L given by (4.6.25). Substituting x = xˆ + x , T Q ) + 2tr ( x xˆ T Q ) (4.8.10) x T Qx = xˆ T Qxˆ + x T Qx + 2 xˆ T Qx = xˆ T Qxˆ + tr ( xx Substituting (4.8.10) into (4.8.19), interchanging tr and E(.) operations, and using the orthogonality property (4.6.27), J = lim E {xˆ T (t )Qxˆ (t ) + uT (t )Ru(t )} + tr ( ΣQ )
(4.8.11)
xˆ = Axˆ + Bu(t ) + Lv (t )
(4.8.12)
t →∞
where
and v(t ) is a white noise defined by (4.6.28). Because the second term tr ( ΣQ ) in (4.8.11) is a constant, the minimization of J (Equation 4.8.11) subject to constraints (4.8.12) is the stochastic regulator problem solved in Section 4.6. Therefore, the optimal control law is u(t ) = − K xˆ (t )
(4.8.13)
where K is defined by (4.7.24) and (4.7.25). In summary, the optimal control law is obtained by separately solving the optimal estimation problem and the deterministic LQ control problem. This is known as the separation theorem. The LQG control system is developed by completing the following steps (Athans, 1992): Step I: The optimal state estimator xˆ = Axˆ + Bu(t ) + L ( y (t ) − Cxˆ )
(4.8.14)
L = ΣC T Θ −1
(4.8.15)
where
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and AΣ + ΣAT + W − ΣC T Θ −1C Σ = 0
(4.8.16)
Equation 4.8.16 is known as the filter algebraic Riccati equation (FARE). Step II: The optimal control law is u(t ) = − K xˆ (t )
(4.8.17)
K = R −1BT P
(4.8.18)
PA + AT P − PBR −1BT P + Q = 0
(4.8.19)
where
and
Equation 4.8.19 is known as the control algebraic Riccati equation (CARE).
CLOSEDLOOP SYSTEM DYNAMICS Define the state error vector as x = x − xˆ
(4.8.20)
Substituting (4.8.18) and (4.8.20) into (4.8.1), x = ( A − BK ) x (t ) + BK x (t ) + w(t )
(4.8.21)
Subtracting (4.8.14) from (4.8.1), x = ( A − LC )x − Lθ(t ) + w(t )
(4.8.22)
Putting (4.8.21) and (4.8.22) in the matrix form, ⎡x ⎤ ⎡ A − BK ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢⎣x ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 Equation 4.8.23 is equivalent to
BK ⎤⎡x⎤ ⎡ w(tt ) ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ A − LC ⎦⎣x ⎦ ⎣w(t ) − Lθ(t )⎦
(4.8.23)
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219
⎡x ⎤ ⎡ A ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢⎣xˆ ⎥⎦ ⎣ LC
MINIMUM VALUE
OF THE
⎤⎡x⎤ ⎡ w(t ) ⎤ − BK ⎥⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ A − BK − LC ⎦⎣xˆ ⎦ ⎣ Lθ(t )⎦
(4.8.24)
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Drawing analogy with the stochastic regulator problem, lim E {xˆ T (t )Qxˆ (t ) + uT (t )Ru(t )} = tr ( PLΘLT )
(4.8.25)
E ( Lv (t )v T (t + τ) LT ) = L ΘLT δ(τ)
(4.8.26)
t →∞
where
Therefore, using (4.8.11), the minimum value of the objective function is given by
{
} { }
J = tr PL ΘLT + tr ΣQ
(4.8.27)
EXAMPLE 4.9: A SIMPLE MASS OR A DOUBLE INTEGRATOR SYSTEM (LQG CONTROL) Consider the system (4.6.30) again. The weighting matrices Q and R in (4.8.8) are also defined by Equation 4.7.34a and Equation 4.7.34b. Then, from (4.8.27), J = ρ[21 2 ρc + 2 1 2 ρc + 2 22 ρc0.75 ] + 2 ρ0.75
(4.8.28)
where from Equation 4.6.42,
1 =
2 ρ0.25
and
2 =
1 ρ
(4.8.29)
Substituting (4.8.29) into (4.8.28), J = 2 2 ρc ( ρ + ρ0.25 ) + 2 (ρc0.75 + ρ0.75 )
(4.8.30)
For ρ = 0.01 and ρc = 0.05 , J = 0.5357 From numerical simulations (Matlab Program 4.4),
(4.8.31)
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1.5
ρc = 0.05
ρ = 0.01
ΔT = 0.1
1
0.5
x1(t)
0
–0.5
–1
–1.5
–2
0
20
40
60
80
100 120 time (sec)
140
160
180
200
FIGURE 4.15 Displacement x1 (t ) from the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control (Matlab Program 4.4).
Jsim = 0.5529 The response x1 (t ) is shown in Figure 4.15. MATLAB PROGRAM 4.4: LQG CONTROL % clear all close all global wC thC K L % rho=0.01; rhoc=0.05; delt=0.1; % load rand_chap4
(4.8.32)
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w=wone/sqrt(delt); load th_rand_chap4 th=sqrt(rho)*thone/sqrt(delt); % A=[0 1;0 0]; B=[0 1]'; C=[1 0]; % L=[sqrt(2)/(rho^0.25) sqrt(1/rho)]'; K=[sqrt(1/rhoc) sqrt(2)/(rhoc^0.25)]; % J=2*sqrt(2*rhoc)*((rhoc)^0.5+(rho)^0.25)+sqrt(2)*((r hoc)^0.75+(rho)^0.75) % disp(1)=1; Vel(1)=0.0; disph(1)=0; Velh(1)=0; tv(1)=0; tinit=0; % for i=2:5000 tf=tinit+delt; wC=w(i1); thC=th(i1); [t,Y]=ode45(@ex4p6lqg,[tinit tf],[disp(i1) Vel(i1) disph(i1) Velh(i1)]); yud=flipud(Y); tv(i)=tf; disp(i)=yud(1,1); Vel(i)=yud(1,2);
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disph(i)=yud(1,3); Velh(i)=yud(1,4); uin(i)=K(1)*disph(i)K(2)*Velh(i); tinit=tf; end % function dx=ex4p6lqg(t,x) % global wC thC K L % dx=zeros(4,1); u=K(1)*x(3)K(2)*x(4); dx(1)=x(2); dx(2)=u+wC; dx(3)=x(4)+L(1)*(x(1)+thCx(3)); dx(4)=u+L(2)*(x(1)+thCx(3));
4.9 IMPACT OF MODELING ERRORS ON OBSERVERBASED CONTROL 4.9.1 STRUCTURED PARAMETRIC UNCERTAINTIES Consider the state space model of the plant: x = Ax (t ) + Bu(t )
(4.9.1)
y (t ) = Cx (t )
(4.9.2)
The elements of matrices A, B, and C are assumed to be uncertain. This type of modeling error is known as a structured parametric error because the structure of the model is considered accurate, only the parameters of the model are not well known. Let Aˆ , Bˆ , and Cˆ be estimates of A, B, and C, respectively. Then, the observerbased controller can be defined as u = −K xˆ
(4.9.3)
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223
xˆ = Aˆ xˆ + Bˆ u + L ( y − Cˆxˆ )
(4.9.4)
Combining (4.9.1) through (4.9.4), the closedloop system dynamics is defined as ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡x ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = Asysp ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ xˆ ⎦ ⎣ xˆ ⎦
(4.9.5)
where ⎡ A Asysp = ⎢ ⎢⎣ LC
⎤ − BK ˆ − LCˆ ⎥⎥ Aˆ − BK ⎦
(4.9.6)
ˆ ) and ( Aˆ − LCˆ ). In fact, it is Now, eigenvalues of Asysp are not those of ( Aˆ − BK possible that the closedloop system is unstable under parametric errors. EXAMPLE 4.10: BENCHMARK ROBUST CONTROL PROBLEM (WIE AND BERNSTEIN, 1992) The differential equations of motion for the system in Figure 4.16 are m1q1 + k (q1 − q2 ) = u
(4.9.7)
m2 q2 + k (q2 − q1 ) = 0
(4.9.8)
x1 = q1 , x2 = q2 , x3 = q1 , and x 4 = q2
(4.9.9)
Defining states as
The state space model is x = Ax + Bu
(4.9.10)
y = Cx
(4.9.11)
q1 u
q2 k
m1
FIGURE 4.16 A twomass system.
m2
y
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where ⎡ 0 ⎢ 0 A=⎢ ⎢ − k / m1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ k / m2
0 0 k / m1 − k / m2 C = ⎡⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ; 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
1 0 0 0
1
⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ B=⎢ ⎢1 / m1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
0 ⎤⎦
0
(4.9.12)
(4.9.13)
Let estimates of parameters k, m1, and m2 be kˆ , mˆ 1, and mˆ 2 , respectively. Then, ⎡ 0 ⎢ 0 ˆ A = ⎢⎢ ˆ − k / mˆ 1 ⎢ ˆ ⎣⎢ k / mˆ 2
0 0
1 0
kˆ / mˆ 1 − kˆ / mˆ
0
2
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ; 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
0
⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ Bˆ = ⎢ ⎢1 / mˆ 1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
(4.9.14)
Let kˆ = 1, mˆ 1 = 1, and mˆ 2 = 1. When there is no modeling errors, eigenvalues of Asysp are controller poles ( −0.1 ± 1.414 j , 0.1, and 0.1) and observer poles (–0.4 ± 1.414j, –0.4, and –0.4). Associated vectors K and L are as follows: LT = [0.256
1.6
−0.6144
0.96 ]
(4.9.15)
0.004]
(4.9.16)
and K = [0.06
−0.0399
0.4
Let k = 0.5 , kˆ = 1 , mˆ 1 = m1 = 1, and mˆ 2 = m2 = 1. The observer and controller gain vectors L and K are again chosen by Equation 4.9.15 and Equation 4.9.16, respectively. In this case, kˆ ≠ k , and the eigenvalues of Asysp are 1.0085, –0.0881, –0.1231, –1.1567, −0.4989 ± 1.4805 j , and −0.3214 ± 0.0955 j . That is, the closedloop system has become unstable.
4.9.2 UNMODELED DYNAMICS Let the dynamics of a system be given as x = Ax + Bu
(4.9.17)
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x R = AR x R + BR u
(4.9.18)
y (t ) = Cx + C R x R
(4.9.19)
and
Here, the controller will be designed on the basis of state equations (4.9.17) only, and state equations (4.9.18) will become residual or unmodeled dynamics. The observerbased controller is u = −K xˆ
(4.9.20)
xˆ = Aˆ xˆ + Bˆ u + L ( y − Cˆxˆ )
(4.9.21)
Because of nonzero BR , the input designed to control the system (4.9.17) will also influence unmodeled dynamics. The term BR is also known as the control spillover. Similarly, because of nonzero C R , the measurement data (Equation 4.9.19) will contain unmodeled dynamics also. The term C R is also known as the observation spillover (Balas, 1978). Define estimated state error vector x as x (t ) = x (t ) − xˆ (t )
(4.9.22)
The complete closedloop system dynamics is represented by ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡x⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x ⎥ = Asys ⎢ x ⎥ ⎢ x R ⎥ ⎢xR ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
(4.9.23)
where
Asys
⎡ A − BK ⎢ =⎢ 0 ⎢ − BR K ⎣
BK A − LC BR K
0 ⎤ ⎥ LC R ⎥ AR ⎥⎦
(4.9.24)
When C R = 0 , eigenvalues of Asys are same as those of ( A − BK ) , ( A − LC ), and AR . However, when C R ≠ 0 , eigenvalues of Asys are not same as those of ( A − BK ) , ( A − LC ), and AR , and it is possible to get an unstable closedloop system in spite of ( A − BK ) , ( A − LC ) , and AR being stable.
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EXAMPLE 4.11: FLEXIBLE MODE ROBUST CONTROL PROBLEM
AS THE
UNMODELED DYNAMICS
IN THE
BENCHMARK
Assume that m1 = m2 = m . Without an input, Equation 4.9.7 and Equation 4.9.8 can be written in matrix form as + K q = 0 Mq
(4.9.25)
where ⎡m M=⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ m⎦
and
⎡k K=⎢ ⎣− k
−k ⎤ ⎥ k ⎦
(4.9.26a,b)
Natural frequencies and modal vectors are computed by solving the following eigenvalue problem: (−ω 2 M + K )q 0 = 0
(4.9.27)
Natural frequencies are found to be ω12 = 0
and
ω 22 =
2k m
(4.9.28)
and modal vectors are as follows: Rigid mode: ⎡⎣1
1⎤⎦
T
corresponding to ω12 = 0
(4.9.29)
corresponding to ω 22 = 2 k / m
(4.9.30)
and Flexible mode: ⎡⎣1
−1⎤⎦
T
Now, a displacement vector can be represented as a linear combination of these modal vectors: ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎡ r1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = Φ⎢ ⎥ ⎣q2 ⎦ ⎣r2 ⎦
(4.9.31)
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227
where ⎡1 Φ=⎢ ⎣1
1⎤ ⎥ −1⎦
(4.9.32)
Substituting (4.9.31) into (4.9.25) with the input and premultiplying both sides by ΦT , r1 =
1 u 2m
(4.9.33)
and
r2 + ω 22 r2 =
1 u 2m
(4.9.34)
Equation 4.9.33 represents the rigid body mode, whereas Equation 4.9.34 represents the vibratory mode. The output equation from (4.9.11) is y (t ) = q2 = r1 − r2
(4.9.35)
Let the controller be designed on the basis of the rigid mode only. Then, the state space model for the controlled mode will be ⎡ p1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ p 2 ⎦ ⎣0
1 ⎤ ⎡ p1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥+ ⎢ ⎥u 0 ⎦ ⎣ p2 ⎦ ⎣1 / 2 m ⎦
(4.9.36)
where p1 = r1
and
p2 = r1
(4.9.37)
The state space model for the residual mode (4.9.34) will be ⎡ z1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ 2 ⎣ z2 ⎦ ⎣ −ω 2
1 ⎤ ⎡ z1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥+ ⎢ ⎥u 0 ⎦ ⎣ z2 ⎦ ⎣1 / 2 m ⎦
(4.9.38)
z2 = r2
(4.9.39)
where z1 = r2
and
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Equation 4.9.35, Equation 4.9.36, and Equation 4.9.38 can be cast as Equation 4.9.17 to Equation 4.9.19 where ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣0
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
⎡ 0 AR = ⎢ 2 ⎣ −ω 2 C = ⎡⎣1
⎡ 0 ⎤ B=⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 / 2 m ⎦
1⎤ ⎥ 0⎦ 0 ⎤⎦
⎡ 0 ⎤ BR = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 / 2 m ⎦ C R = − ⎡⎣1
0 ⎤⎦
EXERCISE PROBLEMS P4.1
Consider a simple electromagnetic suspension system shown in Figure P4.1. The electromagnetic force fm is given by I
h0
x (t )
fm
mg
FIGURE P4.1 An electromagnetic suspension system.
fm = α
I2 h2
(P4.1.1)
where I and h are coil current and air gap, respectively. The constant α = μ 0 NAp 2 where μ 0 , N, and Ap are air permeability, number of coil turns, and the face area per single pole of the magnet, respectively. Let h0 be the desired air gap. Then, the current I 0 is calculated from the following static equilibrium condition:
α
I 02 = mg h02
(P4.1.2)
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Let x(t) be the dynamic displacement of the mass with respect to the static equilibrium position. The nonlinear differential equation of motion is mx = −mg + α
( I 0 + i)2 ( h0 − x )2
(P4.1.3)
where i is the incremental current. Linearizing (P4.1.3) around the static equilibrium condition, mx = k x x + ki i(t )
(P4.1.4)
where kx = 2α
P4.2
I 02 h03
and
ki = 2 α
I0 h02
(P4.1.5a,b)
The system parameters for simulation (Fujita et al., 1995) are as follows: μ 0 = 0.000001258 N / A2 , Ap = 0.000146 m 2, h0 = 0.000508m , m = 0.3 kg. a. Assuming that the output is x(t), design a fullorder observer. Present simulation results. b. Assuming that the output is x(t), design a reducedorder observer. Present simulation results. c. Develop a combined observercontroller system with the fullorder observer. Your answer should contain a combined observercontroller transfer function. Present simulation results. d. Develop a combined observercontroller system with the reducedorder observer. Your answer should contain a combined observercontroller transfer function. Present simulation results. Consider a plant with the following state space realization: dx = Ax (t ) + bu (t ) ; dt
y (t ) = cx (t )
where ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣ −3
⎡0 ⎤ 1⎤ ⎥ , b = ⎢ ⎥ , and c = [1 1] 4⎦ ⎣1⎦
a. Develop a combined observercontroller system. Place the state feedback controller poles at –1 and –2, and let both the observer poles be at –4. Give all the equations necessary for implementing your controller in real time.
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
b. Find the observercontroller transfer function relating u(s) and y(s). c. Demonstrate the performance of the controller via numerical simulations. Consider the model for longitudinal pressure oscillation in a uniform chamber (Problem P3.19). The outputs yi (t ) (unsteady pressures) are obtained by p sensors located at zsi : n
yi (t ) = p
∑ ψ (z )η (t) ;
si
i = 1, 2, …, p
=1
P4.4
a. Design a fullorder observer with n = 4 and p = 1. Assume that the sensor is located at α / 7.5 . b. Assuming that sensors and actuators are collocated at α / 7.5 , design a combined observercontroller system with n = 4 and p = 1. Demonstrate the performance of your controller via numerical simulations. Consider the system dx ⎡1 =⎢ dt ⎣0
1⎤ ⎡0⎤ ⎥ x + ⎢ ⎥ u (t ) + ξ(t ) 1⎦ ⎣1⎦
y (t ) = [1
0 ]x (t ) + θ(t )
where ξ(t ) and θ(t ) are zero mean Gaussian white noise processes with ⎡1 E[ ξ(t )ξT (t + τ )] = σ ⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ δ( τ ) 1⎦
E [θ(t )θ(t + τ)] = 1δ(τ)
P4.5
a. Find the steady state Kalman filter gain matrix for two different values of σ , 2 and 0.2. b. Demonstrate the performance of the Kalman filter via numerical simulations for both the values of σ . Discuss your results. Hint: Use Matlab routines: randn and ode23 or ode45. Consider the system dx ⎡1 =⎢ dt ⎣0
1⎤ ⎡0⎤ ⎥ x + ⎢ ⎥ u (t ) + ξ(t ) 1⎦ ⎣1⎦
y (t ) = ⎡⎣1
0 ⎤⎦ x + θ(t )
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231
where ξ(t ) and θ(t)) are zero mean Gaussian white noise processes with ⎡0.5 E[ ξ(t )ξT (t + τ )] = ⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ δ( τ ) 0.5⎦
E [θ(t )θ(t + τ)] = δ(τ) a. Design the LQG controller to minimize the following objective function: lim E ( y 2 (t ) + u 2 (t )) t →∞
P4.6
b. Demonstrate the performance of your controller via numerical simulations. Hint: Use Matlab routines: ODE45 and randn. Consider the flexible tetrahedral truss structure (Appendix F). The controller is to be designed on the basis of the first four modes of vibration. Design an LQG controller with collocated sensors and actuators such that ⎧⎪ 1 J = lim E ⎨ t f →∞ t ⎪⎩ f
P4.7
tf
∫ 0
⎫⎪ [ yT (t )y(t ) + 0.1uT (t )u(t )dt ]⎬ ⎪⎭
is minimized. Introduce fictitious noises w(t) and θ(t ) (Equation 4.6.1 and Equation 4.6.4), where W = I 8 and Θ = I 3. a. Find the controller transfer matrix and determine its stability. b. Demonstrate the performance of your controller via numerical simulations. For the control of thermoacoustic instability (Annaswamy et al., 2000), a microphone and a loudspeaker are used as a sensor (Figure P4.7) and the actuator, respectively. The plant transfer function is derived to be Loudspeaker Microphone y (s )
u(s ) G (s )
G (s )
K (s )
FIGURE P4.7 Control of thermoacoustic instability.
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G ( s ) = 2.15 × 10 5
s 2 − 83s + 7.70 × 10 6 ( s + 440 ) ( s + 14.9 )( s 2 + 407 s + 1.03x10 6 ) s 2 − 63s + 9.41 × 10 6
The transfer function of the loudspeaker is given by
G ( s ) =
35.5 s 2 s + 364 s + 3.320 × 10 6 2
a. Design an LQG controller such that lim E ( y 2 (t ) + u 2 (t )) t →∞
P4.8
is minimized. Introduce fictitious noises w(t) and θ(t ) (Equation 4.6.1 and Equation 4.6.4), where W = I and Θ = 1 . b. Demonstrate the performance of your controller via numerical simulations. Consider the singlelink manipulator (Figure P4.8a) modeled by Cannon and Schmitz (1984). This model is the same as that in P3.4 except that the massmoment of inertia of the hub, I h , is included here. Defining IT = I h + Iα , Tip
w( L, t ) torque u(t) Ih
w( x, t ) x (t )
L
FIGURE P4.8A A singlelink flexible manipulator.
y ( L, s ) L 1 = + 2 u (s ) IT IT s
∞
∑s i=1
2
βi + 2 ξ i ω i s + ω i2
where I T = 0.44 kgm2 and L = 1 m. Parameters βi , ξ i , and ω i are experimentally identified and listed in Table P4.8.
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TABLE P4.8 Parameter Values Mode i
ωi , Hz
ξi
βi
1 2 3
1.8 3.5 8.4
0.05 0.02 0.02
–2.8830 1.4950 –0.5940
a. On the basis of the rigid and the first mode, design an LQG controller klqg (s ) (Banavar and Dominic, 1995) to minimize the following objective function: E (0.25 y 2 ( L, t ) + 3000 u 2 (t )) Introduce fictitious noises w(t) and θ(t ) (Equation 4.6.1 and Equation 4.6.4), where W = 0.1I4 and Θ = 100. b. Find the feedforward function k f in Figure P4.8b such that the unit step response has a zero steady state error. v (t )
kf
k lqg (s )
y ( L, t )
u(t ) G (s )
FIGURE P4.8B Linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control system.
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5
Robust Control: Fundamental Concepts and H2, H∞, and μ Techniques
First, fundamental concepts for robust control are developed. Then, the robustness of liner quadratic (LQ) and liner quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control techniques developed in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 are examined. Lastly, theories for H 2, H ∞, and μ techniques are presented along with Bode’s sensitivity integrals and illustrative examples.
5.1 IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF SINGULAR VALUE ANALYSIS 5.1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM SINGULAR VALUES OF THE TRANSFER FUNCTION MATRIX A FREQUENCY
AT
Consider a multiinput/multioutput (MIMO) system with the p × m transfer function matrix G(s); i.e., y (s ) = G (s )u(s )
(5.1.1)
where y(s ) and u(s ) are output and input vectors, respectively. Let the input vector be sinusoidal with the frequency ω; i.e., u(t ) = e jωt a u
(5.1.2)
where a u = ⎡⎣ au1
au 2
.
.
aum ⎤⎦
T
(5.1.3)
235
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and the corresponding steady state output vector be y (t ) = e jωt a y
(5.1.4)
where a y = ⎡⎣ ay 1
ay 2
.
ayp ⎤⎦
.
T
(5.1.5)
It is well known that a y = G ( jω )a u
(5.1.6)
Bode magnitude plots for a single input/single output (SISO) system is generalized to a MIMO system by plotting all the singular values (Appendix C) of the matrix G ( jω ) as a function of the frequency ω. The plots of maximum ( σ (G ( jω )) ) and minimum ( σ (G ( jω )) ) singular values have a special signiﬁcance because of the following relationship (Maciejowski, 1989):
σ (G ( jω )) ≤
G ( jω )a u au
=
a y (ω ) au
≤ σ (G ( jω ))
(5.1.7)
Therefore, the maximum and the minimum singular values of G ( jω ) are upper and lower bounds of the ratio of 2norms of amplitude vectors of the steady state output and the sinusoidal input of frequency ω. EXAMPLE 5.1.1: SPRINGMASSDAMPER SYSTEM Consider the springmassdamper system shown in Figure 5.1.1. Let the outputs of the system be displacements x1 and x2 of both masses, and the inputs be the forces u1 and u2 acting on masses. The state space model of the system is x = Ax + Bu
(5.1.8)
x1 (t )
x 2 (t )
u1 (t )
u2 ( t )
k1
k1 m
m k2
FIGURE 5.1.1 A springmassdamper system.
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237
y = Cx + Du
(5.1.9)
where y = ⎡⎣ x1
T
x2 ⎤⎦ ;
⎡ 0 A=⎢ −1 ⎣− M K
x = ⎡⎣ x1
⎤ ⎥; −M Cd ⎦
⎡k + k K=⎢ 1 2 ⎣ − k2
x1
x2
⎡0 ⎤ B=⎢ ⎥; ⎣I ⎦
I
−1
− k2 ⎤ ⎥; k1 + k2 ⎦
x2 ⎤⎦ ;
T
u = ⎡⎣u1
C = ⎡⎣ I
0 ⎤⎦ ;
⎡α Cd = ⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥; α⎦
⎡m M=⎢ ⎣0
u2 ⎤⎦
T
(5.1.10)
D=0
(5.1.11)
0⎤ ⎥ m⎦
(5.1.12)
The transfer function matrix relating inputs and outputs is described as follows: y (s ) = G (s )u(s )
(5.1.13)
G (s ) = C (sI − A)−1 B + D
(5.1.14)
where
is a square matrix of order 2. At any frequency ω, there will be two singular values of G ( jω ) . These singular values provide bounds of the magnitude of the frequency response (Equation 5.1.7). Using the Matlab command “sigma,” singular values are plotted in Figure 5.1.2 as a function of the frequency ω for m = 1 kg, k1 = 100 N / m , k2 = 500 N / m , and α = 1 N − sec/ m . It is interesting to observe that peaks of singular values are located near the natural frequencies of the system.
5.1.2 AN INEQUALITY
FOR
ROBUSTNESS TEST
Let A be a nonsingular matrix; i.e., σ( A) > 0
(5.1.15)
where σ( A) is the minimum singular value of the matrix A. Let us try to ﬁnd a perturbation matrix L of the smallest size in the sense of a 2norm such that the matrix (A+L) is singular or rank deﬁcient. In this case, there exists a nonzero vector x such that x =1 2
and
( A + L )x = 0
(5.1.16a,b)
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0
Max. σ(G(jω))
Singular Values (dB)
–20
–40
–60 Min. σ(G(jω))
–80
–100
–120 100
101
102
103
Frequency (rad/sec)
FIGURE 5.1.2 Singular values of the mechanical system in Figure 5.1.1.
Therefore, using properties of singular values (Appendix C), σ ( A) ≤ Ax = Lx ≤ L 2
2
2
= σ(L )
(5.1.17)
where σ( L ) is the maximum singular value of the matrix L. In other words, the singularity of the matrix (A+L) implies σ ( A) ≤ σ ( L ); i.e., the size of the perturbation matrix must be at least σ( A) . This analysis can also be viewed as the following condition for the nonsingularity of the matrix (A+L): σ ( A) > σ ( L )
(5.1.18)
The condition (5.1.18) serves as an inequality for the development of various robustness criteria.
5.2 ROBUSTNESS: SENSITIVITY AND COMPLEMENTARY SENSITIVITY 5.2.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS In Figure 5.2.1, the transfer function matrix for a MIMO system is denoted by G (s ) . The controller transfer function matrix is denoted by K (s ). Other variables are described as follows:
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d(s ) r (s )
u(s )
e (s )
K (s )
y (s ) G (s )
y ( s ) d( s )
n(s )
FIGURE 5.2.1 A multiinput/multioutput system with disturbances.
n(s ) : d(s ) : r(s ) : e(s ) :
Measurement or sensor noise vector Disturbance vector at the plant output Reference (external) input vector Tracking error vector
Analyzing the Figure 5.2.1 (Anderson and Moore, 1990), it is clear that y (s ) − d(s ) = G (s ) K (s )e(s )
(5.2.1)
e(s ) = r(s ) − ( y (s ) + n(s ))
(5.2.2)
and
Substituting (5.2.2) into (5.2.1), y (s ) = To (s )[r(s ) − n(s )] + So (s )d(s )
(5.2.3)
To (s ) = ( I + G (s ) K (s ))−1 G (s ) K (s )
(5.2.4)
So (s ) = ( I + G (s ) K (s ))−1
(5.2.5)
e(s ) = r(s ) − n(s ) − d(s ) − ( y (s ) − d(s ))
(5.2.6)
e(s ) = So (s )(r(s ) − d(s )) − So (s )n(s )
(5.2.7)
where
and
In addition, from (5.2.2),
Using (5.2.1),
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Also, u(s ) = K (s )e(s ) = K (s ) So (s )(r(s ) − d(s )) − K (s ) So (s )n(s )
(5.2.8)
Definitions 5.2.1 So (s ) = ( I + G (s ) K (s ))−1 is called the output sensitivity function. (5.2.9) To (s ) = ( I + G (s ) K (s ))−1 G (s ) K (s ) is called the output complementary sensitivity function. (5.2.10) Fact 5.2.1 To (s ) = ( I + G (s ) K (s ))−1 G (s ) K (s ) = G (s ) K (s )( I + G (s ) K (s ))−1
(5.2.11)
Proof ( I + GK )−1 GK = [(GK )−1 ( I + GK )]−1 = [(GK )−1 + I ]−1 = [( I + GK )(GK )−1 ]−1 = GK ( I + GK )−1 This completes the proof. Fact 5.2.2 So (s ) + To (s ) = I
(5.2.12)
Proof So (s ) + To (s ) = ( I + GK )−1 + ( I + GK )−1 GK = ( I + GK )−1 ( I + GK ) = I This completes the proof. The relationship (5.2.12) represents a fundamental tradeoff in the design of a control system. It implies that both So and To(s) cannot be simultaneously small. Note the following observations (Anderson and Moore, 1990):
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1. Assuming that d(s ) and n(s ) are zero, Equation 5.2.7 yields e(s ) = So (s )r(s )
where
e(s ) = r(s ) − y (s )
(5.2.13)
The error signal e(s ) = r(s ) − y (s ) is the tracking error. Therefore, the sensitivity function So (s ) should be small for a small tracking error. More speciﬁcally, the following condition should be satisﬁed for a good tracking: σ ( So ( jω )) << 1 at a frequency ω
(5.2.14)
2. From Equation 5.2.3, the effect of the disturbance (at the output) is small on the output if the sensitivity function So (s ) is small. Therefore, for a good disturbance rejection, σ ( So ( jω )) << 1 at a frequency ω
(5.2.15)
3. From Equation 5.2.3, the effect of the sensor noise is small on the output if the complementary sensitivity function To (s ) is small. Therefore, for a good noise rejection, σ (To ( jω )) << 1 at a frequency ω
(5.2.16)
4. Assume that σ ( So ( jω )) << 1 in a certain range of ω. In this case, G (s ) K (s ) is large, and So (s ) = ( I + G (s ) K (s ))−1 ≈ (G (s ) K (s ))−1
(5.2.17)
Assuming that the number of inputs equals the number of outputs, K(s) and G (s ) will be square matrices and Equation 5.2.17 yields So (s ) ≈ K −1 (s )G −1 (s )
(5.2.18)
u(s ) = G −1 (s )(r(s ) − n(s ) − d(s ))
(5.2.19)
Using (5.2.8) and (5.2.18),
Therefore, the input is related to the inverse of the plant transfer function. If So (s ) is small outside the bandwidth of the plant, Equation 5.2.19 will be applicable to the frequency range where
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σ (G ( jω )) << 1
(5.2.20)
σ (G −1 ( jω )) >> 1
(5.2.21)
This condition is equivalent to
Therefore, Equation 5.2.19 suggests that the control input will be large.
5.2.2 ROBUSTNESS
TO
STRUCTURED UNCERTAINTIES
Structured uncertainties refer to parameter errors in a model of the plant. Because these parameters appear in the model according to its structure, parametric errors are called structured uncertainties. To discuss the robustness to structured uncertainties, consider the multivariable feedback system shown in Figure 5.2.2. Here, from (5.2.3), y (s ) = G (s, χ) K (s )( I + G (s, χ) K (s ))−1 r(s )
(5.2.22)
where the plant transfer function G (s, χ) has a parameter χ which is uncertain. Equation 5.2.22 can also be viewed as an equivalent openloop system (Anderson and Moore, 1990) shown in Figure 5.2.3 where y (s ) = G (s, χ) K (s )r(s )
(5.2.23)
K (s ) = K (s ) So (s )
(5.2.24)
and
It should be noted that K (s ) is the equivalent openloop controller and is not a function of χ. r (s)
y (s ) G (s , )
K (s)
FIGURE 5.2.2 A multiinput/multioutput feedback system with structured uncertainties. r (s)
~ K ( s)
u(s )
y (s ) G (s , )
FIGURE 5.2.3 An equivalent multiinput/multioutput openloop system.
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Therefore, ⎛ ∂y ⎞ ∂G K ( s )r( s ) ⎜ ⎟ = χ ∂ ⎝ ⎠OL ∂χ
(5.2.25)
y (s ) = ( I + G (s, χ) K (s ))−1 G (s, χ) K (s )r(s )
(5.2.26)
From (5.2.22) and (5.2.11),
Equation 5.2.26 can also be written as ( I + G (s, χ) K (s )) y (s ) = G (s, χ) K (s )r(s )
(5.2.27)
Differentiating the closedloop (CL) relationship (5.2.27) with respect to χ, ⎛ ∂y ⎞ ∂G ∂G ( I + GK ) ⎜ ⎟ + Ky( s ) = Kr( s ) ∂χ ⎝ ∂χ ⎠CL ∂χ
(5.2.28)
⎛ ∂y ⎞ ∂G ( I + GK ) ⎜ ⎟ = K (−y( s ) + r( s )) ⎝ ∂χ ⎠CL ∂χ
(5.2.29)
or
From (5.2.26) and (5.2.12), r(s ) − y (s ) = So (s )r(s )
(5.2.30)
From (5.2.29), (5.2.24), and (5.2.30), ⎛ ∂y ⎞ ∂G K ( s )r( s ) ⎜ ⎟ = So ( s ) ∂χ ⎝ ∂χ ⎠CL
(5.2.31)
Using (5.2.25) and (5.2.31),
(
∂y ∂y )CL = So (s )( )OL ∂χ ∂χ
(5.2.32)
Therefore, the sensitivity to a structured plant parameter variation in a closedloop system is smaller than that of the equivalent openloop system when the sensitivity function So (s ) is small. Furthermore, from (5.2.31),
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⎛ ∂y ⎞ ∂G K ( s )So ( s )r( s ) ⎜ ⎟ = So ( s ) ∂χ ⎝ ∂χ ⎠CL
(5.2.33)
A small So (s ) usually implies a large feedback gain K(s). Therefore, in this case for a square plant, Equation 5.2.33 yields ⎛ ∂y ⎞ ∂G −1 −1 −1 G ( s )r( s ) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ K ( s )G ( s ) ∂χ ⎝ ∂χ ⎠CL
(5.2.34)
Equation 5.2.34 indicates that a higher value of gain will reduce the sensitivity of the output to parameter errors. But outside the plant bandwidth where G −1 ( s ) is large, the sensitivity of the output to parameter errors can be large.
5.2.3 ROBUSTNESS
TO
UNSTRUCTURED UNCERTAINTIES
Unstructured modeling errors usually refer to unmodeled dynamics in the range of high frequencies. They can be represented in the form of a multiplicative uncertainty L(s) as GL (s ) = ( I + L (s ))G (s )
(5.2.35)
where GL (s ) and G(s) are actual and nominal transfer functions, respectively. Assume that the modeling error L(s) is bounded in the following sense: σ ( L ( jω )) < ( jω )
(5.2.36)
Referring to Figure 5.2.4, the closedloop input/output relationship is y (s ) = GL (s ) K (s )( I + GL (s ) K (s ))−1 r(s )
(5.2.37)
For the stability of (5.2.37), all poles of the multivariable transfer function matrix must be in the left half of the splane. The stability can also be determined by the Nyquist stability criterion (Doyle and Stein, 1981): r (s)
y (s ) K (s)
GL (s )
FIGURE 5.2.4 A multiinput/multioutput feedback system with unstructured uncertainties.
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The encirclement count of the map det(I + G(s)K(s)) evaluated on the standard Nyquist path in the splane must be equal to the (negative) number of unstable openloop poles of G(s)K(s). The following assumptions are made: 1. The nominal feedback system G (s ) K (s )( I + G (s ) K (s ))−1 is stable. 2. The perturbed system GL (s ) and the nominal system G (s ) have the same number of unstable poles. It should be noted that unstable poles of GL (s ) and G (s ) are not assumed to be identical. Applying the Nyquist stability criterion with these assumptions, the closedloop system will be stable under all possible multiplicative perturbations provided the number of encirclements of the origin remains unchanged for det( I + GL (s ) K (s )) . This condition is guaranteed if and only if det( I + GL (s ) K (s )) remains nonzero or, equivalently, σ ( I + GL ( jω ) K ( jω )) > 0
(5.2.38)
Using (5.2.35), I + GL ( jω ) K ( jω ) = I + ( I + L ( jω ))G ( jω ) K ( jω ) = I + G ( jω ) K ( jω ) + L ( jω )G ( jω ) K ( jω )
(5.2.39)
= [ I + LGK ( I + GK )−1 ]( I + GK ) From (5.2.39), det( I + GL ( jω ) K ( jω )) = det[ I + L ( jω )G ( jω ) K ( jω )( I + G ( jω ) K ( jω ))−1 ].det( I + G ( jω ) K ( jω ))
(5.2.40)
Because det( I + G ( jω ) K ( jω )) ≠ 0 , the condition det( I + GL ( jω ) K ( jω )) ≠ 0 is equivalent to det( I + L ( jω )G ( jω ) K ( jω )( I + G ( jω ) K ( jω ))−1 ) ≠ 0
(5.2.41)
Using (5.1.18), the condition (5.2.41) is satisﬁed when σ ( L ( jω )G ( jω ) K ( jω )( I + G ( jω ) K ( jω ))−1 ) < 1 But
(5.2.42)
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σ ( LGK ( I + GK )−1 ) ≤ σ ( L )σ (GK ( I + GK )−1 )
(5.2.43)
Therefore, the condition (5.2.42) will be satisﬁed when σ ( L )σ (GK ( I + GK )−1 ) < 1
(5.2.44)
The condition (5.2.44) can be written as σ (To ( jω )) <
1 σ ( L ( jω ))
(5.2.45)
where To ( jω ) is the output complementary sensitivity function. The condition (5.2.45) states that the output complementary sensitivity function should be smaller than the inverse of the largest size of the perturbation matrix L ( jω ) . Therefore, for a larger perturbation matrix L ( jω ) , the output complementary sensitivity function has to be smaller. A small complementary sensitivity function implies a large sensitivity function, which in turn means small feedback gains. This fact can be shown by rewriting Equation 5.2.44 as 1 > σ(L ) σ (GK ( I + GK )−1 )
(5.2.46)
[σ (GK ( I + GK )−1 )]−1 = σ[( I + GK )(GK )−1 ] = σ ( I + (GK )−1 )
(5.2.47)
Note that
Therefore, the condition (5.2.46) is equivalent to σ ( I + (GK )−1 ) > σ ( L )
(5.2.48)
Hence, G ( jω ) K ( jω ) or, equivalently, K ( jω ) has to be small. EXAMPLE 5.2.1: MULTIPLICATIVE UNCERTAINTY Consider the following SISO system: GL (s ) =
α G (s ) s+α
(5.2.49)
where G (s ) and GL (s ) are nominal and actual transfer functions, respectively. Equation 5.2.49 can be rewritten in the form of Equation 5.2.35:
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GL (s ) = (1 + L (s ))G (s )
(5.2.50)
where L (s ) = −
s s+α
(5.2.51)
Therefore, σ ( L ( jω )) = L ( jω ) =
1 α2 1+ 2 ω
< 1+ ε
(5.2.52)
where ε is a small positive number. Therefore, the robustness criterion (5.2.48) becomes (1 + GK ( jω ))−1 > 1 + ε
(5.2.53)
EXAMPLE 5.2.2: A SPRINGMASS SYSTEM Consider the springmassdamper system (Figure 5.1.1) again. First, an lqg controller, R = ρc I and Q = C T C in Equation 4.8.9, is designed (Matlab Program 5.2.1) to obtain the controller transfer function K(s). Then, the sensitivity function So (s ), the complementary sensitivity function To (s ), and K (s ) So (s ) are plotted for two values (0.01 and 0.1) of the control weighting ρc in Figure 5.2.5, Figure 5.2.6, and Figure 5.2.7, respectively. The sensitivity function for ρc = 0.01 is smaller than that for ρc = 0.1 near the natural frequencies of the system. Because of the constraint So (s ) + To (s ) = I , the complementary sensitivity function for ρc = 0.01 is larger than that for ρc = 0.1 near the natural frequencies of system. But at all frequencies, the control input or K (s ) So (s ) for ρc = 0.1 is signiﬁcantly smaller than that for ρc = 0.01 . MATLAB PROGRAM 5.2.1: LQG CONTROL % clear all close all % k1=100; k2=500;
OF A
SPRINGMASS SYSTEM
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So(s), ρc=0.1
0.5
0.05 0
0
–0.05
Singular Values (dB)
Singular Values (dB)
–0.5
–1
–0.1
–0.15
–1.5
–0.2
–0.25
–2 –0.3 –2.5
–3 10–1
–0.35
102 100 101 Frequency (rad/sec)
103
–0.4 10–1
102 100 101 Frequency (rad/sec)
103
FIGURE 5.2.5 Output sensitivity functions for linear quadratic Gaussian control of a springmassdamper system.
K=[k1+k2 k2;k2 k1+k2]; al=1; % A=[zeros(2,2),eye(2);K al*eye(2)]; B=[0 0 1 0;0 0 0 1]'; C=[1 0 0 0;0 1 0 0]; D=zeros(2,2); % sysG=ss(A,B,C,D); % for iplot=1:2 %LQG Controller rhoc=0.001*(10)^iplot;
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249 K(s)So(s), ρc=0.1
0
–20
–20
–40
–40
–60
–60
–80 Singular Values (dB)
Singular Values (dB)
K(s)So(s), ρc=0.01
–80 –100 –120
–100 –120 –140
–140
–160
–160
–180
–180
–200
–200 10–1
102 100 101 Frequency (rad/sec)
103
–220 10–1
102 100 101 Frequency (rad/sec)
103
FIGURE 5.2.6 Output complementary sensitivity functions for linear quadratic Gaussian control of a springmassdamper system.
V=[eye(4) zeros(4,2);zeros(2,4) 0.01*eye(2)]; W=[C'*C zeros(4,2);zeros(2,4) rhoc*eye(2)]; [Af,Bf,Cf,Df]=lqg(A,B,C,D,W,V); sysK=ss(Af,Bf,Cf,Df); % sysId=ss([],[],[],eye(2)); % sysGK=series(sysK,sysG); % %Sensitivity Function sys_Sens=feedback(sysId,sysGK); figure(1) subplot(1,2,iplot)
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20
0
10
–10
0
–20
–10
–30
Singular Values (dB)
Singular Values (dB)
K(s)So(s), ρc=0.01
–20 –30 –40
–40 –50 –60
–50
–70
–60
–80
–70 10–1
102 100 101 Frequency (rad/sec)
103
–90 10–1
102 100 101 Frequency (rad/sec)
103
FIGURE 5.2.7 Control inputs or for linear quadratic Gaussian control of a springmassdamper system.
sigma(sys_Sens) [sv_Sens,freq]=sigma(sys_Sens); grid xlabel('Frequency','Fontsize',12) ylabel('Singular Values','Fontsize',12) if(iplot==1) title('S_o(s), \rho_c=0.01','Fontsize',12) end if(iplot==2) title('S_o(s), \rho_c=0.1','Fontsize',12) end % %
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%Complementary Sensitivity Function sys_CSens=feedback(sysGK,sysId); [A_CSens,B_CSens,C_CSens,D_CSens]=branch(sys_CSens); eig(A_CSens) figure(2) subplot(1,2,iplot) sigma(sys_CSens,freq) grid xlabel('Frequency','Fontsize',12) ylabel('Singular Values','Fontsize',12) if(iplot==1) title('T_o(s), \rho_c=0.01','Fontsize',12) end if(iplot==2) title('T_o(s), \rho_c=0.1','Fontsize',12) end % figure(3) subplot(1,2,iplot) %K(s)S(s) sys_KSens=series(sys_Sens,sysK); sigma(sys_KSens,freq) grid xlabel('Frequency','Fontsize',12) ylabel('Singular Values','Fontsize',12) if(iplot==1) title('K(s)S_o(s), \rho_c=0.01','Fontsize',12) end if(iplot==2) title('K(s)S_o(s), \rho_c=0.1','Fontsize',12) end end
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0
1 X
x(s )
B
(s)
K
u (s )
FIGURE 5.3.1 A linear quadratic regular feedback loop.
5.3. ROBUSTNESS OF LQR AND KALMAN FILTER (KF) FEEDBACK LOOPS 5.3.1 LINER QUADRATIC REGULATOR (LQR) FEEDBACK LOOP Consider the state space model x = Ax + Bu(t )
(5.3.1)
u(t ) = − Kx (t )
(5.3.2)
and the state feedback law
where K is the optimal state feedback gain matrix (Chapter 3, Section 3.5). Taking Laplace transforms of (5.3.1) and (5.3.2) with zero initial conditions, u(s ) = − Kx (s )
(5.3.3)
x (s ) = Φ(s ) Bu(s )
(5.3.4)
Φ(s ) = (sI − A)−1
(5.3.5)
Relationships (5.3.3) and (5.3.4) can be represented as an LQR feedback loop shown in Figure 5.3.1. The LQR loop transfer matrix GLQ (s ) is given by GLQ (s ) = K Φ(s ) B
(5.3.6)
Breaking the loop at (1) in Figure 5.3.1, Return difference matrix = I + GLQ (s )
(5.3.7)
Fact 5.3.1: Return Difference Equality [ I + GLQ (−s )]T R[ I + GLQ ( s )] = R + [ N Φ(−s )B]T [ N Φ( s )B]
(5.3.8)
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where Q = NTN
(5.3.9)
Proof Consider the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) (Equation 3.5.55 with N = 0): − PA − AT P + PBR −1BT P = Q
(5.3.10)
Equation 5.3.10 can be written as P (sI − A) + (−sI − AT ) P + K T RK = Q
(5.3.11)
K = R −1BT P
(5.3.12)
P Φ −1 (s ) + [ΦT (−s )]−1 P + K T RK = Q
(5.3.13)
because
Using (5.3.5),
Leftmultiplying (5.3.13) by BT ΦT (−s ), and rightmultiplying (5.3.13) by Φ(s ) B , BT ΦT (−s ) PB + BT P Φ(s ) B + BT ΦT (−s ) K T RK Φ(s ) B = BT ΦT (−s )Q Φ(s ) B (5.3.14) From (5.3.12), RK = BT P
(5.3.15)
Substituting (5.3.15) into (5.3.14), BT ΦT (−s )K T R + RK Φ( s )B + BT ΦT (−s )K T RK Φ( s )B
(5.3.16)
= BT ΦT (−s )QΦ( s )B Adding R to both sides of Equation 5.3.16, using Equation 5.3.6 and Equation 5.3.9, T T R + GLQ (−s ) R + RGLQ (s ) + GLQ (−s ) RGLQ (s ) = R + BT ΦT (−s ) NN T Φ(s ) B (5.3.17)
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Equation 5.3.17 can be written as T [ I + GLQ (−s )]R[ I + GLQ (s )] = R + [ N Φ(−s ) B]T [ N Φ(s ) B]
(5.3.18)
This completes the proof.
5.3.2 GAIN
AND
PHASE MARGINS
OF A
SINGLEINPUT SYSTEM
For a singleinput system, GLQ (s ) and R are scalars. Let R =ρ>0
(5.3.19)
1 T [1 + GLQ (−s )][1 + GLQ (s )] = 1 + [ N Φ(−s ) B]T [ N Φ(s ) B] ρ
(5.3.20)
Equation 5.3.18 reduces to
Substituting s = jω into (5.3.20), 2
1 + GLQ ( jω ) = 1 +
2 1 N Φ( jω ) B ρ
(5.3.21)
Therefore, 1 + GLQ ( jω ) ≥ 1
(5.3.22)
The Nyquist map of GLQ (s ) will be outside the circle of unit radius centered at −1 + j 0 (Figure 5.3.2). Let 1 be the factor by which the magnitude of the input can change. In this case, the loop transfer function will be 1GLQ (s ) . Because the Nyquist map of GLQ (s ) will be outside the circle of unit radius centered at −1 + j 0 , it will only intersect the negative real axis beyond the point G (–2, 0). Hence, the number of encirclements of −1 + j 0 will remain unchanged provided 1 >
1 2
(5.3.23)
Therefore, the gain margin of the singleinput LQR feedback loop shown in Figure 5.3.1 is at least between ∞ and 0.5. Let φ1 be the angle by which the phase of the input can change. In this case, the loop transfer function will be e jφ1 GLQ (s ) . Because the Nyquist map of GLQ (s )
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1 2
j
Im ag
3 2
P1
600
G 2
1
600
1
Re al
P2
1 2
j
3 2
FIGURE 5.3.2 Forbidden unit circle with center at (–1,0).
will be outside the circle of unit radius centered at −1 + j 0 and unit circles centered ⎛ 1 3⎞ at (0,0) and (–1,0) intersect (Figure 5.3.2) each other at P1 ⎜⎜− , ⎟⎟ and ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 3⎞ P2 ⎜⎜− , − ⎟ , the number of encirclements of (–1, 0) will remain unchanged 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 provided φ1 ≤ 60°
(5.3.24)
Therefore, the phase margin of the singleinput LQR feedback loop shown in Figure 5.3.1 is at least 60°. EXAMPLE 5.3.1: LQ CONTROL
OF A
SIMPLE MASS
Consider the double integrator in Example 4.8. With ρc = 0.05, GLQ (s ) =
2.9907s + 4.4721 s2
(5.3.25)
Therefore, GLQ ( jω ) = −
4.4721 2.9907 −j ω ω2
(5.3.26)
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Imag.
R 1
0 splane
6 2
5
Real 4
R
3
FIGURE 5.3.3A Nyquist path.
and ∠GLQ ( jω ) = tan −1
−2.9907ω −4.4721
(5.3.27)
Setting GLQ ( jω ) = 1, ω 4 − (2.9907)2 ω 2 − ( 4.4721)2 = 0
(5.3.28)
ω = ω p = 3.2858 rad/sec
(5.3.29)
Solving (5.3.28),
and ∠GLQ ( jω p ) = tan −1
−2.9907ω p −4.4721
= 245.53°
(5.3.30)
Therefore, Phase Margin = 245.53 – 180 = 65.53°
(5.3.31)
From the Nyquist map (Figures 5.3.3a and 5.3.3b), it is clear that the gain margin is between 0 and ∞.
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Imag. G LQ (s ) plane
4 5 Real center : (1,0) radius = 1
1,2,3 6
FIGURE 5.3.3B Nyquist map of GLQ (s ) .
5.3.3 GAIN
AND
PHASE MARGINS
OF A
MULTIINPUT SYSTEM
Assume that R = ρI
(5.3.32)
1 [ I + GLQ (−s )]T [ I + GLQ (s )] = I + [ N Φ(−s ) B]T [ N Φ(s ) B] ρ
(5.3.33)
Then, from (5.3.8),
Substituting s = jω into (5.3.33), 1 [ I + GLQ (− jω )]T [ I + GLQ ( jω )] = I + [ N Φ(− jω ) B]T [ N Φ(( jω ) B] (5.3.34) ρ Therefore, [ I + GLQ (− jω )]T [ I + GLQ ( jω )] ≥ I
(5.3.35)
Fact 5.3.2 Consider the system shown in Figure 5.3.4. If W H + W > I , I + GLQ ( jω )W ( jω ) is nonsingular (Anderson and Moore, 1990) where W H is the complex conjugate transpose of W.
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W (s )
G LQ (s )
FIGURE 5.3.4 Linear quadratic loop with an uncertainty W(s).
Proof: (by contradiction) Let I + GLQ ( jω )W ( jω ) be singular. In this case, there will be a nontrivial vector q such that ( I + GLQ ( jω )W ( jω ))q = 0
(5.3.36)
GLQ Wq = −q
(5.3.37)
H H GLQ + GLQ + GLQ GLQ ≥ 0
(5.3.38)
or
From (5.3.35),
H where GLQ ( jω ) is the complex conjugate transpose of GLQ ( jω ) . Premultiplying and postmultiplying (5.3.38) by q H W H and Wq , respectively,
H H q H W H GLQ Wq + q H W H GLQ Wq + q H W H GLQ GLQ Wq ≥ 0
(5.3.39)
Using (5.3.37), −q H Wq − q H W H q + q H q ≥ 0
(5.3.40)
q H (W + W H − I )q ≤ 0
(5.3.41)
or
Relation (5.3.41) contradicts the assumption W H + W > I in the statement of Fact 5.3.2. It should be noted that the Nyquist condition for the stability of the system in Figure 5.3.4 is that I + GLQ ( jω )W ( jω ) is nonsingular. Therefore, the system shown in Figure 5.3.4 is stable when W H + W > I .
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ᐉ1 ᐉ2 . +
.
GLg(s)
.
–
ᐉm
FIGURE 5.3.5 A multiinput/multioutput linear quadratic regular loop with a magnitude uncertainty in each input channel.
Special Case Let W be a diagonal matrix, with diagonal elements being 1 , 2, …, and m . Then, the condition W H + W > I reduces to Hi + i > 1 ;
i = 1, 2,…, m
(5.3.42)
Conditions (5.3.42) yield guaranteed levels of gain and phase margins of the LQR feedback loop as follows. Gain Margin Assume that 1 , 2 , …, and m are real numbers. Then, conditions (5.3.42) yield
i >
1 ; 2
i = 1, 2,…, m
(5.3.43)
The LQR feedback loop (Figure 5.3.5) has a guaranteed inﬁnite upward gain margin, and 1/2 downward gain margin in each input channel independently and simultaneously (Athans, 1992). Phase Margin Assume that i = e jφi Then, conditions (5.3.42) yield
(5.3.44)
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e jφ1
e jφ2 .
+
. –
GLg(s)
. e jφn
FIGURE 5.3.6 A multiinput/multioutput linear quadratic regular loop with a phase uncertainty in each input channel.
e− jφi + e jφi = 2 cos φ i > 1
(5.3.45)
φ i < 60°
(5.3.46)
Therefore,
The LQR feedback loop (Figure 5.3.6) has a guaranteed ±60° phase margin in each input channel independently and simultaneously (Athans, 1992). Note that the stability is not guaranteed if both a phase shift within ±60° and a ⎛1 ⎞ gain change in the interval ⎜ ,∞ ⎟ are simultaneously introduced in an input channel. ⎝2 ⎠
5.3.2 KALMAN FILTER (KF) LOOP A Kalman ﬁlter (Chapter 4, Section 4.6) is represented by xˆ = Axˆ (t ) + Bu(t ) + L ( y − yˆ )
(5.3.47)
yˆ (t ) = Cxˆ (t )
(5.3.48)
where
Taking the Laplace transform of (5.3.47) with zero initial conditions, xˆ (s ) = Φ(s ) Bu (s ) + Φ(s ) L ( y (s ) − yˆ (s )) where Φ(s ) = (sI − A)−1, Equation (5.3.5).
(5.3.49)
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u(t ) B
xˆ (t )
y (t ) L
(s )
yˆ (t )
C
FIGURE 5.3.7 A Kalman ﬁlter feedback loop.
The relations (5.3.48) and (5.3.49) are depicted in Figure 5.3.7. The Kalman ﬁlter loop transfer matrix GKF (s ) is given as GKF (s ) = C Φ(s ) L
(5.3.50)
Similar to Equation 5.3.8, it can be proved that ( I + GKF (s ))Θ( I + GKF (−s ))T = Θ + (C Φ(s ) N f )(C Φ(−s ) N f )T
(5.3.51)
W = N f N Tf
(5.3.52)
where
Assume that Θ = χI ;
χ>0
(5.3.53)
1 (C Φ(s ) N f )(C Φ(−s ) N f )T χ
(5.3.54)
From (5.3.51) to (5.3.53), ( I + GKF (s ))( I + GKF (−s ))T = I + Substituting s = jω in (5.3.54), ( I + GKF ( jω ))( I + GKF (− jω ))T = I +
1 (C Φ( jω ) N f )(C Φ(− jω) N f )T (5.3.55) χ
As the second term on the righthand side of (5.3.55) is positive semideﬁnite, ( I + GKF ( jω )( I + GKF (− jω ))T ≥ I
(5.3.56)
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or σ ( I + GKF ( jω )) ≥ 1
(5.3.57)
Because the sensitivity function of the Kalman ﬁlter (KF) loop is S KF = ( I + GKF )−1
(5.3.58)
Equation 5.3.57 yields σ ( S KF ( jω )) ≤ 1 ;
∀ω
(5.3.59)
This property indicates that the KF loop will never amplify output disturbances at any frequency. The complementary sensitivity function, TKF , is given by TKF = I − S KF
(5.3.60)
From (5.3.59) and (5.3.60) and properties of singular values (Appendix C), σ (TKF ( jω )) ≤ 2 ;
∀ω
(5.3.61)
Using (5.2.45), the stability of the KF loop is guaranteed to multiplicative modeling uncertainty provided σ ( Δ( jω )) < 0.5
(5.3.62)
where Δ(s ) relates the actual plant transfer function GΔ (s ) and the model transfer matrix as follows: GΔ (s ) = ( I + Δ(s ))G (s ) EXAMPLE 5.3.2: KALMAN FILTER
FOR A
(5.3.63)
SIMPLE MASS
Consider the double integrator in Example 4.6. With ρ = 0.05, GKF (s ) =
4.4721s + 10 s2
(5.3.64)
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0
SKF
–10
Magnitude (dB)
–20
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70 10–1
100
101
102
Frequency (rad/sec)
FIGURE 5.3.8 Sensitivity function of the Kalman ﬁlter loop (Example 5.3.2).
Therefore,
S KF =
s2 s 2 + 4.4721s + 10
and
TKF =
4.4721s + 10 (5.3.65a,b) s 2 + 4.4721s + 10
Both sensitivity and complementary sensitivity functions satisfy (5.3.59) and (5.3.61), respectively (Figure 5.3.8 and Figure 5.3.9).
5.4 LQG/LTR CONTROL 5.4.1 LACK
OF
GUARANTEED ROBUSTNESS
OF
LQG CONTROL
Consider the following state space realization (Doyle, 1978): ⎡1 A=⎢ ⎣0
1⎤ ⎥; 1⎦
Let the weighing matrices be
⎡0 ⎤ B=⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦
and
C = ⎡⎣1
0 ⎤⎦
(5.4.1)
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5
0 TKF
Magnitude (dB)
–5
–10
–15
–20
–25
–30 10–1
100
101
102
Frequency (rad/sec)
FIGURE 5.3.9 Complementary sensitivity function of the Kalman ﬁlter loop (Example 5.3.2).
⎡1⎤ Q = ρ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡⎣1 ⎣1⎦
1⎤⎦ ;
R =1
(5.4.2)
⎡1⎤ W = σ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡⎣1 ⎣1⎦
1⎤⎦ ;
Θ=1
(5.4.3)
and
Solving the control algebraic Riccati equation (CARE), Equation 4.8.19, K = α ⎡⎣1
1⎤⎦
where
α = 2+ 4+ρ
(5.4.4)
Solving the ﬁlter algebraic Riccati equation (FARE), Equation 4.8.16, L = β ⎡⎣1
1⎤⎦
where
β = 2+ 4+σ
Let the actual plant dynamics be represented by
(5.4.5)
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x = Ax (t ) + χBu (t )
(5.4.6)
where χ ≠ 1 represents the uncertainty in the plant model. The system matrix for the closedloop system can be written as 0 ⎤ ⎥ − χα ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎥ 1 − α ⎥⎦
(5.4.7)
det(sI − Asys ) = s 4 + p1s 3 + p2 s 2 + p3s + (1 + (1 − χ)αβ) = 0
(5.4.8)
Asys
⎡ A =⎢ ⎣ LC
⎡1 ⎢ ⎤ − χBK ⎢0 = ⎥ A − BK − LC ⎦ ⎢β ⎢ ⎢⎣β
1 1 0 0
0 − χα 1− β −α − β
The characteristic equation of Asys can be written as
where coefﬁcients p1, p2 , and p3 can be determined. The closedloop system is unstable if 1 + (1 − χ)αβ < 0
(5.4.9)
The condition (5.4.9) leads to χ > 1+
1 αβ
(5.4.10)
With large values of α and β, even a slight increase in the value of χ from its nominal value will render the closedloop system to be unstable. In other words, the gain margin of the LQG control system can be almost zero. This example clearly shows that the robustness of the LQG control system to modeling errors is not guaranteed.
5.4.2 LOOP TRANSFER RECOVERY (LTR) LTR stands for loop transfer recovery. The LQ control or KF loop has an excellent robustness property. But the LQG control system (Figure 5.4.1) does not have any guaranteed robustness. Therefore, the LQG/LTR control tries to recover a target loop transfer function GTL (s ), which is chosen as the KF loop here: GTL (s ) = GKF (s )
(5.4.11)
It should be noted that the noise vectors in the Kalman ﬁlter (Chapter 4, Section 4.6) can be considered “ﬁctitious,” and its statistics W and Θ are treated as design parameters to achieve the desired properties of the target loop.
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r (s )
K lqg (s )
u(s )
G (s )
y (s )
FIGURE 5.4.1 A multiinput/multioutput feedback loop with linear quadratic Gaussian controller.
The LQG controller transfer function matrix is given by K lqg (s ) = − K (sI − A + BK + LC )−1 L
(5.4.12)
where K and L are obtained from (4.8.18) and (4.8.15), respectively. From (4.8.18), with R = ρI and Q = C T C , K = ρ−1BT P
(5.4.13)
PA + AT P − ρ−1PBBT P + C T C = 0
(5.4.14)
where
Theorem 5.4.1 Assume that G (s ) = C (sI − A)−1 B is a square matrix and has only minimum phase transmission zeros. If K is obtained by (5.4.13) and L by (4.8.15), pointwise in s, lim C ( sI − A)−1 BK ( sI − A + BK + LC )−1 L = C ( sI − A)−1 L ρ→0
(5.4.15)
Equation (5.4.15) states that lim G ( s )K lqg ( s ) = GTL ( s ) ρ→0
(5.4.16)
Proof (Triantafyllou and Hover, 2000) For a square and minimum phase G(s) (Kwakernaak and Sivan, 1972), lim K ρ = HC ρ→0
(5.4.17)
where H is an orthonormal matrix. Using the matrix inversion lemma (Appendix A),
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((sI − A + LC ) + BK )−1 = Λ − ΛB( I + K ΛB)−1 K Λ
(5.4.18)
Λ = (sI − A + LC )−1
(5.4.19)
where
Therefore, K lqg (s ) = K ((sI − A + LC ) + BK )−1 L = [ I − K ΛB( I + K ΛB)−1 ]K ΛL (5.4.20) Using a special case of the matrix inversion lemma (Appendix A), K lqg (s ) = ( I + K ΛB)−1 K ΛL = ( ρI + ρK ΛB)−1 ρK ΛL
(5.4.21)
Using (5.4.17), lim K lqg ( s ) = ( HC ΛB)−1 HC ΛL = (C ΛB)−1 H −1HC ΛL = (C ΛB)−1 C ΛL
(5.4.22)
C Λ = C (sI − A + LC )−1 = [ I − C Φ(s ) L ( I + C Φ(s ) L )−1 ]C Φ(s )
(5.4.23)
Φ(s ) = (sI − A)−1
(5.4.24)
ρ→0
Next,
where
Again, using a special case of the matrix inversion lemma (Appendix A), C Λ = ( I + C Φ(s ) L )−1C Φ(s )
(5.4.25)
Substituting (5.4.25) into (5.4.22), lim K lqg ( s ) = [( I + C Φ( s )L )−1 G ( s )]−1 ( I + C Φ( s )L )−1 C Φ( s )L
(5.4.26)
G (s ) = C Φ(s ) B
(5.4.27)
ρ→0
where
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Simplifying (5.4.26), lim K lqg ( s ) = G −1 ( s )C Φ( s )L
(5.4.28)
lim G ( s )K lqg ( s ) = C ( sI − A)−1 L
(5.4.29)
ρ→0
From (5.4.28),
ρ→0
This proves the theorem. In other words, the loop transfer function in the Figure 5.4.1 will converge to the target loop transfer matrix. The LQG/LTR design method was introduced (Doyle and Stein, 1981; Athans, 1986) before the development of the H ∞ method, which is a more general approach and can directly handle many types of modeling uncertainties. EXAMPLE 5.4.1: A SIMPLE MASS
OR A
DOUBLE INTEGRATOR
Consider the double integrator plant: ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣0
1⎤ ⎥; 0⎦
⎡0 ⎤ B=⎢ ⎥; ⎣1⎦
and
C = [1
0]
(5.4.30)
Let K = [ k1
k2 ]
and
LT = [ 1
2 ]
(5.4.31)
Then, K (sI − ( A − BK − LC ))−1 L =
( k1 1 + k2 2 )s + ( k1 2 + k2 22 − k2 1 2 ) s 2 + ( k2 + 1 )s + ( k2 1 + k1 + 2 )
(5.4.32)
From (5.4.13), k1 = ρ−1/ 2
and
k2 = 2 ρ−1/ 4
(5.4.33)
Substituting (5.4.33) into (5.4.32) and taking limit, lim K ( sI − ( A − BK − LC ))−1 L = 1s + 2 ρ→0
Therefore,
(5.4.34)
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lim C ( sI − A)−1 BK ( sI − A + BK + LC )−1 L = ρ→0
1s + 2 s2
(5.4.35)
Note that C (sI − A)−1 L =
1s + 2 s2
(5.4.36)
Hence, Equation 5.4.16 is veriﬁed, or the loop transfer function has been recovered.
5.5 H2 AND H∞ NORMS 5.5.1 DEFINITION
OF
L2 NORM
Consider a vector signal x(t), which is a function of time t ≥ 0 . Then, the L2 norm of this vector signal x(t) is deﬁned as ∞
2
x
L2
=
∫ x (t)x(t)dt < ∞ T
(5.5.1)
0
5.5.2 DEFINITION
OF
H2 NORM
Consider a transfer function matrix G(s) with each element being a strictly proper and stable transfer function. The H 2 norm of the transfer function matrix is given by +∞
G (s )
2 H2
∫
1 Trace G ( jω )G H ( jω ) d ω = 2π
(5.5.2)
−∞
Using Parseval’s theorem (Appendix B), ∞
G (s )
2 H2
∫
= Trace G (t )G T (t ) dt
(5.5.3)
0
where G(t) is the inverse Laplace transform of G(s). Using the deﬁnition of singular values (Appendix C), Equation 5.5.2 can also be written as
G (s )
2 H2
1 = 2π
+∞
p
∫ ∑ [σ (G ( jω))] dω 2
i
−∞ i =1
(5.5.4)
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where σ i (G ( jω )) is the ith singular value of G ( jω ) , and p is the number of nonzero singular values. It is also clear from the deﬁnition of singular value, σ i (G ( jω )) = σ i (G (− jω ))
(5.5.5)
Furthermore, for the integral in (5.5.4) to be ﬁnite, σ i (G ( jω )) → 0 as ω → ∞ for each i. This condition is satisﬁed by a strictly proper transfer function matrix.
5.5.3 SIGNIFICANCE I.
OF
H2 NORM
Connection with Unit Impulse Responses
Consider the MIMO system shown in Figure 5.5.1, for which y (s ) = G (s )u(s )
(5.5.6)
Let a unit impulse function, δ(t ), be applied in one input channel at a time. If this input is applied in the ith channel, the corresponding output vector can be written as y i (s ) = G (s )v i
(5.5.7)
where v i = [0
.
.
0
1
0
.
0 ]T
(5.5.8)
Now, ∞
y i (t )
2 L2
=
∫ Trace[y (t)y i
T i
(5.5.9)
(t )]dt
0
Using Parseval’s theorem (Appendix B),
y i (t )
u1 u2
2 L2
1 = 2π
∞
∫ Trace[y ( jω)y i
H i
( jω )]d ω
−∞
y1 . .
.
G (s )
.
um
FIGURE 5.5.1 A multiinput/multioutput linear system.
y2
. .
yp
(5.5.10)
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Using (5.5.7),
y i (t )
2 L2
1 = 2π
∞
∫ Trace[G ( jω)v v G T i i
H
( jω )]d ω
(5.5.11)
−∞
Using (5.5.8),
2
y i (t ) L = 2
1 2π
∞
∫ [ G ( j ω) i1
2
2
+ … + Gip ( jω) ]dω
(5.5.12)
−∞
Summing up over all input channels, m
∑
2
y i (t ) L = 2
i =1
1 2π
⎡ ⎛ Trace ⎢G ( jω) ⎜ ⎜ ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ −∞ ∞
m
∑
∫
i =1
⎤ ⎞ vi viT ⎟ G H ( jω)⎥ dω ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦
(5.5.13)
Using (5.5.8), It can be shown that m
∑v v
T i i
= Im
(5.5.14)
i =1
Therefore, the equation (5.5.13) can be written as m
∑ i=1
y i (t )
2 L2
=
1 2π
∞
∫
Trace[G ( jω )G H ( jω )]d ω = G (s )
2 H2
(5.5.15)
−∞
Therefore, minimizing the H 2 norm of the transfer function matrix is equivalent to minimizing the sum of squares of L2 norm of outputs due to unit impulse input in each channel. II.
Connection with the Root Mean Square (RMS) Response
In time domain, t
y (t ) =
∫ G (t − τ)u(τ)d τ 0
(5.5.16)
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Let each input be an independent zeromean white noise with unit intensity; i.e., E (u(t )u T (τ)) = I m δ(t − τ)
(5.5.17)
The mean square response can be written (Stein, 1988) as E ( y T (t ) y (t )) = E (Trace[ y (t ) y T (t )])
(5.5.18)
or ⎛ ⎡ E ( yT (t )y(t )) = E ⎜Trace ⎢ ⎜ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎛ E ( yT (t )y(t )) = Trace ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
∫
t
G (t − τ )u( τ )d τ
0
t
t
0
0
∫ ∫
⎛ E ( y (t )y(t )) = Trace ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ T
t
∫ 0
⎤⎞ uT (λ )G T (t − λ )d λ⎥⎟ (5.5.19) ⎥⎦⎟ ⎠
⎞ G (t − τ )E (u( τ )uT (λ ))G T (t − λ )d τd λ ⎟ (5.5.20) ⎟ ⎠
t
t
0
0
∫ ∫
⎞ G (t − τ )G T (t − λ )δ( τ − λ )d τd λ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
⎛ E ( yT (t )y(t )) = Trace ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
t
∫ 0
⎞ G (t − λ )G T (t − λ )d λ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(5.5.21)
(5.5.22)
Introducing ν=t−λ
(5.5.23)
t
E ( y T (t ) y (t )) =
∫ Trace[G (ν)G
T
( ν)]d ν
(5.5.24)
0
∞
lim E ( yT (t )y(t )) = t →∞
∫ Trace[G(ν)G (ν)]d ν T
0
Using Parseval’s theorem,
(5.5.25)
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lim E ( yT (t )y(t )) = t →∞
1 2π
∞
∫ Trace[G( jω)G
H
2
( jω)]dω = G ( s ) H
2
(5.5.26)
−∞
Therefore, minimizing the H 2 norm of the transfer function matrix is equivalent to minimizing the RMS of outputs in the statistical steady state due to independent zeromean white noise inputs.
5.5.4 DEFINITION
OF
H∞ NORM
Consider a transfer function matrix G(s) with each element being a proper and stable transfer function. The H ∞ norm of the transfer function matrix is given by G (s )
H∞
=
sup ω
σ (G ( jω ))
(5.5.27)
where supremum (sup) is deﬁned in Appendix C. Bounded Real Lemma The condition G (s )
H∞
<γ
(5.5.28)
is satisﬁed if and only if there exists a matrix P = P T ≥ 0 that meets the following criteria: 1. It is a solution of PA + AT P + C T C + 2. The matrix A +
5.5.5 SIGNIFICANCE I.
1 PBBT P = 0 . γ2
1 BBT P is stable. γ2
OF
(5.5.29)
(5.5.30)
H∞ NORM
Connection with the WorstCase Frequency Response
Let u(t ) = a u e jωt where
(5.5.31)
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a u = ⎡⎣ au1
au 2
.
aum ⎤⎦
.
T
(5.5.32)
Then, in steady state, y (t ) = a y e jωt
(5.5.33)
where a y = ⎡⎣ ay 1
ay 2
.
ayp ⎤⎦
.
T
(5.5.34)
and a u and a y are in general complex vectors. Then, a y = G ( jω )a u
(5.5.35)
Utilizing the deﬁnition of the maximum singular value, ay
2
au
2
≤ G (s )
(5.5.36)
H∞
and sup a y au au II.
2
= σ (G ( jω )) ≤ G (s )
(5.5.37)
H∞
2
Connection with the WorstCase Output or Input
Fact 5.5.1 (Vidyasagar, 1985; Stein, 1988)
G (s )
H∞
=
sup y (t ) L2 u u
(5.5.38)
L2
Proof
y (t )
2 L2
1 = 2π
∞
∫
−∞
1 y ( jω )y ( jω ) d ω = 2π H
∞
∫ y ( jω )
−∞
2
dω 2
(5.5.39)
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Because y ( jω ) = G ( jω )u( jω ) , y ( jω ) ≤ σ (G ( jω )) u( jω ) ≤ G (s ) 2
2
H∞
u( jω )
(5.5.40)
2
Substituting (5.5.40) into (5.5.39),
y (t )
2 L2
1 ≤ 2π
2
∞
∫ G (s )
−∞
2 H∞
u( jω ) d ω = G (s )
2 H∞
2
1 2π
∞
∫ u( jω )
−∞
2
d ω (5.5.41) 2
Using the Parseval’s theorem again, y (t )
L2
≤ G (s )
u(t )
H∞
L2
(5.5.42)
In other words, if G (s )
H∞
<γ
(5.5.43)
<γ
(5.5.44)
then y (t ) u(t )
L2 L2
This relation is often used as
y (t )
2 L2
− γ 2 u(t )
2 L2
<0
for all u(t ) ∈ L2
(5.5.45)
It should be noted that the relationship (5.5.45) has been derived for zero initial conditions of inputs and outputs. III.
Connection of the Bounded Real Lemma (5.5.28 to 5.5.30) with a Special Linear Quadratic Maximization Problem
Consider the following system: x = Ax + Bd
(5.5.46)
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and e = Cx
(5.5.47)
Ted (s ) = C (sI − A)−1 B = G (s )
(5.5.48)
Note that
The following optimization problem will be solved: sup J (d) < ∞ d
(5.5.49)
where ∞
J (d) =
∫ (e e − γ d d)dt
(5.5.50)
d(t ) = K d x
(5.5.51)
T
2
T
0
and
Substituting (5.5.47) and (5.5.51) into (5.5.50), ∞
J (K d ) =
∫ x (C C − γ K T
T
2
T d
K d ) xdt
(5.5.52)
0
Substituting (5.5.51) into (5.5.46), x = ( A + BK d ) x
(5.5.53)
d ( x T Px ) = ( x T Px + x T Px ) dt
(5.5.54)
Consider
where P is a symmetric matrix. Substituting (5.5.53) into (5.5.54), d ( x T Px ) = x T (( A + BK d )T P + P ( A + BK d )) xdt
(5.5.55)
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Integrating both sides from 0 to ∞, ∞
∫x
T
(( A + BK d )T P + P ( A + BK d )) xdt = x T (∞) Px (∞) − x T (0 ) Px (0 )
(5.5.56)
0
Assuming that A + BK d is stable, x(∞) = 0 . Therefore, ∞
∫x
T
(( A + BK d )T P + P ( A + BK d )) xdt = − x T (0 ) Px (0 )
(5.5.57)
0
Setting ( A + BK d )T P + P ( A + BK d ) + C T C − γ 2 K dT K d = 0
(5.5.58)
it can be seen that J = x T (0 ) Px (0 )
(5.5.59)
The condition for maximization of J, Equation 5.5.59, with respect to K d is ∇Kd P = 0
(5.5.60)
The gradient matrix ∇ K d P is deﬁned as follows: (∇ K d P )ij =
∂P ∂K dij
(5.5.61)
From (5.5.58), ∇ K d P ( A + BK d ) + BT P + BT P + ( A + BK d )T ∇ K d P − 2 γ 2 K d = 0
(5.5.62)
Hence, with condition (5.5.60), Kd = Substituting (5.5.63) into (5.5.58),
1 T B P γ2
(5.5.63)
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PA + AT P + C T C +
1 PBBT P = 0 γ2
(5.5.64)
Hence, the solution of the optimization problem (5.5.49 to 5.5.51) leads to relationships identical to those for the bounded real lemma, Equation 5.5.29 (Green and Limebeer, 1995).
5.5.6 COMPUTATION
OF
H2 NORM
Let y (s ) = G (s )u(s )
(5.5.65)
G (s ) = C (sI − A)−1 B
(5.5.66)
where
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, G (t ) = Ce At B
(5.5.67)
The H 2 norm of the transfer matrix is given by +∞
G (s )
2 H2
=
∫
1 Trace G ( jω )G H ( jω ) d ω 2π
(5.5.68)
−∞
Using Parseval’s theorem (Appendix B), ∞
G (s )
2 H2
∫
= Trace G (t )G T (t ) dt
(5.5.69)
0
Method I Using (5.5.67), G (s ) where
2 H2
= Trace(CPC T )
(5.5.70)
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∞
P=
∫e
At
T
BBT e A t dt
(5.5.71)
0
Fact 5.5.1 P satisﬁes the Lyapunov equation AP + PAT + BBT = 0
(5.5.72)
T T d At T AT t (e BB e ) = Ae At BBT e A t + e At BBT e A t AT dt
(5.5.73)
Proof It can be easily seen that
Therefore, ∞
∫ dt (e
AP + PA = T
d
At
T
BBT e A t ) dt (5.5.74)
0
= e At BBT e A
T
t
t =∞
− e At BBT e A
T
t
t =0
Because the matrix A is stable, e At → 0
as
t→∞
(5.5.75)
Therefore, from Equation 5.5.74, AP + PAT = − BBT
(5.5.76)
Method II Alternatively, from (5.5.69), ∞
G (s )
2 H2
∫
= Trace G T (t )G (t ) dt 0
because
(5.5.77)
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Trace(G T (t )G (t )) = Trace(G (t )G T (t ))
(5.5.78)
Using (5.5.67) and (5.5.77), G (s )
2
= Trace( BT PB)
H2
(5.5.79)
where ∞
P=
∫e
AT t
C T Ce At dt
(5.5.80)
0
Fact 5.5.3 P satisﬁes the following Lyapunov equation: AT P + PA + C T C = 0
(5.5.81)
T T d AT t T At (e C Ce ) = AT e A tC T Ce At + e A tC T Ce At A dt
(5.5.82)
Proof It can be easily seen that
Therefore, ∞
A P + PA = T
∫ dt (e d
AT t
C T Ce At ) dt (5.5.83)
0
T
= e A tC T Ce At
T
t =∞
− e A tC T Ce At
t =0
Because the matrix A is stable, e At → 0
as
t→∞
(5.5.84)
Therefore, from Equation 5.5.83, AT P + PA = −C T C
(5.5.85)
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EXAMPLE 5.5.1: SPRINGMASSDAMPER SYSTEM (FIGURE 5.1.1) Consider Example 5.1.1. Using the Matlab command “lyap,” ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ P=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
0.0027
0.0023
0.0000
0.0023
0.0027
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.5000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.5027
0.0023
0.0027
0.0023
0.5027
0.0023
0.0027
0.0023
0.0027
0..0023
0.0027
0.0023
0.00000 ⎤ ⎥ 0.00000 ⎥ ⎥ 0.00000 ⎥ ⎥ 0..5000 ⎥⎦
(5.5.86)
and ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ P=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
0.0023 ⎤ ⎥ 0.0027 ⎥ ⎥ 0.0023 ⎥ ⎥ 0.0027 ⎥⎦
(5.5.87)
As expected, both equations (5.5.70) and (5.5.79) yield G (s )
H2
= 0.0739
(5.5.88)
The Matlab command “normh2” also yields the identical result.
5.5.7 COMPUTATION
OF
H∞ NORM
The H ∞ norm of a transfer function matrix is given by G (s )
H∞
=
sup ω
σ (G ( jω ))
(5.5.89)
where the supremum (sup) is deﬁned in Appendix C. An important theorem is described as follows. Theorem 5.5.1 G (s ) if and only if the Hamiltonian matrix
H∞
<γ
(5.5.90)
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⎡ ⎢ A H=⎢ ⎢⎣ −C T C
⎤ 1 BBT ⎥ γ2 ⎥ − AT ⎥⎦
(5.5.91)
has no eigenvalues on the jω axis (Zhou et al., 1996). Using Theorem 5.5.1, an iterative procedure to calculate the H ∞ norm is developed as follows: 1. Arbitrarily select γ = γ 1 and ﬁnd the eigenvalues of the matrix H. 2. If there are no eigenvalues on the imaginary axis, G (s )
H∞
< γ 1 and
γ1 , and ﬁnd the eigenvalues of the matrix H. Repeat this process 2 till G (s ) > γ . Set
select γ =
H∞
γ = γ
γu = γ1 .
and
3. If there is at least one eigenvalue on the imaginary axis, G (s ) ≥ γ1 H∞ and select γ = 2 γ 1 , and ﬁnd the eigenvalues of the matrix H. Repeat this process till G (s ) < γ . Set H∞
γ = γ1
γu = γ
and
At this stage, it is known that γ ≤ G (s )
H∞
≤ γu
4. Let ε be the required precision. If γu − γ ≤ ε the computation process is stopped. Otherwise, set γ=
γ + γu 2
and ﬁnd the eigenvalues of the matrix H. 5. If there are no eigenvalues on the imaginary axis, G (s ) γu = γ
H∞
< γ . Set
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If there is at least one eigenvalue on the imaginary axis, G (s )
H∞
≥ γ . Set
γ = γ 6. Go to Step 4. EXAMPLE 5.5.2: SPRINGMASSDAMPER SYSTEM (FIGURE 5.1.1) Consider Example 5.1.1. The Matlab command “normhinf” yields G (s )
H∞
= 0.1002
(5.5.92)
= 0.1001
(5.5.93)
Directly from Figure 5.1.2,
G (s )
P H∞
which is quite close to the Matlab result, (5.5.92). However, the result from the plot is dependent on the size of the frequency interval used in making the plot. Therefore, if the frequency grid is not ﬁne enough, the result from the plot can be signiﬁcantly less than that from the Matlab or the algorithm presented in the preceding text.
5.6 H2 CONTROL 5.6.1 FULL STATE FEEDBACK H2 CONTROL (FIGURE 5.6.1) Consider Figure 5.6.1 and assume that ⎡A ⎢ M = ⎢C1 ⎢I ⎣
B1 0 0
B2 ⎤ ⎥ D12 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.6.1)
e
d u
M
y=x
K
FIGURE 5.6.1 A full state feedback system.
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The following assumptions are made: 1. ( A, B1 ) and ( A, B2 ) are stabilizable. 2. (C 1, A) is detectable. From (5.6.1), x = Ax + B1d(t ) + B2 u(t )
(5.6.2)
e(t ) = C 1x (t ) + D12 u(t )
(5.6.3)
y (t ) = x (t )
(5.6.4)
Assuming that d(t ) is the white noise vector with unit intensity similar to Equation 5.5.17, Ted (s )
2 H2
= E (eT (t )e(t ))
(5.6.5)
where T eT e = x T C 1T C1x + 2 x T C 1T D12 u + u T D12 D12 u
(5.6.6)
With (5.6.2) and (5.6.5), the minimization of Ted (s ) is equivalent to the H2 solution of the stochastic regulator problem. Setting Q f = C 1T C 1 ,
N f = C 1T D12 ,
and
T R f = D12 D12
(5.6.7)
the optimal state feedback law is given by u = −Kx
(5.6.8)
T K = R −1 f ( PB2 + N f )
(5.6.9)
where
and T P ( A − B2 R −f 1N Tf ) + ( A − B2 R −f 1N Tf )T P − PB2 R −f 1BaT P + Q f − N f R −1 f N f = 0 (5.6.10)
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It should be noted that the gain K is independent of the matrix B1. EXAMPLE 5.6.1: H2 CONTROL
OF A
DOUBLE INTEGRATOR SYSTEM
Consider the double integrator system: x = u (t ) + d (t )
(5.6.11)
The corresponding elements in (5.6.1) are ⎡0 A=⎢ ⎣0
1⎤ ⎥, 0⎦
⎡0 ⎤ B1 = B2 = ⎢ ⎥ , ⎣1⎦
⎡1 C1 = ⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥, 0⎦
⎡1 Qf = ⎢ ⎣0
Nf = 0 ,
and
and
⎡0 ⎤ D12 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦
(5.6.12)
Then, from (5.6.7), 0⎤ ⎥, 0⎦
Rf = 1
(5.6.13)
Then, from (5.6.10), 2 1 − p12 =0
(5.6.14)
p11 − p12 p22 = 0
(5.6.15)
2 2 p12 − p22 =0
(5.6.16)
The solution of (5.6.14) to (5.6.16) yields p11 = 2 ,
p12 = 1 ,
and
p22 = 2
(5.6.17)
2]
(5.6.18)
Then, from (5.6.9), K = [ p12
p22 ] = [1
EXAMPLE 5.6.2: ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM Consider the optimal suspension system design again, Example 3.11 and Example 4.7. For (5.6.1), deﬁne
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B2 = B ,
⎡ r11 ⎢ C 1 = ⎢r21 ⎢0 ⎣
r12 r22 0
0 0 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ , 0 ⎥⎦
and
⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D12 = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ρ ⎥⎦
(5.6.19)
r12 ⎤ ⎥ r22 ⎦
(5.6.20)
where ⎡q1 + q2 ⎢ ⎣ −q2
−q2 ⎤ ⎡ r11 ⎥=⎢ q2 ⎦ ⎣r21
T
r12 ⎤ ⎡ r11 ⎥ ⎢ r22 ⎦ ⎣r21
Because of (5.6.7), C1T C1 = Q ,
Nf = 0 ,
Rf = ρ
and
(5.6.21)
Therefore, the optimal control law (5.6.8) is identical to the control law (4.7.31).
5.6.2 OUTPUT FEEDBACK H2 CONTROL (FIGURE 5.6.2) The matrix M in Figure 5.6.2 is ⎡A ⎢ M = ⎢ C1 ⎢C 2 ⎣
B2 ⎤ ⎥ D12 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.6.22)
x = Ax + B1d(t ) + B2 u(t )
(5.6.23)
e(t ) = C 1x (t ) + D12 u(t )
(5.6.24)
B1 0 D21
Therefore,
e
d u
M
KOF
FIGURE 5.6.2 An output feedback system.
y
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y (t ) = C 2 x (t ) + D21d(t )
(5.6.25)
The following assumptions are made: 1. ( A, B1 ) and ( A, B2 ) are stabilizable. 2. (C 1, A) and (C 2 , A) are detectable. Let ⎡ ξ(t )⎤ d(t ) = ⎢ ⎥, ⎣η(t )⎦
B1 = [ B1ξ
0] ,
and
D21 = [0
D21η ]
(5.6.26)
where ξ(t ) and η(t ) are vectors with elements as independent white noises with unit intensities. From (5.6.23), (5.6.25), and (5.6.26), x = Ax + B1ξ ξ(t ) + B2 u(t )
(5.6.27)
y(t ) = C2 x(t ) + D21ηη(t )
(5.6.28)
The minimization of the H 2 norm of Ted (s ) is equivalent to minimizing E ( x T Q f x + 2 x T N f u + u T R f u)
(5.6.29)
for stochastic systems (5.6.27) and (5.6.28), which is exactly the LQG control (Chapter 4, Section 4.8). EXAMPLE 5.6.3: SIMPLE MASS
OR A
DOUBLE INTEGRATOR SYSTEM
Consider Example 4.6 again. Deﬁne
C 2 = [1
0] ,
⎡1 ⎢ C1 = ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
D21η = ρ ,
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ , 0 ⎥⎦
⎡0 ⎤ B1ξ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦
⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ D12 = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ ρc ⎥⎦
(5.6.30)
(5.6.31)
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Now, considering w(t ) = B1ξ ξ(t ) and θ(t ) = D21η η(t ), the output feedback H 2 control is exactly same as the LQG control described in Example 4.9. It should be noted that E (ξ(t )ξ(t + τ)) = δ(t − τ)
(5.6.32)
E ( η(t ) η(t + τ)) = δ(t − τ)
(5.6.33)
5.7 WELLPOSEDNESS, INTERNAL STABILITY, AND SMALL GAIN THEOREM 5.7.1 WELLPOSEDNESS AND INTERNAL STABILITY FEEDBACK SYSTEM
OF A
GENERAL
Consider the system in Figure 5.7.1 (Zhou et al., 1996, 1998). With respect to the system in Figure 5.2.1, an additional disturbance signal is added to the input to the plant. Breaking the loop at the plant input and ignoring d, n, and r, the difference between the “returned” variable u and the “injected” variable u p (Kwakernaak and Sivan, 1972) is u p − u = ( I + Li )u p
(5.7.1)
where ( I + Li ) is called the input return difference matrix and Li = KG
(5.7.2)
is called the input loop transfer matrix. Similarly, breaking the loop at the plant output, the output loop transfer matrix Lo is obtained as Lo = GK
(5.7.3)
and ( I + Lo ) is called the output return difference matrix. d(s )
di (s ) r (s)
u(s )
y (s )
K (s K)(s)
G(s)
u p (s)
y ( s ) d ( s)
FIGURE 5.7.1 A general multiinput/multioutput system with disturbances.
n(s )
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The following relationships can be easily derived (Zhou et al., 1996, 1998): y = To (r − n) + So Gd i + So d
(5.7.4)
r − y = So (r − d) + To n − So Gd i
(5.7.5)
u = KSo (r − n) − KSo d − Ti d i
(5.7.6)
u p = KSo (r − n) − KSo d − Si d i
(5.7.7)
So = ( I + Lo )−1
(5.7.8)
To = I − So = Lo ( I + Lo )−1 = ( I + Lo )−1 Lo
(5.7.9)
Si = ( I + Li )−1
(5.7.10)
Ti = I − Si = Li ( I + Li )−1 = ( I + Li )−1 Li
(5.7.11)
where
Definition 5.7.1 1. So and Si are output and input sensitivity functions, respectively. 2. To and Ti are output and input complementary sensitivity functions, respectively. Derivation of (5.7.4) to (5.7.7) follows the same procedure as used in Section 5.2. However, the following relationship is required. Fact 5.7.1 So (s )G (s ) = G (s ) Si (s )
(5.7.12)
Proof Using the matrix inversion lemma (Appendix A), So = ( I + GK )−1 = I − G ( KG + I )−1 K
(5.7.13)
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Then, postmultiplying (5.7.13) by G(s), SoG = G − G ( KG + I )−1 KG = G[ I − ( I + KG )−1 KG ]
(5.7.14)
So G = G[ I − Ti ] = GSi
(5.7.15)
Therefore,
This completes the proof. WellPosedness of Feedback System A feedback system is said to be wellposed if and only if all closedloop transfer matrices are well deﬁned and proper (Zhou et al., 1996, 1998). Fact 5.7.2 The feedback system in Figure 5.7.2 is wellposed if and only if the transfer matrix d T ]T to u p exists and is proper. from [d Ti Fact 5.7.3 The feedback system in Figure 5.7.2 is wellposed if and only if the matrix I − Kˆ (∞)G (∞)
(5.7.16)
is invertible. For a strictly proper plant transfer function G(s), G(∞) = 0. Hence, for a strictly proper G(s), the wellposedness of the system in Figure 5.7.2 is guaranteed. Internal Stability of the System The concept of internal stability is deﬁned for the system shown in Figure 5.7.2, which is a generic representation of a feedback system; i.e., the plant G(s) with the controller Kˆ (s ) .
di
up G (s )
u
Kˆ ( s) K ( s)
y
d
FIGURE 5.7.2 A multiinput/multioutput feedback system with two external inputs.
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State Space Description First, assume that realization for G(s) and Kˆ (s ) , ⎡A G(s ) = ⎢ ⎢⎣C
B⎤ ⎥ D⎥⎦
⎡ AKˆ Kˆ ( s ) = ⎢ ⎢⎣CKˆ
BKˆ ⎤ ⎥ DKˆ ⎥⎦
(5.7.17)
is stabilizable and detectable. Second, because external inputs do not inﬂuence the stability of a linear system, d and d i are set to zero. For the system G(s), a state space realization is x = Ax + Bu
(5.7.18)
y = Cx + Du
(5.7.19)
and for the system Kˆ (s ), a state space realization is ξ = AKˆ ξ + BKˆ y
(5.7.20)
u = CKˆ ξ + DKˆ y
(5.7.21)
⎡x ⎤ ⎡x ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = Acl ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ξ ⎦ ⎣ξ ⎦
(5.7.22)
Combining (5.7.18) to (5.7.21),
where ⎡A Acl = ⎢ ⎣0
0 ⎤ ⎡B ⎥−⎢ AKˆ ⎦ ⎣ 0
0 ⎤⎡ I ⎥⎢ BKˆ ⎦ ⎣ DKˆ
−1
− DKˆ ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎢ I ⎦ ⎣C
C Kˆ ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(5.7.23)
The system is called internally stable provided the origin of the state space model (5.7.22) is asymptotically stable, which will require that all the eigenvalues of Acl are in the left half of the complex plane. Transfer Function Description For the system in Figure 5.7.2, ⎡u p (s ) ⎤ ⎡d i (s ) ⎤ ⎥ = Gcl (s ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ y (s ) ⎥⎦ ⎣ d(s ) ⎦
(5.7.24)
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where − Kˆ (s ) ⎤ ⎥ I ⎥⎦
⎡ I Gcl (s ) = ⎢ ⎢⎣ −G (s )
−1
(5.7.25)
The system shown in Figure 5.7.2 is called internally stable if and only if each element of the transfer function matrix Gcl (s ) is proper and stable. To see the elements of the transfer function matrix Gcl (s ) , it can be shown (Zhou et al., 1996, 1998) using (5.7.4) and (5.7.7) that ⎡ I ⎢ ⎢⎣ −G
−1
⎡ Si − Kˆ ⎤ ⎥ =⎢ I ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ So G
ˆ ⎤ KS o ⎥ So ⎥⎦
(5.7.26)
5.7.2 SMALL GAIN THEOREM Let M(s) be a stable and proper p × q transfer function matrix, and let γ > 0 . Then, the interconnected system, Figure 5.7.3, is wellposed and internally stable for a stable and proper transfer matrix Δ(s ) when either of the following two conditions is satisﬁed:
1.
Δ
2.
Δ
∞
∞
≤
1 if and only if M (s ) < γ . ∞ γ
(5.7.27a)
<
1 if and only if M (s ) ≤ γ . ∞ γ
(5.7.27b)
For either of the two conditions (5.7.27a) and (5.7.27b), M (s )
w1
e1
∞
Δ(s )
<1
(5.7.28)
(s )
M (s )
FIGURE 5.7.3 An interconnected system.
∞
e2
w2
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Because of (5.7.28), M (s ) Δ(s )
∞
<1
(5.7.29)
Because external inputs do not affect the stability of a linear system, set w1 = w 2 = 0 . In this case, e1 and e2 are also outputs of M(s) and Δ(s ) , respectively. Consider a case of nonzero e1 , which is equivalent to nonzero initial conditions. Because of (5.7.29), the norm of the output of M(s) will be less than that of the signal entering Δ(s ) , or the the norm of the previous output of M(s). This process will continue in a cyclic way, and the norm of the signal will asymptotically go to zero. Without any loss of generality, let γ = 1 , and relation (5.7.27a) becomes Δ
∞
≤ 1 if and only if M (s )
∞
<1
(5.7.30)
Proof (Zhou et al., 1996, 1998) Part I: Sufficiency. For the stability of the closedloop system, the Nyquist stability criterion (Section 5.2.3) states that σ ( I − M ( jω ) Δ( jω )) > 0
(5.7.31)
σ ( I − M ( jω ) Δ( jω )) ≥ σ ( I ) − σ ( M ( jω ) Δ( jω )) = 1 − σ ( M ( jω ) Δ( jω ))
(5.7.32)
and 1 − σ ( M ( jω ) Δ( jω )) ≥ 1 −
1 − M (s ) Δ(s )
∞
sup σ ( M ( jω ) Δ( jω )) = 1 − M (s ) Δ((s ) (5.7.33) ∞ ω
≥ 1 − M (s )
∞
Δ(s )
∞
≥ 1 − M (s )
∞
(5.7.34)
Combining (5.7.32) to (5.7.34), σ ( I − M ( jω ) Δ( jω )) ≥ 1 − M (s )
∞
(5.7.35)
Therefore, if M (s ) < 1, the condition (5.7.31) is satisﬁed, and the system is ∞ stable. Part II: Necessity. Assume that M (s ) ≥ 1, and it will be shown that a Δ(s ) can ∞ be found with Δ ≤ 1 such that the interconnected system in Figure 5.7.3 is unstable. ∞
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First, a frequency ω o is found such that σ ( M ( jω o )) ≥ 1
(5.7.36)
Next, the singular value decomposition of M ( jω o ) is obtained: M ( jω o ) = U ( jω o ) Σ( jω o )V ( jω o )
(5.7.37)
where U ( jω o ) = [u1
u2
.
.
up]
(5.7.38)
V ( jω o ) = [v1
v2
.
.
vp]
(5.7.39)
σ3
.
Σ( jω o ) = diag[σ1
σ2
.]
(5.7.40)
and σ1 > σ 2 > σ 3 > …
(5.7.41)
σ1 ≥ 1
(5.7.42)
Because of (5.7.36),
Now, a Δ(s ) can be constructed as Δ( jω o ) =
1 v1u*1 σ1
(5.7.43)
Using (5.7.37) and (5.7.43), ⎛ ⎞ 1 det( I − M ( jωo )Δ( jωo )) = det ⎜ I − U ΣVv1u1* ⎟ ⎝ σ1 ⎠
(5.7.44)
Using the identity det( I n − PQ ) = det( I m − QP ) where P and Q are n × m and m × n matrices respectively, ⎛ ⎞ 1 1 det ⎜ I − U ΣVv1u1* ⎟ = 1 − u1*U ΣVv1 = 0 σ1 ⎝ σ1 ⎠
(5.7.45)
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From (5.7.44) and (5.7.45), det( I − M ( jω o ) Δ( jω o )) = 0
(5.7.46)
Equation 5.7.46 indicates that the interconnected system is unstable when σ ( M ( jω o )) ≥ 1 and a Δ(s ) satisfying (5.7.43). Next, a proper and stable transfer matrix Δ(s ) satisfying Δ ≤ 1 and Equation 5.7.43 will be constructed. ∞
Case I ωo = 0
∞
or
In this case, U and V are real matrices and Δ(s ) can be chosen as
Δ(s ) =
1 v1u*1 σ1
(5.7.47)
Case II 0 < ωo < ∞ In this case, U and V are not real matrices. First, u1 and v1 are written in the following forms: u*1 = [u11e jθ1
u12 e jθ2
.
.
u1 p e
jθ p
]
(5.7.48)
and ⎡ v11e jφ1 ⎤ ⎢ jφ2 ⎥ ⎢ v12 e ⎥ v1 = ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ jφq ⎥ ⎢⎣ v1q e ⎥⎦
(5.7.49)
where u1i and v1i are real and positive numbers. Next, ai ≥ 0 and bi ≥ 0 are found such that jω o − ai = e jφi ; jω o + ai
i = 1, 2, …, q
(5.7.50)
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and jω o − bi = e jθi ; jω o + bi
i = 1, 2, …, p
(5.7.51)
Lastly, a proper and stable transfer matrix Δ(s ) satisfying Δ Δ( s ) =
∞
≤ 1 is given by
1 α( s )β( s ) σ1
(5.7.52)
where ⎡ ⎢ v11 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢v12 1 ⎢ α(s ) = σ1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢v1q ⎣
β( s ) =
1 ⎡ s − b1 ⎢u11 σ 1 ⎣ s + b1
u12
s − a1 ⎤ ⎥ s + a1 ⎥ s − a2 ⎥ s + a2 ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ s − aq ⎥ s + aq ⎥⎦
s − b2 s + b2
.
(5.7.53)
.
u1 p
s − bp ⎤ ⎥ s + bp ⎦
(5.7.54)
To calculate the singular value of Δ( jω ), Δ( jω)Δ*( jω) =
1 α( jω)β( jω)( jω)α*( jω) σ 12
(5.7.55)
Utilizing the unitary property of U, β( jω)β* ( jω) = 1
(5.7.56)
⎛ ⎞ 1 det(λI − Δ( jω)Δ* ( jω)) = det ⎜ λI − 2 α( jω)α * ( jω)⎟ σ1 ⎝ ⎠
(5.7.57)
Therefore,
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Using the identity det( I n − PQ ) = det( I m − QP ) where P and Q are n × m and m × n matrices, respectively, ⎛ ⎞ 1 1 det ⎜ λI − 2 α( jω)α * ( jω)⎟ = λ − 2 α * ( jω)α( jω) σ1 σ1 ⎝ ⎠
(5.7.58)
Utilizing the unitary property of V, α * ( jω)α( jω) = 1
(5.7.59)
From (5.7.57) to (5.7.59), det(λI − Δ( jω ) Δ* ( jω )) = λ −
1 σ12
(5.7.60)
Equation (5.7.60) yields the only nonzero singular value of Δ( jω ) . Note that the rank of the matrix Δ( jω ) is 1. Therefore, Δ(s )
∞
1 σ1
(5.7.61)
≤1
(5.7.62)
=
Using (5.7.42) and (5.7.61), Δ(s )
∞
Note that Equation 5.7.52 yields an algorithm to ﬁnd a destabilizing perturbation when the condition for stability from the small gain theorem is violated.
5.7.3 ANALYSIS
FOR
APPLICATION
OF
SMALL GAIN THEOREM
Consider a twoport system G2 p (s ) in Figure 5.7.4a, where K(s) and Δ(s ) can be viewed as controller and uncertainty transfer function matrices, respectively. To apply the small gain theorem, the system shown in Figure 5.7.4a is converted to that in Figure 5.7.4b as follows. Let the state space model for the system G2 p (s ) be ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ A ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ e(t ) ⎥ = ⎢ C 1 ⎢ y (t ) ⎥ ⎢C 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ or, equivalently,
B1 D11 D21
B2 ⎤ ⎡ x (t ) ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ D12 ⎥ ⎢d(t ) ⎥ D22 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣u(t ) ⎥⎦
(5.7.63)
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(s )
d(s )
(s )
e(s ) G2 p ( s ) y (s )
u(s )
d(s )
M (s )
e(s )
K (s )
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 5.7.4 Conversion of a twoport system with controller and uncertainty transfer matrices to an M–Δ diagram.
x = Ax (t ) + B1d(t ) + B2 u(t )
(5.7.64)
e(t ) = C 1x (t ) + D11d(t ) + D12 u(t )
(5.7.65)
y (t ) = C 2 x (t ) + D21d(t ) + D22 u(t )
(5.7.66)
and the state space model for the system –K(s) is given as ⎡ xˆ ⎤ ⎡ Ak ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣u(t ) ⎦ ⎣C k
Bk ⎤ ⎡ xˆ (t ) ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ Dk ⎦ ⎣ y (t ) ⎦
(5.7.67)
or, equivalently, xˆ = Ak xˆ (t ) + Bk y (t )
(5.7.68)
u(t ) = C k xˆ (t ) + Dk y (t )
(5.7.69)
Substituting (5.7.69) into (5.7.66), and solving for y(t), y = ΛC 2 x + ΛD21d + ΛD22C k xˆ
(5.7.70)
Λ = ( I − D22 Dk )−1
(5.7.71)
where
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(s )
M (s )
FIGURE 5.8.1 M–Δ system.
Substituting (5.7.70) into (5.7.69), u = Dk ΛC 2 x + (C k + Dk ΛD22C k ) xˆ + Dk ΛD21d
(5.7.72)
Substituting (5.7.72) into (5.7.64) and (5.7.65), and substituting (5.7.70) into (5.7.68), ⎡x ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢xˆ ⎥ = ⎢⎣ e ⎥⎦ ⎡ A + B2 Dk ΛC2 ⎢ Bk ΛC2 ⎢ ⎢⎣C1 + D12 Dk ΛC2
B2 (Ck + Dk ΛD22 Ck ) Ak + Bk ΛD22 Ck D12 (Ck + Dk ΛD22 Ck )
B1 + B2 Dk ΛD21 ⎤⎡ x ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ Bk ΛD21 ⎥⎢ xˆ ⎥ D11 + D12 DK ΛD21 ⎥⎦⎢⎣d⎥⎦
(5.7.73)
Equation 5.7.73 represents the state space model for M (s ) in Figure 5.7.4b. The Matlab routine lftf converts the system in Figure 5.7.4a to Figure 5.7.4b.
5.8 FORMULATION OF SOME ROBUST CONTROL PROBLEMS WITH UNSTRUCTURED UNCERTAINTIES The system shown in Figure 5.7.3 with zero external inputs can also be drawn as that in Figure 5.8.1, where M(s) and Δ(s ) are viewed as the nominal system and an uncertainty in the system, respectively. The condition (5.7.27) yields the size of the uncertainty matrix Δ(s ) beyond which the system is unstable. Note that Δ is ∞ larger if M is smaller. This leads to a fundamental idea for the design of a robust ∞ control: minimize the H ∞ norm of the nominal system as much as possible.
5.8.1 MULTIPLICATIVE UNCERTAINTY Let the plant transfer matrix be described by
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W1 ( s)
v1
(s )
v2
W2 ( s)
r (s)
y (s ) K (s)
G (s )
FIGURE 5.8.2 A multiinput/multioutput feedback system with multiplicative uncertainty.
GΔ (s ) = G (s ) + W1 (s ) Δ(s )W2 (s )G (s ) = ( I + W1 (s ) Δ(s )W2 (s ))G (s )
(5.8.1)
where G(s) is the nominal transfer matrix and W1 (s ) Δ(s )W2 (s )G (s ) is the uncertainty. The transfer matrices W1 (s ) and W2 (s ) are weight functions, which are included here for a general treatment. Of course, they can also be identity matrices. It is assumed that the transfer matrices W1 (s ) , W2 (s ), and Δ(s ) are proper and stable. Consider the feedback system in Figure 5.8.2, which is stable with Δ(s ) = 0 . In other words, the controller K(s) has been designed to stabilize the feedback system with the nominal plant G(s) alone. Then the question is: What is the size of Δ(s ) beyond which the feedback system in Figure 5.8.2 will be unstable? To answer this question, with the external input r(s ) = 0 , loop is broken at v1 and v 2 , and it is easily derived that −GKy + W2 v 2 = y
(5.8.2)
v1 = −W1GKy
(5.8.3)
v 2 (s ) = M (s )v1 (s )
(5.8.4)
M (s ) = −W1 (s )To (s )W2 (s )
(5.8.5)
From (5.8.2) and (5.8.3),
where
The feedback system can be converted to the M −Δ system in Figure 5.8.1. Applying the small gain theorem, the condition for the stability of the feedback system is as follows: Δ
∞
≤
1 if and only if W1 (s )To (s )W2 (s ) < γ ∞ γ
Without any loss of generality, γ is often set to 1.
(5.8.6)
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Note: Multiplicative uncertainty can be on the input side of G(s); i.e., GΔ (s ) = G (s )( I + W1 (s ) Δ(s )W2 (s )) In this case, the condition for the stability of the feedback system is as follows: Δ
∞
≤
1 if and only if W1 (s )Ti (s )W2 (s ) < γ ∞ γ
(5.8.7)
5.8.2 ADDITIVE UNCERTAINTY Let the plant transfer matrix be described by GΔ (s ) = G (s ) + W1 (s ) Δ(s )W2 (s )
(5.8.8)
where G(s) is the nominal transfer matrix and W1 (s ) Δ(s )W2 (s )G (s ) is the uncertainty. The transfer matrices W1 (s ) and W2 (s ) are weight functions, which are included here for a general treatment. Of course, they can also be identity matrices. It is assumed that the transfer matrices W1 (s ) , W2 (s ) , and Δ(s ) are proper and stable. Consider the feedback system in Figure 5.8.3, which is stable with Δ(s ) = 0 . In other words, the controller K(s) has been designed to stabilize the feedback system with the nominal plant G(s) alone. Then the question is: What is the size of Δ(s ) beyond which the feedback system in Figure 5.8.3 will be unstable? To answer this question, with the external input r(s ) = 0 , loop is broken at v1 and v 2 , and it is easily derived that −GKy + W1v 2 = y
(5.8.9)
v1 = −W2 Ky
(5.8.10)
v 2 (s ) = M (s )v1 (s )
(5.8.11)
From (5.8.9) to (5.8.10),
W2 ( s)
v1
(s )
r (s)
v2
W1 ( s) y (s )
K (s)
G (s )
FIGURE 5.8.3 A multiinput/multioutput feedback system with additive uncertainty.
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(s )
v 2 ( s)
W1 ( s )
v1 ( s )
G2 p ( s ) u(s )
W2 ( s ) G (s )
y (s )
K (s )
FIGURE 5.8.4 Alternate representation of Figure 5.8.3.
where M (s ) = −W2 (s ) K (s ) So (s )W1 (s )
(5.8.12)
The feedback system can be converted to the M −Δ system in Figure 5.8.1. Applying the small gain theorem, the condition for the stability of the feedback system is as follows: Δ
∞
≤
1 if and only if W2 (s ) K (s ) So (s )W1 (s ) < γ ∞ γ
(5.8.13)
Without any loss of generality, γ is often set to 1. EXAMPLE 5.8.1 The system in Figure 5.8.3 can be redrawn to be as shown in Figure 5.8.4, which has the form of Figure 5.7.4a. Then, the state space representation of M(s) can be obtained via Equation 5.7.73 or the Matlab routine: lftf. EXAMPLE 5.8.2: RESIDUAL VIBRATORY MODE
AS
MULTIPLICATIVE UNCERTAINTY
The transfer function for the system shown in Figure 5.8.5 is y (s ) (αs + k ) = u (s ) ms 2 (ms 2 + 2 αs + 2 k )
(5.8.14)
The controller will be designed on the basis of the rigid mode only, and the vibratory mode will be considered as the residual mode. Therefore, the transfer function (5.8.14) can be written in the form of a multiplicative uncertainty as
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q1
q2
y
k u
m
m
FIGURE 5.8.5 A twomass system with damping.
y (s ) = G (s )[1 + Δ(s )] u (s )
(5.8.15)
where
G (s ) =
1 2 ms 2
and
Δ(s ) = −
ms 2 ms + 2 αs + 2 k 2
(5.8.16a,b)
Then, corresponding to Figure 5.7.4, G2 p (s ) can be deﬁned as ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ x2 ⎥ = ⎢0 ⎢ v1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ y ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1
1 0 0 0
0 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 0.5m −1 ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢ v2 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ u ⎥⎦
0 0 0 1
(5.8.17)
and the estimated state feedback controller K(s) can be written as − 1 ⎡ xˆ1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.5 k1 ⎢ xˆ2 ⎥ = ⎢ − 2 − ⎢ m ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ u ⎥⎦ ⎢ − k1 ⎣
1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎡ xˆ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎢ xˆ2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢y⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦
1 0.5 k2 − m − k2
(5.8.18)
where 1 and 2 are observer gains. To place controller poles at −1 ± 1j , k1 = k2 = 4 , and to place observer poles at −4 ± 4 j , 1 = 8 and 2 = 32. Bode magnitude plots of M K (s ) and Δ(s ) are shown in Figure 5.8.6. It is found that M K (s )
∞
= 1.4603
and
Δ(s )
∞
= 8.8552
(5.8.19)
Even though M K (s ) Δ(s ) > 1, the eigenvalues of the system (4.9.24) indicate ∞ ∞ that the closedloop system is stable in the presence of residual modes. This can be understood by realizing that the small gain theorem only states that there is at least
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20
0 Δ(s)
Singular Values (dB)
–20
–40 M(s)
–60
–80
–100
–120
–140 10–1
100
101 Frequency (rad/sec)
102
103
FIGURE 5.8.6 Singular values of M K (s ) .
one Δ(s ) that will destabilize the system. It does not rule out the existence of a Δ(s ) satisfying M K (s ) Δ(s ) > 1, for which the closedloop system is stable. ∞
∞
5.9 FORMULATION OF ROBUST CONTROL PROBLEMS WITH STRUCTURED UNCERTAINTIES 5.9.1 LINEAR FRACTIONAL TRANSFORMATION (LFT) A linear fractional transformation is the mapping of the form (Zhou et al., 1996, 1998) F (s ) =
a + bs c + ds
(5.9.1)
where a, b, c, and d are in general complex numbers. If c ≠ 0 , F(s) can also be written as F (s ) = α +
βs = α + βs (1 − γs )−1 1 − γs
(5.9.2)
where α, β, and γ are complex numbers. Next, partition a complex ( p1 + p2 ) × (q1 + q2 ) matrix M as follows:
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⎡M M = ⎢ 11 ⎣ M 21
M 12 ⎤ ⎥ M 22 ⎦
(5.9.3)
where M11 , M12, M 21, and M 22 are p1 × q1 , p1 × q2 , p2 × q1 , and p2 × q2 matrices, respectively. Lower LFT Consider a complex q2 × p2 matrix Δ . Then, a lower LFT with respect to Δ is deﬁned as F ( M , Δ ) = M11 + M12 Δ ( I − M 22 Δ )−1 M 21
(5.9.4)
From Figure 5.9.1, ⎡ z1 ⎤ ⎡ w1 ⎤ ⎡ M 11 ⎢ ⎥=M⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ y1 ⎦ ⎣ u1 ⎦ ⎣ M 21
M 12 ⎤ ⎡ w1 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ M 22 ⎦ ⎣ u1 ⎦
(5.9.5)
and u1 = Δ y 1
(5.9.6)
Dimensions of vectors w1, u1, z 1, and y1 are q1, q 2 , p1, and p 2 , respectively. From (5.9.5), z 1 = M11w1 + M12 u1
(5.9.7)
y1 = M 21w1 + M 22 u1
(5.9.8)
Substituting (5.9.6) into (5.9.8), z1
w1 M
y1
u1
FIGURE 5.9.1 Visualization of lower linear fractional transformation.
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y1 = ( I − M 22 Δ )−1 M 21w1
(5.9.9)
u1 = Δ ( I − M 22 Δ )−1 M 21w1
(5.9.10)
From (5.9.6) and (5.9.9),
Substituting (5.9.10) into (5.9.7), z 1 = Tz1w1 w1
(5.9.11)
Tz1w1 = M 11 + M 12 Δ ( I − M 22 Δ )−1 M 21
(5.9.12)
where
is the transfer function from w1 to z 1 when the signal y1 is fed back according to (5.9.6). Note that Tz1w1 is the lower LFT F ( M , Δ ) deﬁned by Equation 5.9.4. Upper LFT Consider a complex q1 × p1 matrix Δ u . Then, an upper LFT with respect to Δ u is deﬁned as Fu ( M , Δ u ) = M 22 + M 21Δ u ( I − M11Δ u )−1 M12
(5.9.13)
From Figure 5.9.2, ⎡ y2 ⎤ ⎡ u 2 ⎤ ⎡ M11 ⎢ ⎥=M⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ z2 ⎦ ⎣ w 2 ⎦ ⎣ M 21
M12 ⎤ ⎡ u 2 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ M 22 ⎦ ⎣ w 2 ⎦
u
y2
u2
M z2
w2
FIGURE 5.9.2 Visualization of upper linear fractional transformation.
(5.9.14)
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and u2 = Δu y 2
(5.9.15)
Dimensions of vectors u 2 , w 2, y 2 , and z 2 are q1 , q 2 , p1, and p 2 , respectively. From (5.9.14), y 2 = M11u 2 + M12 w2
(5.9.16)
z 2 = M 21u 2 + M 22 w 2
(5.9.17)
Substituting (5.9.15) into (5.9.16), y 2 = ( I − M11Δ u )−1 M12 w 2
(5.9.18)
u 2 = Δ u ( I − M11Δ u )−1 M12 w1
(5.9.19)
From (5.9.15) and (5.9.18),
Substituting (5.9.19) into (5.9.17), z 2 = Tz2w2 w 2
(5.9.20)
Tz2w2 = M 22 + M 21Δ u ( I − M11Δ u )−1 M 12
(5.9.21)
where
is the transfer function from w 2 to z 2 when the signal y 2 is fed back according to (5.9.15). Note that Tz2w2 is the upper LFT Fu ( M , Δ u ) deﬁned by Equation 5.9.13. EXAMPLE 5.9.1: REPRESENTATION
OF A
STATE SPACE MODEL (FIGURE 5.9.3)
Comparing transfer function matrix G (s ) = D + C (sI − A)−1 B
(5.9.22)
to Equation 5.9.12, M 22 = D, M 21 = C , M11 = A, M12 = B, and Δ u =
1 I s
(5.9.23)
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1 I s x
x
y
A
B
C
D
u
FIGURE 5.9.3 An upper linear fractional transformation representation of a state space model.
Hence, ⎛ 1 ⎞ G ( s ) = Fu ⎜ M , I ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠
(5.9.24)
where ⎡A M=⎢ ⎣C
B⎤ ⎥ D⎦
(5.9.25)
5.9.2 STRUCTURED PARAMETRIC UNCERTAINTIES Consider a linear system ( Aδ, Bδ , C δ , and Dδ ) with k uncertain parameters δ1 , δ 2 , …, δ k (Zhou et al., 1996): k
Aδ = A +
∑
k
δ i Aˆ i ;
Bδ = B +
i =1
∑ i =1
i
(5.9.26a, b)
i
i=1
k
Cδ = C +
∑ δ Bˆ k
δ iCˆ i ;
Dδ = D +
∑ δ Dˆ i
i
(5.9.27c, d)
i =1
where (A, B, C, D) is the model of the plant. Matrices Aˆ i , Bˆi , Cˆ i , and Dˆ i are known, and they describe how uncertain parameters δ1, δ 2, …, δ k enter into the model. It will be assumed that there are n states, m inputs, and p outputs. Following Equation 5.9.13, ⎛ 1 ⎞ Gδ ( s ) = Dδ + Cδ ( sI − Aδ )−1 Bδ = Fu ⎜ N δ , I ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠
(5.9.28)
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where ⎡ ⎢A+ ⎢ Nδ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢C + ⎢⎣
k
∑
k
δ i Aˆ i
B+
i =1
∑ i =1
k
∑ δ Cˆ i
k
D+
i
i =1
∑ i =1
⎤ δ i Bˆi ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ˆ δ i Di ⎥ ⎥⎦
(5.9.29)
Equation 5.9.29 can be written as ⎡A Nδ = ⎢ ⎣C
B⎤ ⎥+ D⎦
k
∑δ P
(5.9.30)
i i
i =1
where ⎡ Aˆ Pi = ⎢ i ⎢⎣Cˆ i
Bˆi ⎤ ⎥ Dˆ i ⎥⎦
(5.9.31)
If the rank of the matrix Pi is qi (Zhou et al., 1996), ⎡L ⎤ Pi = ⎢ i ⎥ ⎡⎣ RiH ⎣Wi ⎦
Z iH ⎤⎦
(5.9.32)
where Li , Wi , Ri , and Z i are n × qi , p × qi , n × qi , and m × qi matrices, respectively. Hence, ⎡L ⎤ δ i Pi = ⎢ i ⎥ δ i I qi ⎡⎣ RiH ⎣Wi ⎦
Z iH ⎤⎦
(5.9.33)
Substituting (5.9.33) into (5.9.30),
⎡A Nδ = ⎢ ⎣C
B ⎤ ⎡ L1 ⎥+⎢ D ⎦ ⎣W1
L2 W2
. .
. .
⎡δ1I q1 Lk ⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ . Wk ⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎣
. . .
⎡ R1H 0 ⎤ ⎢R H ⎥⎢ 2 . ⎥⎢ . ⎢ δ k I qk ⎥ ⎢ . ⎦ ⎢R H ⎣ k
Z1H ⎤ ⎥ Z 2H ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ Z kH ⎥⎦ (5.9.34)
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Comparing to Equation 5.9.14, N δ = F ( M δ , Δ p )
(5.9.35)
where ⎡M M δ = ⎢ 11 ⎣ M 21 ⎡A M11 = ⎢ ⎣C
B⎤ ⎥ D⎦
⎡L M12 = ⎢ 1 ⎣W1
⎡ R1H ⎢ H ⎢ R2 M 21 = ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢ . ⎢R H ⎣ k
L2 W2
Z1H ⎤ ⎥ Z 2H ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ Z kH ⎥⎦
M12 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦ . .
(5.9.36)
Lk ⎤ ⎥ Wk ⎦
. .
⎡δ1I q1 ⎢ Δp = ⎢ . ⎢ 0 ⎣
. . .
M 22 = 0
0 ⎤ ⎥ . ⎥ δ k I qk ⎥ ⎦
(5.9.37a,b,c)
(5.9.38a,b)
Substituting Equation 5.9.35 into Equation 5.9.28, ⎛ 1 ⎞ Gδ ( s ) = Fu ⎜ F ( M δ , Δ p ), I ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠
(5.9.39)
Rewriting (5.9.36) as ⎡A ⎢ Mδ = ⎢ C ⎢C 2 ⎣
B2 ⎤ ⎥ D12 ⎥ D22 ⎥⎦
B D D21
B2 = ⎡⎣ L1
L2
D12 = ⎡⎣ L1
L2
.
C 2H = ⎡⎣ R1
R2
.
.
(5.9.40)
Lk ⎤⎦
(5.9.41)
.
Lk ⎤⎦
(5.9.42)
.
Rk ⎤⎦
(5.9.43)
.
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311
1 I s x
x
A C C2
y
B B2 D D12 D 21 D 22
u
p
FIGURE 5.9.4 Extracting parametric uncertainties. H D21 = ⎡⎣ Z1
Z2
.
Z k ⎤⎦
.
(5.9.44)
D22 = 0
(5.9.45)
the relationship (5.9.39) can be visualized as shown in Figure 5.9.4. EXAMPLE 5.9.2: A TWOMASS SYSTEM
WITH AN
UNCERTAIN STIFFNESS
Consider the system shown in Figure 5.9.5 where the stiffness k is the uncertain parameter. Then, ⎡0 ⎢ 0 A=⎢ ⎢− k ⎢ ⎢⎣ k
0 0 k −k
1 0 0 0
0⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ 0 = 0 ⎥ ⎢ − k0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ k0
BT = [ 0
0 0 k0 − k0
0
1 0 0 0
1
⎡0 0⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ 0 + δk ⎢ ⎢ −1 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1
0]
k
u(t ) m1
FIGURE 5.9.5 A twomass system.
m2
0 0 0 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ (5.9.46) (5.9.47)
x 2 (t )
x (t )
0 0 1 −1
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C = ⎡⎣0
1
0 ⎤⎦
0
(5.9.48)
D=0
(5.9.49)
Therefore, ⎡0 ⎢ 0 Aˆ1 = ⎢ ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1
0 0 1 −1
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ; 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
0 0 0 0
Cˆ 1 = ⎡⎣0
0
0
Bˆ1T = ⎡⎣0
0
0 ⎤⎦
0
(5.9.50)
Dˆ 1 = 0
0 ⎤⎦ ;
(5.9.51)
Hence, ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢0 ˆ ⎤ B1 ⎥ = ⎢ −1 Dˆ 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢0 ⎣
⎡ Aˆ P1 = ⎢ 1 ⎢⎣Cˆ 1
0 0 1 −1 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0 ⎤⎦
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.9.52)
The rank of P1 is 1. Therefore, ⎡0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ P1 = ⎢ −1⎥ ⎡⎣1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎣ ⎦
⎡A ⎢ Mδ = ⎢ C ⎢C 2 ⎣
B D D21
−1
⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎤ B2 ⎥ ⎢−k D12 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 k D22 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎢ 0 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1
0 0 k0 − k0 1 −1
1 0 0 0 0 0
(5.9.53)
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ −1⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.9.54)
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Δ p = δk EXAMPLE 5.9.3: APPLICATION
OF
(5.9.55)
SMALL GAIN THEOREM
TO
EXAMPLE 5.9.2
Consider Example 5.9.2 with the nominal spring constant k0 = 1 N / m and the mass m = 1 kg. An LQG controller is designed via the Matlab Program 5.9.1. Then, with respect to Figure 5.9.4 with the feedback controller, or Figure 5.7.4b, M δ (s )
∞
= 6.2387
(5.9.56)
Therefore, the closed loop system will be stable provided Δ(s )
∞
= δk <
1 6.2387
MATLAB PROGRAM 5.9.1: LQG CONTROL (EXAMPLE 5.9.3) % Ii=eye(2); Zi=0*Ii; Ks=[1 1;1 1]; a=[Zi,Ii;Ks,Zi]; b1=[0 0 1 0]'; c1=[0 1 0 0]; d11=0; b2=[0 0 1 1]'; c2=[1 1 0 0]; d12=0; d21=0; d22=0; % W=eye(5); V=eye(5); [AF,BF,CF,DF]=lqg(a,b1,c1,d11,W,V); [Ac,Bc,Cc,Dc]=feedback(a,b1,c1,d11,AF,BF,CF,DF);
(5.9.57)
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CFF=CF; [AA,BB,CC,DD]... =lftf(a,b2,b1,c2,c1,d22,d21,d12,d11,AF,BF,CFF,DF); [hinfn]=normhinf(AA,BB,CC,DD)
5.10 H∞ CONTROL 5.10.1 FULL STATE FEEDBACK H∞ CONTROL (FIGURE 5.10.1) Assume that ⎡A ⎢ M = ⎢C1 ⎢I ⎣
B2 ⎤ ⎥ D12 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.10.1)
x = Ax + B1d(t ) + B2 u(t )
(5.10.2)
e(t ) = C 1x (t ) + D12 u(t )
(5.10.3)
y (t ) = x (t )
(5.10.4)
B1 0 0
The following assumptions are made: 1. ( A, B1 ) and ( A, B2 ) are stabilizable. 2. (C 1, A1 ) is detectable. T D12 = I . 3. C1T D12 = 0 and D12 Therefore,
e
d u
M
Kc
FIGURE 5.10.1 A full state feedback control system.
y=x
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The condition Ted (s )
H∞
<γ
(5.10.5)
implies inf sup J (u, d) < ∞ u d
(5.10.6)
∞
J (u, d) =
∫ (e e − γ d d)dt T
2
T
(5.10.7)
0
where inﬁnimum (inf) and supremum (sup) are deﬁned in Appendix C. Assume that the worstcase disturbance d(t) and the optimal control u(t) have the following structure (Stein, 1988): d(t ) = K d x (t )
and
u(t ) = K c x (t )
(5.10.8)
Then, e(t ) = (C1 + D12 K c ) x (t )
(5.10.9)
eT e = x T (C 1T C1 + K cT K c ) x
(5.10.10)
Using assumption 3,
Therefore, ∞
J=
∫x
T
(C 1T C 1 + K cT K c − γ 2 K dT K d ) xdt
(5.10.11)
0
From Equation 5.10.2 and Equation 5.10.8, x = ( A + B1K d + B2 K c ) x Hence, under the assumption that (5.10.12) is stable,
(5.10.12)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
J = x T (0 ) Px (0 )
(5.10.13)
where P satisﬁes the Lyapunov equation, P ( A + B1K d + B2 K c ) + ( A + B1K d + B2 K c )T P + C 1T C 1 + K cT K c − γ 2 K dT K d = 0 (5.10.14) The condition for maximization of J, Equation 5.10.13, with respect to K d (Stein, 1988) is ∇Kd P = 0
(5.10.15)
The gradient matrix ∇ K d P is deﬁned as follows: (∇ K d P )ij =
∂P ∂K dij
(5.10.16)
From (5.10.14), ∇ K d P ( A + B1K d + B2 K c ) + B1T P + B1T P + ( A + B1K d + B2 K c )T ∇ K d P − 2 γ 2 K d = 0 (5.10.17) Using (5.10.15),
Kd =
1 T B1 P γ2
(5.10.18)
Similarly, the condition for minimization of J, Equation 5.10.13, with respect to K c is ∇ Kc P = 0
(5.10.19)
K c = − B2T P
(5.10.20)
Therefore, it can be derived that
Substituting (5.10.18) and (5.10.20) into (5.10.14),
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⎛ ⎞ 1 PA + AT P + C1T C1 − P ⎜ B2 B2T − 2 B1B1T ⎟ P = 0 γ ⎝ ⎠ The condition Ted (s )
H∞
(5.10.21)
< γ is satisﬁed provided
1. u(t ) = K c x (t ) where K c is given by Equation 5.10.20.
(5.10.22a)
2. P ≥ 0.
(5.10.22b)
3. The matrix ( A + B1K d + B2 K c ) is stable.
(5.10.22c)
Using the iterative procedure, one can ﬁnd the minimum value of γ such that Ted (s )
H∞
< γ min
(5.10.23)
Fact 5.10.1 Because K d represents the worstcase disturbance, the stability of ( A + B1K d + B2 K c ) implies the stability of A + B2 K c , which is the closedloop system matrix. Proof Choose the following Lyapunov function: V = x T (t ) Px (t )
(5.10.24)
V = 2 x T (t ) P ( A + B1K d + B2 K c ) x (t ) < 0
(5.10.25)
Therefore,
Substituting the expression for K d , 2 x T (t ) P ( A + γ −2 B1B1T P + B2 K c ) x (t ) < 0
(5.10.26)
2 x T (t ) P ( A + B2 K c ) x (t ) < 0
(5.10.27)
Therefore,
Hence, V < 0 for the solution of x = ( A + B2 K c ) x also. This completes the proof. EXAMPLE 5.10.1: A SIMPLE MASS Consider the system (5.6.12) again, but with
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⎡1⎤ B1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 ⎦
(5.10.28)
Expanding (5.10.21), the following three equations for the elements of the matrix P are obtained:
1+
p11 +
2 p11 2 − p12 =0 γ2
p11 p12 − p12 p22 = 0 γ2
2 p12 +
2 p12 2 − p22 =0 γ2
(5.10.29)
(5.10.30)
(5.10.31)
Using (5.10.29) and (5.10.31), 2 2 p11 = γ 2 ( p12 − 1)
(5.10.32)
and
2 p22 = 2 p12 +
2 p12 γ2
(5.10.33)
From (5.10.30),
p11 (1 +
p12 ) = p12 p22 γ2
(5.10.34)
Squaring (5.10.34), and using (5.10.32) and (5.10.33),
2 p12 − 2 p12
Solving (5.10.35a),
γ2 γ4 − 4 =0 γ −1 γ −1 4
(5.10.35a)
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p12 =
γ2 (1 ± γ 2 ) γ −1
(5.10.35b)
4
For a positive deﬁnite solution for P, a “+” sign should be chosen in (5.10.35b). The solution for P is obtained as follows:
p12 =
γ2 , γ2 − 1
2γ 2 − 1
p22 = γ
γ2 − 1
(5.10.36)
EXAMPLE 5.10.2: ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM Consider the active suspension system presented in Example 3.11. The state equations are written as
⎡ 0 ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ x2 ⎥ = ⎢ λ ⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ m1 ⎢⎣ x 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0
0 0
1 0
0
0
0
0
⎡ 0 ⎤ 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ x1 ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ x 0 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ + ⎢− u (t ) + ⎢ ⎥ d (t ) ⎥ ⎢1⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎢ m1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ x 4 ⎥⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎢⎣ m2 ⎥⎦
(5.10.37)
where the disturbance d(t) is described as d (t ) =
λ1 x0 (t ) m1
(5.10.38)
Consider the quadratic objective function, Equation 3.5.81, for which the weighting matrix on states is rewritten as ⎡q1 + q2 ⎢ −q2 Q=⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
−q2 q2 0 0
0 0 0 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.10.39)
and the scalar input weighting is ρ . Let ρ−1Q be written as T ρ−1Q = C 11C 11
(5.10.40)
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where the order of the matrix C11 is 4 × 2 because the rank of the matrix Q is 2. Therefore, corresponding to the quadratic objective function (3.5.81) (see Chapter 3), matrices C 1 and D12 in Equation 5.10.1 are chosen as ⎡C T ⎤ C 1 = ⎢ 11 ⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎦
(5.10.41)
and D12 = [0
1]T
0
(5.10.42)
With the values of q1 = 10 , q2 = 1, and ρ = 10 −9, ⎡–1.0484 ⎢ C1 = 10 5 ⎢ 0.0296 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
0.1038
0
0.2987
0
0
0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥⎦
A full state H ∞ controller gain vector to achieve Ted (s ) K = 10 5 [−1.5809
0.4240
−0.0437
∞
(5.10.43)
< 30 is
0.0797 ]
(5.10.44)
The singular values of Ted (s ) are plotted for both H ∞ and H 2 control systems in Figure 5.10.2. Although the peak singular value for the H ∞ controller is lower, the bandwidth of Ted (s ) is higher than that for the H 2 controller.
5.10.2 FULL STATE FEEDBACK H∞ CONTROL UNDER DISTURBANCE FEEDFORWARD (FIGURE 5.10.3) Assume that
M DF
⎡A ⎢ = ⎢ C1 ⎢C 2 ⎣
B1 0 I
The following assumptions are made: 1. ( A, B1 ) and ( A, B2 ) are stabilizable. 2. (C 1, A1 ) is detectable.
B2 ⎤ ⎥ D12 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.10.45)
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35 30 Hinfinity, γ=30
25
Singular Values (dB)
20 H2 15 10 5 0 –5 –10 –15 10–1
100
102 101 Frequency (rad/sec)
103
104
FIGURE 5.10.2 Active suspension system H2 (and H∞ control). e
d u
MDF
y = C2x + d
KDF
FIGURE 5.10.3 Disturbance feedforward in outputs. T 3. C1T D12 = 0 and D12 D12 = I . 4. ( A − B1C 2 ) is stable.
The state dynamics is given by x = Ax + B1d(t ) + B2 u(t ) Consider the following controller:
(5.10.46)
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xˆ = Axˆ + B1 ( y (t ) − C 2 xˆ ) + B2 u (t )
(5.10.47)
u(t ) = K c xˆ
(5.10.48)
and
Substituting (5.10.48) into (5.10.47), xˆ = ( A − B1C 2 + B2 K c ) xˆ + B1y
(5.10.49)
Hence, the controller can be described in the state space form by ⎡ A − B1C 2 + B2 K c Κ ssDF = ⎢ Kc ⎣
B1 ⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
(5.10.50)
Subtracting (5.10.49) from (5.10.47), d ( x − xˆ ) = ( A − B1C 2 )( x − xˆ ) dt
(5.10.51)
Because ( A − B1C 2 ) has been assumed to be stable, xˆ → x
as
t→∞
(5.10.52)
Therefore, asymptotically, u(t ) = K c x
(5.10.53)
Note that the deﬁnition of H ∞ norm is based on the frequency response of the transfer function matrix. The frequency response is the steady state response or the response of the system as t → ∞ . Hence, Ted (s ) H for M DF with u = K c xˆ will be ∞ same as that for M with u = K c x ; (Figure 5.10.4). Therefore, to achieve Ted (s )
H∞
<γ
(5.10.54)
K c in Equation 5.10.48 should again be computed by Equation 5.10.20.
5.10.3 GUARANTEED H∞ NORM Assume that
VIA
STATE ESTIMATION (FIGURE 5.10.5)
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B2 ⎤ ⎥ I ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.10.55)
x = Ax + B1d(t ) + B2 u(t )
(5.10.56)
y = C 2 x + D21d
(5.10.57)
M SE
⎡A ⎢ = ⎢ C1 ⎢C 2 ⎣
B1 0 D21
The following assumptions are made: 1. 2. 3. 4.
( A, B1 ) is stabilizable. (C 1, A) and (C 2 , A) are detectable. T C1T D12 = 0 and D12 D12 = I . ( A − B2C 1 ) is stable.
The state dynamics is given by
Note that M SE and M DF are dual to each other (Equation 5.10.37 and Equation 5.10.55). Hence, the controller, which will be dual to the full state feedback control (5.10.48), will be in the form of a state estimator. The dual of M SE can be written as follows:
dual T M SE = M SE
⎡ AT ⎢ = ⎢ B1T ⎢ BT ⎣ 2
C 2T ⎤ T ⎥ D21 ⎥ 0 ⎦⎥
C1T 0 I
(5.10.58)
dual The form of M DF is the same as that of M SE . Comparing (5.10.45) and (5.10.58),
A → AT ,
B1 → C1T ,
B2 → C 2T
(5.10.59)
Therefore, from Equation 5.10.50, ⎡ AT − C1T B2T + C 2T K ET ss , dual K DF =⎢ K ET ⎣
C1T ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(5.10.60)
where K ET = −C 2 Q
(5.10.61)
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and ⎛ ⎞ 1 QAT + AQ + B1B1T − Q ⎜C2T C2 − 2 C1T C1 ⎟ Q = 0 γ ⎝ ⎠
(5.10.62)
Lastly, the controller K SE for (5.10.55) to achieve Ted (s ) < γ would be dual to H∞ (5.10.60): ⎡ A − B2C 1 + K E C 2 K SE = ⎢ C1 ⎣
KE ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(5.10.63)
Similar to conditions (5.10.22), the following conditions must be checked: 1. Q ≥ 0 .
(5.10.64)
⎛ ⎞ 1 2. The matrix ⎜ AT + C2T K ET + C1T 2 C1Q ⎟ or, equivalently, γ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ 1 T ⎜ A + K E C2 + 2 QC1 C1 ⎟ is stable. γ ⎝ ⎠
(5.10.65)
5.10.4 OUTPUT FEEDBACK H∞ CONTROL Assume that (Stein, 1988) ⎡A ⎢ M OF = ⎢ C1 ⎢C 2 ⎣
B1 0 D21
B2 ⎤ ⎥ D12 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.10.66)
The following assumptions are made: 1. ( A, B1 ) and ( A, B2 ) are stabilizable. e
d u
e
d
MDF y = C2 x + d
KDF
(5.10.67)
t
u
M
y=x Kc
FIGURE 5.10.4 Asymptotic property of disturbance feedforward problem.
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325 e = C1x + u
d MSE
u
y
KSE
FIGURE 5.10.5 H∞ state estimation.
2. (C 1, A) and (C 2 , A) are detectable.
(5.10.68)
T 3. C1T D12 = 0 and D12 D12 = I .
(5.10.69)
T T 4. B1D21 = 0 and D21D21 = I.
(5.10.70)
Deﬁne the following set of new variables: r = d − Kd x
(5.10.71)
v = u − Kc x
(5.10.72)
Based on (5.10.71) and (5.10.72), the system, Figure 5.10.6, yields the system shown in Figure 5.10.7. Theorem 5.10.1 The system shown in Figure 5.10.6 is stable with Ted H < γ if and only if the system ∞ shown in Figure 5.10.7 is stable with Tvr H < γ (Stein, 1988). ∞
Lemma 5.10.1(Performance equivalence of systems shown in Figure 5.10.6 and Figure 5.10.7): Tvr
H∞
< γ implies Ted
H∞
< γ , and vice versa.
Proof Choose the following Lyapunov function: V = x T (t ) Px (t ) where P satisﬁes Equation 5.10.21:
(5.10.73)
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d MOF
u
y
KOF
FIGURE 5.10.6 H∞ output feedback. v
Kc x
Kd r
d M OF
u y KOF
FIGURE 5.10.7 H∞ output feedback with new variables.
⎛ ⎞ 1 PA + AT P + C1T C1 − P ⎜ B2 B2T − 2 B1B1T ⎟ P = 0 γ ⎝ ⎠
(5.10.74)
Differentiating (5.10.73) with respect to time, V = x T Px + x T Px
(5.10.75)
x = Ax + B1d + B2 u
(5.10.76)
State equations are
Substituting (5.10.76) into (5.10.75), V = ( Ax + B1d + B2 u)T Px + x T P ( Ax + B1d + B2 u)
(5.10.77)
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Rearranging (5.10.77), V = x T ( AT P + PA) x + 2 d T B1T Px + 2 u T B2T Px
(5.10.78)
Substituting (5.10.74) into (5.10.78), ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤ 1 V = xT ⎢C1T C1 − P ⎜ B2 B2T − 2 B1B1T ⎟ P ⎥ x + 2 dT B1T Px + 2 uT B2T Px (5.10.79) γ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ Using (5.10.18) and (5.10.20), V = x T (−C1T C1 + K cT K c − γ 2 K dT K d ) x + 2 γ 2 d T K d x − 2 u T K c x
(5.10.80)
Equation 5.10.80 can be written as V = −(C1x )T C1x + (u − K c x )T (u − K c x ) − γ 2 (d − K d x )T (d − K d x ) − u T u + γ 2 d T d (5.10.81) Using (5.10.71) and (5.10.72), V = −(C1x )T C1x − u T u + γ 2 d T d + v T v − γ 2 rT r
(5.10.82)
e = C 1x + D12 u
(5.10.83)
Now,
T D12 = I , Equation 5.10.82 leads to Because C1T D12 = 0 and D12
V = −(eT e − γ 2 d T d) + (v T v − γ 2 rT r)
(5.10.84)
Integrating both sides from 0 to ∞, ∞
∫ dt dt = −[ e 0
or
dV
2 L2
− γ2 d
2 L2
]+[ v
2 L2
− γ2 r
2 L2
]
(5.10.85)
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−[ e
Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
2 L2
− γ2 d
2 L2
2
]+[ v
L2
− γ2 r
2 L2
] = V (∞) − V (0 ) = x T (∞) Px (∞) − x T (0 ) Px (0 ) (5.10.86)
Because x ∈L2 , x(∞) = 0. Therefore, −[ e
2 L2
2
− γ2 d
L2
]+[ v
2
− γ2 r
L2
2 L2
]<0
(5.10.87)
Therefore, [e
2 L2
− γ2 d
2 L2
2
]<0 ⇔[v
L2
− γ2 r
2 L2
]<0
(5.10.88)
In other words, Ted
H∞
< γ ⇔ Tvr
H∞
<γ
(5.10.89)
Equivalence of Stability of Systems Shown in Figure 5.10.6 and Figure 5.10.7 The system, Figure 5.10.7, is not implementable because it requires states x , which are not known. Therefore, the system shown in Figure 5.10.8 is constructed. Note that the system shown in Figure 5.10.8 can be represented as the system in Figure 5.10.9. Lemma 5.10.2 Response of the system in Figure 5.10.8 or Figure 5.10.9 becomes that of the system shown in Figure 5.10.6 asymptotically. Therefore, if the system shown in Figure 5.10.8 or Figure 5.10.9 is stable, the system shown in Figure 5.10.6 is also stable and vice versa (Stein, 1988). Proof In Figure 5.10.8, r = d − Kd x
and
v = uˆ − K c xˆ
(5.10.90)
Then, the dynamics of states x(t ) can be written by using the deﬁnition 5.10.66 of M OF in subsystem N: x = Ax + B1d + B2 [(uˆ − K c xˆ ) + K c x ]
(5.10.91)
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329
d
e M OF u Kc
x Kd r
v Kc xˆ
Kd dˆ
r
M OF
yˆ
uˆ KOF
FIGURE 5.10.8 Graphical representation of an important aspect of the output feedback H∞ control.
e
d v
r
FIGURE 5.10.9 Schematic representation of Figure 5.10.8.
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And the dynamics of estimated states xˆ can be written by using the deﬁnition 5.10.66 of M OF in subsystem H: xˆ = Axˆ + B1[(d − K d x ) + K d xˆ ] + B2 uˆ
(5.10.92)
Subtracting (5.10.92) from (5.10.91), d ( x − xˆ ) = ( A + B1K d + B2 K c )( x − xˆ ) dt
(5.10.93)
Because the matrix ( A + B1K d + B2 K c ) is stable, x − xˆ → 0
as
t→∞
(5.10.94)
In this case, dˆ = r + K d xˆ → d = r + K d x
as
yˆ = C 2 xˆ + D21dˆ → y = C 2 x + D21d uˆ (t ) → u(t )
as
t→∞ as
t→∞
t→∞
(5.10.95) (5.10.96) (5.10.97)
and states of systems in Figure 5.10.6 and Figure 5.10.8 become identical asymptotically as they will be both governed by x = Ax + B1d + B2 u
(5.10.98)
with an identical input u given by u(s ) = K OF (s ) y (s )
(5.10.99)
Lemma 5.10.3 If Σ is stable with Tvr 5.10.9 is stable.
H∞
= Σ H < γ, the system shown in Figure 5.10.8 or Figure ∞
Proof From Figure 5.10.8, r = d − Kd x
and
v = u − Kc x
(5.10.100)
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Using (5.10.66) and (5.10.100), the system N in Figure 5.10.8 can be described as ⎡e ⎤ ⎡d ⎤ ⎢ ⎥= Ν⎢ ⎥ ⎣r ⎦ ⎣v ⎦
(5.10.101)
where ⎡ A + B2 K c ⎢ Ν = ⎢ C1 ⎢ −Kd ⎣
B2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎡Ν D12 ⎥ = ⎢ 11 Ν 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 21
B1 0 I
Ν 12 ⎤ ⎥ Ν 22 ⎦
(5.10.102)
Therefore, 0 ⎤ ⎡ γd ⎤ ⎡ γ −1Ν 11 ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ I ⎦ ⎣ v ⎦ ⎣ Ν 21
0 ⎤ ⎡ γ −1I ⎥Ν ⎢ γI ⎦ ⎣ 0
⎡ e ⎤ ⎡I ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ γr ⎦ ⎣0
Ν 12 ⎤ ⎡ γd ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ (5.10.103) γΝ 22 ⎦ ⎣ v ⎦
From Equation 5.10.86,
e
2 L2
+ γ2 r
2 L2
= γ2 d
2 L2
]+ v
2 L2
− x T (0 ) Px (0 )
(5.10.104)
Equation 5.10.104 can be written as e γr
≤ L2
γd v
(5.10.105) L2
From (5.10.103), ⎡ γ −1Ν 11 ⎢ ⎣ Ν 21
Ν 12 ⎤ ≤1 ⎥ γΝ 22 ⎦ H
(5.10.106)
∞
Therefore, γΝ 22
H∞
Using the lower LFT formulae,
≤ 1 ⇒ Ν 22
H∞
≤
1 γ
(5.10.107)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Ted = Ν 11 − Ν 12 ( I − ΣN 22 )−1 N 21
(5.10.108)
Furthermore, ΣΝ 22
H∞
≤ Σ
H∞
Ν 22
H∞
< γγ −1 = 1
(5.10.109)
The system shown in Figure 5.10.9 is stable because det( I − ΣN 22 ) cannot encircle the origin of the complex plane. Lemma 5.10.4 If the system shown in Figure 5.10.6 is stable with Ted Tvr = Σ < γ (Stein, 1988). H∞
H∞
< γ , Σ is stable with
H∞
Proof < γ , the system shown If the system shown in Figure 5.10.6 is stable with Ted H∞ < γ . In this case, Redheffer (1960) has shown in Figure 5.10.7 is stable with Ted H∞ = Σ < γ. that the system Σ is stable with Tvr H∞
H∞
Controller Design In Figure 5.10.8, dˆ = r + K d xˆ
and
v = uˆ − K c xˆ
(5.10.110)
T = 0, the subsystem H in Σ Using (5.10.110), (5.10.66), and the assumption B1D21 can be described as
⎡ xˆ ⎤ ⎡ xˆ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = Η v ⎢ ⎥ ⎢r ⎥ ⎢ yˆ ⎥ ⎢uˆ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
(5.10.111)
where ⎡ A + B1K d ⎢ Η = ⎢ −Kc ⎢ C2 ⎣
B1 0 D21
B2 ⎤ ⎥ I ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(5.10.112)
The structure of the system (5.10.112) is identical to that of the system (5.10.55). = Σ < γ is Therefore, the controller that will stabilize Σ and guarantee Tvr H∞ H∞ given by
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333
⎡ A + B1K d + B 2 K c + K eC 2 K OF = ⎢ −Kc ⎣
Ke ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(5.10.113)
where T K e = − PC t 2
Pt ( A + B1K d )T + ( A + B1K d ) Pt + B1B1T − Pt (C 2T C 2 − γ −2 K cT K c ) Pt = 0
(5.10.114)
(5.10.115)
Note that K c and K d are obtained by the solution of (5.10.21), the Riccatilike equation. While solving Equation 5.10.115, following conditions must be checked: Pt ≥ 0
(5.10.116)
and
A + B1K d + K eC 2 +
1 Pt K cT K c is stable. γ2
(5.10.117)
Equation 5.10.115 can be transformed to have the structure of (5.10.21), the Riccatilike equation, with the following substitution: Pt = ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe
(5.10.118)
From (5.10.115) and (5.10.118), ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 P e ( A + B1K d )T + ( A + B1K d )( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe + B1B1T −( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe (C 2T C 2 − γ −2 K cT K c )( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe = 0
(5.10.119)
Premultiplying (5.10.119) by ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc ), P e ( A + B1K d )T + ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )( A + B1K d )( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe +( I − γ −2 Pe Pc ) B1B1T − Pe (C 2T C 2 − γ −2 K cT K c )( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe = 0 Postmultiplying (5.10.120) by ( I − γ −2 Pc Pe ) ,
(5.10.120)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
P e ( A + B1K d )T ( I − γ −2 Pc Pe ) +( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )( A + B1K d )( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe ( I − γ −2 Pc Pe ) +( I − γ −2 Pe Pc ) B1B1T ( I − γ −2 Pc Pe )
(5.10.121)
− Pe (C 2T C 2 − γ −2 K cT K c )( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe ( I − γ −2 Pc Pe ) = 0 Lemma 5.10.4 ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe ( I − γ −2 Pc Pe ) = Pe Proof From the matrix inversion lemma, ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 = I + γ −2 Pe ( I − γ −2 P c Pe )−1 Pc Therefore, ( I − γ−2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe ( I − γ−2 Pc Pe ) = Pe ( I − γ−2 Pc Pe ) + Pe ( I − γ−2 Pc Pe )−1 γ−2 Pc Pe ( I − γ−2 Pc Pe ) Because ( I − A)−1 A = A( I − A)−1 , ( I − γ−2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe ( I − γ−2 Pe Pc ) = Pe ( I − γ−2 Pc Pe ) + Pe γ−2 Pc Pe ( I − γ−2 Pc Pe )−1 ( I − γ−2 Pc Pe ) ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 Pe ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc ) = Pe − γ −2 Pe Pc Pe + γ −2 Pe Pc Pe = Pe Applying Lemma 5.10.4 to Equation 5.10.121, P e ( AT + K dT B1T )( I − γ −2 Pc Pe ) + ( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )( A + B1K d ) Pe +( I − γ −2 Pe Pc ) B1B1T ( I − γ −2 Pc Pe ) − Pe (C 2T C 2 − γ −2 K cT K c ) Pe = 0 Substituting K d = γ −2 B1T Pc and K c = − B2T Pc into (5.10.122),
(5.10.122)
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( Pe AT + APe + B1B1T − PeC 2T C 2 Pe ) − γ −2 Pe ( AT Pc + γ −2 Pc B1B1T Pc + Pc A − Pc B2 B2T Pc ) Pe = 0
(5.10.123)
Using (5.10.21), Pe AT + APe + B1B1T − Pe (C 2T C 2 − γ −2C1T C1 ) Pe = 0
(5.10.124)
While solving (5.10.124), the following conditions must be checked: Pe ≥ 0
(5.10.125)
ρ( Pe Pc ) < γ 2
(5.10.126)
A − Pe (C 2T C 2 − γ −2C1T C1 ) is stable.
(5.10.127)
Summary ⎡ A + B1K d + B 2 K c + K eC 2 K OF = ⎢ −Kc ⎣ K e = −( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 PeC 2T
Kd =
1 T B1 Pc γ2
K c = − B2T Pc
Ke ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(5.10.128)
(5.10.129)
(5.10.130)
(5.10.131)
General Case Now, assumptions (5.10.69) and (5.10.70) will be relaxed (Stein, 1988); i.e., T 1. C1T D12 ≠ 0 and D12 D12 = R ≠ I
(5.10.132)
T T ≠ 0 and D21D21 =Θ≠I 2. B1D21
(5.10.133)
Then, the output feedback H ∞ control is given by
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⎡ A + ( B1 − K e D21 ) K d + B 2 K c + K eC 2 K OF = ⎢ −Kc ⎣
Kd =
Ke ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
1 T B1 Pc γ2
T K c = − R −1 ( B2T Pc + D12 C1 )
(5.10.134)
(5.10.135)
(5.10.136)
T T Pc ( A − B2 R−1 D12 C1 ) + ( A − B2 R−1 D12 C1 )T P c +C1T C 1
⎛ ⎞ 1 − Pc ⎜ B2 R−1 B2T − 2 B1 B1T ⎟ Pc = 0 γ ⎝ ⎠ T C 1 = ( I − D12 R −1D12 )C1
T T Pe ( A − B1 D21 Θ−1C2 )T + ( A − B1 D21 Θ−1C2 )Pe + B1 B1T
− Pe (C2T Θ−1C2 − γ−2 C1T C1 )Pe = 0
5.10.5 POLES
OR
ZEROS
(5.10.137)
(5.10.138)
(5.10.139)
T B1 = B1 ( I − D21 Θ −1D21 )
(5.10.140)
K e = −( I − γ −2 Pe Pc )−1 PeC 2T
(5.10.141)
ON IMAGINARY
AXIS
When a plant has poles or zeros on the imaginary axis, numerical algorithms to compute H ∞ optimal control fail (Safanov, 1986; Chiang and Safanov 1992a). This problem is solved by introducing a bilinear transform:
s =
s+a 1 + bs
(5.10.142)
where a and b are nonnegative real numbers. A special case of bilinear transform is obtained by setting b = 0, s =s+a
(5.10.143)
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Therefore, the imaginary axis gets shifted to the left by a distance a, and poles or zeros, or both, are no longer on the imaginary axis of the s plane. The plant transfer function can be expressed as C (sI − A)−1 B + D = C (sI − A)−1 B + D
(5.10.144)
A = A + aI
(5.10.145)
where
Hence, for the H ∞ controller design, the system matrix is chosen as A . Other matrices B, C, and D are not affected. Then, the inverse bilinear transform is applied to the controller transfer function: C k (sI − Ak )−1 Bk + Dk = C k (sI − Ak )−1 Bk + Dk
(5.10.146)
Ak = Ak − aI
(5.10.147)
where
An important feature of this bilinear transform is that the following inequality is guaranteed: Ted (s )
∞
≤ Ted (s )
∞
<γ
(5.10.148)
where Ted (s ) is the transfer function whose H ∞ norm is made to be less than γ by the controller design in the s domain. The result (5.10.148) says that the H ∞ norm of the original transfer function Ted (s ) is guaranteed to be less than γ .
5.11 LOOP SHAPING 5.11.1 TRADEOFF BETWEEN PERFORMANCE H∞ CONTROL
AND
ROBUSTNESS
VIA
We require the sensitivity function S ( jω ) to be small in the lower frequency range. With a suitable weight function W1 (s ), it can be speciﬁed as W1 ( jω ) σ ( S ( jω )) ≤ 1
or
σ ( S ( jω )) ≤ W1−1 ( jω )
(5.11.1)
The sensitivity function S ( jω ) is made small by having a large loop transfer matrix L ( jω ) . Assuming that σ ( L ( jω )) >> 1,
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S ( jω ) = ( I + L ( jω ))−1 ≈ L−1 ( jω )
(5.11.2)
From (5.11.1) and (5.11.2), σ ( L ( jω )) >> W1 ( jω )
(5.11.3)
Similarly, we require the complementary sensitivity function T ( jω ) to be small in the higher frequency range. With a suitable weight function W3 (s ) , it can be speciﬁed as W3 ( jω ) σ (T ( jω )) ≤ 1
or
σ (T ( jω )) ≤ W3−1 ( jω )
(5.11.4)
The complementary sensitivity function T ( jω ) is made small by having a small loop transfer matrix L ( jω ). Assuming that σ ( L ( jω )) << 1, T ( jω ) = L ( jω )( I + L ( jω ))−1 ≈ L ( jω )
(5.11.5)
From (5.11.4) and (5.11.5), σ ( L ( jω )) ≤ W3−1 ( jω )
(5.11.6)
Both conditions (5.11.3) and (5.11.6) are graphically shown in Figure 5.11.1. Also, conditions (5.11.1) and (5.11.4) can be satisﬁed by the following mixed sensitivity condition: W1 (s ) S (s ) ≤1 W3 (s )T (s ) ∞
(5.11.7)
In Matlab (Chiang and Safanov, 1992b), a routine “augss” is available to set up this mixed sensitivity optimization problem. The “augss” creates the M matrix in Equation 5.10.66 on the basis of the system shown in Figure 5.11.2, which is equivalent to Figure 5.7.1, with r(s ) = 0 , n(s ) = 0 , and d i (s ) = 0 and addition of weighting matrices W1 (s ) , W2 (s ), and W3 (s ) as shown in Figure 5.11.3. From (5.7.4), y (s ) = So (s )d(s )
(5.11. 8)
y (s ) − d(s ) = −To (s )d(s )
(5.11.9)
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( L( j ))
W1 ( j ) u
W3 1 ( j ) (j )
FIGURE 5.11.1 Concept of loop shaping (Chiang and Safanov, 1992b).
W1 ( s)
e1 ( s )
e 2 ( s) W2 ( s ) d g (s ) d(s )
y (s ) e3 ( s)
y ( s) d( s ) G (s )
W3 ( s )
u(s )
K (s )
FIGURE 5.11.2 System for Matlab routine “augss” (Chiang and Safanov, 1992b).
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e3 ( s)
e 2 ( s)
W2 ( s) 0
W3 ( s )
d(s) e1 ( s )
y (s )
G (s )
K (s )
W1 ( s )
u(s ) y ( s ) d( s )
FIGURE 5.11.3 Alternate representation of Figure 5.11.2.
From (5.7.6), u(s ) = − K o (s ) So (s )d(s )
(5.11.10)
⎡ e1 (s ) ⎤ ⎡ −W1 (s ) y (s ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ e(s ) = ⎢e2 (s ) ⎥ = ⎢ W2 (s )u(s ) d(s )) ⎥ = Ted (s )(−d ⎢ e3 (s ) ⎥ ⎢W3 (s )( y (s ) − d(s )) ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣
(5.11.11)
⎡ W1 (s ) So (s ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Ted (s ) = ⎢W2 (s ) K o (s ) So (s ) ⎥ ⎢ W3 (s )To (s ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(5.11.12)
Therefore,
where
EXAMPLE 5.11.1: THREEDISK SYSTEM (ECP MANUAL) Consider the threedisk system shown in Figure 5.11.4, in which J1 , J2 , and J3 are massmoments of inertia. The stiffnesses of torsional springs are k1 and k2 . With the applied torque T(t), the system of differential equations is + Cθ + K θ = B f T (t ) Mθ
(5.11.13)
where ⎡ J1 ⎢ M = ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 J2 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥; J3 ⎥⎦
⎡c1 ⎢ C = ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 c2 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥; c3 ⎥⎦
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J3
3
k2 J2
2
k1 J1
1
T (t )
FIGURE 5.11.4 A threedisk system.
TABLE 5.11.1 System Parameters (ECP Manual) J1 = 0.0024 kgm2, J2 = J3 = 0.0019 kgm2 k1 = k2 = 2.8 Nm/rad c1 = 0.007 Nmsec/rad, c2 = c3 = 0.001 Nmsec/rad khw = 100/6 units
⎡ k1 ⎢ K = ⎢ − k1 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡ θ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ θ = ⎢θ2 ⎥ ⎢⎣θ 3 ⎥⎦
0 ⎤ ⎥ − k2 ⎥ k2 ⎥⎦
(5.11.14)
⎡1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ B f = ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(5.11.15)
− k1 k1 + k2 − k2
and
The energy dissipation in the system is modeled by equivalent viscous damping coefﬁcients c1 , c2 , and c3 associated with disks J1 , J2 , and J3 , respectively. The system input u(t) is related to torque T(t) as T (t ) = khw u (t )
(5.11.16)
where khw is the hardware gain. The system parameters are listed in Table 5.11.1. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem with Matlab command: eig(K,M). Results are shown in Table 5.11.2. Mode#1 is called a rigid body mode as all the disks move together. The second and third modes are vibratory in nature. A reducedorder model based on the rigid body mode can be developed by deﬁning rigid body modal coordinate q1 as the following approximation:
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TABLE 5.11.2 Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes Mode#1: ω1 = 0 ; ϕ1 = ⎡⎣12.7
12.7
12.7⎤⎦
T
Mode#2: ω2 = 36.22 rad/sec ; ϕ 2 = ⎡⎣14.2975
−1.7835
Mode#3: ω 3 = 65.39 rad/sec; ϕ 3 = ⎡⎣7.1385
−19.0222
−16.2764 ⎤⎦
T
10.0051⎤⎦
T
θ(t ) = ϕ1q1
(5.11.17)
Substituting (5.11.17) into (5.11.13) and premultiplying by ϕ1T , ϕ1T M ϕ1q1 + ϕ1T C ϕ1q1 + ϕ1T K ϕ1q1 = ϕ1T B f T (t )
(5.11.18)
Substituting parameter values listed in Table 1 and using (5.11.16), q1 + 1.4516 q1 = 211.667u (t )
(5.11.19)
The transfer function corresponding to (5.11.19) is q1 (s ) 211.667 = G (s ) = u (s ) s (s + 1.4516 )
(5.11.20)
Using Matlab routine hinf, a controller u (s ) = − K (s )q1 (s )
(5.11.21)
has been designed on the basis of the model (5.11.20) to achieve the following objective function: W1 (s ) So (s ) ≤1 W3 (s )To (s ) ∞
(5.11.22)
So (s ) = (1 + G (s ) K (s ))−1
(5.11.23)
To (s ) = G (s ) K (s )(1 + G (s ) K (s ))−1
(5.11.24)
where
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125 100 80
Magnitude (dB)
60 W–1
40
3
W–1 1
20 T 0
–20
S W–1 1
–40
T S
–60 10–1
100
101 Frequency (rad/sec)
102
103
FIGURE 5.11.5 Results of loop shaping via H∞ control of the threedisk system.
W1−1 (s ) =
(0.02 s + 1)2 0.01(0.4s + 1)2
(5.11.25)
3500 s2
(5.11.26)
W3−1 (s ) =
The Matlab program 5.11.1 is provided. In Figure 5.11.5, Bode magnitude plots of W1−1 (s ) , W3−1 (s ) , So (s ) , and To (s ) are shown. As expected, S (s )
∞
≤ W1−1 ( jω )
and
T (s )
∞
≤ W3−1 ( jω )
(5.11.27a,b)
Because of the choice W1−1 (s ) , the sensitivity function is greater than one beyond 35 rad/sec, which is less than the frequencies of unmodeled second and third modes. MATLAB PROGRAM 5.11.1: LOOP SHAPING %1 Mode of Vibration numg=211.6667; deng=[1 1.4516 0];
VIA
H∞ CONTROL
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% numw1=[4e4 4.e2 1]; denw1=0.01*[0.16 0.8 1]; sysw1i=tf(denw1,numw1); numw3=[1 0 0]; denw3=[0 0 3500]; sysw3i=tf(denw3,numw3) [ag,bg,cg,dg]=tf2ss(numg,deng); ag0=ag+0.1*eye(size(ag)); sysP=ss(ag,bg,cg,dg); ssg=mksys(ag0,bg,cg,dg); w1=[numw1;denw1]; w2=[]; w3=[numw3;denw3]; % TSS=augtf(ssg,w1,w2,w3); [ssf,sscl]=hinf(TSS); % [af,bf,cf,df]=branch(ssf); af=af0.1*eye(size(af)); [numf,denf]=ss2tf(af,bf,cf,df) sysK=ss(af,bf,cf,df); sysPK=series(sysP,sysK); sys_Id=ss([],[],[],1); sys_Sens=feedback(sys_Id,sysPK); sys_cSens=feedback(sysPK,sys_Id); wrang=logspace(1,3); bodemag(sysw1i,sysw3i,sys_Sens,sys_cSens,wrang) legend('w_1^^1', 'w_3^^1','S','T')
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5.11.2 FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRAINT: BODE’S SENSITIVITY INTEGRALS SISO System Let L (s ) = G (s ) K (s ) be the loop transfer function, where G(s) and K(s) are plant and controller transfer functions, respectively. Assuming that L(s) has at least two more poles than zeros (Zhou et al., 1996), ∞
∫
r
n S ( jω ) d ω = π
∑p ≥0 i
(5.11.28)
i =1
0
where S(s) is the sensitivity function; i.e., S (s ) = (1 + L (s ))−1
(5.11.29)
and p1, p2 , …, pr are r poles in the open right half plane; i.e., with real parts greater than zero. For a stable L(s), Equation 5.11.28 yields ∞
∫ n S ( jω) dω = 0
(5.11.30)
0
Relationships (5.11.28) and (5.11.30) are known as Bode’s sensitivity integrals, which represent fundamental constraints or laws that every controller must satisfy. Stein (2003) has described them as conservation laws: The integrated value of the log of the magnitude of the sensitivity function is conserved under the action of feedback. This integral is zero for a stable loop transfer function, whereas it is a constant positive number for an unstable loop transfer function. For all physical systems, L ( jω ) ≈ 0 or n S ( jω ) = 0
for ω > ω b
(5.11.31)
where ω b is called the available bandwidth, which is dependent on the physical hardwares used in the control systems and is independent of the controller. As a result, Equation 5.11.28 can be written as ωb
∫ 0
r
n S ( jω ) d ω ≈ π
∑p ≥0 i
i =1
Then, for a stable L(s), Equation 5.11.32 reduces to
(5.11.32)
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ωb
∫ n S ( jω) dω ≈ 0
(5.11.33)
0
Typically, for good performance in the frequency range ω ≤ ω d , S ( jω ) ≤ 1 or n S ( jω ) ≤ 0 ;
ω ≤ ωd
(5.11.34)
and ωd
∫ n S ( jω) dω < 0
(5.11.35)
0
Because of constraints (5.11.33), ωb
∫
ωd
n S ( jω ) d ω = −
ωd
∫ n S ( jω) dω > 0 ;
ωd < ω b
(5.11.36)
0
Therefore, a performance increase in the frequency range 0 ≤ ω ≤ ω d must be accompanied by an equal performance decrease in the frequency range ω d ≤ ω ≤ ω b (Figure 5.11.6). Hence, if the integral in (5.11.35) is made more negative by a highly ambitious controller design, a price must be paid in the frequency range ω d ≤ ω ≤ ωb . For MIMO systems, a constraint similar to (5.11.28) exists in terms of the maximum singular value of the sensitivity function (Zhou et al., 1996).
n S( j )
0
d
FIGURE 5.11.6 Graphical description of Bode’s sensitivity integral.
b
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FIGURE 5.11.7 A schematic of X29 aircraft.
EXAMPLE 5.11.2: X29 AIRCRAFT The X29 aircraft (Stein, 1988; Stein, 2003) is the forwardsweptwing research plane (Figure 5.11.7). It is designed to have static or openloop instability by locating the center pf pressure (the effective point of action of lift forces) of each wing ahead of its center of gravity. The stability of the ﬂight is achieved by feedback control. The advantages of openloop instability is reduced weight, maneuverability, and speeds of command response. The openloop system, which represents actuators, airframe, sensors, and digital controller, is described by G (s ) =
20 (s + 3)(s − 35) ; (s + 10 p / 6 )(s − p )(s + 20 )(s + 35))
p>0
(5.11.37)
Then, controllers K(s) are designed to minimize the following objective functions: W1 (s ) So (s ) W2 (s ) K (s ) So (s ) H
(5.11.38) ∞
where W2 (s ) = 0.01
(5.11.39)
The Matlab routines “augtf” and “hinfopt” have been used (Matlab Program 5.11.2). Numerical results are generated for two different W1 (s ) denoted as W1A (s ) = and
s +1 (s + 0.001)(1 + 0.001s )
(5.11.40)
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Weighting Function 40
W1A(s) W1B(s)
30
Magnitude (dB)
20
10
0
–10
–20
–30 10–1
100
102 101 Frequency (rad/sec)
103
104
FIGURE 5.11.8 Weighting functions for H∞ control of X29 aircraft.
W1B (s ) =
s + 10 (s + 0.01)(1 + 0.0001s )
(5.11.41)
Bode plots for W1A (s ) and W1B (s ) are shown in Figure 5.11.8. The sensitivity functions are plotted in Figure 5.11.9 for p = 9. The sensitivity function in the frequency range of 0.1 to 10 rad/sec is smaller for W1B (s ) in comparison to that for W1A (s ) . However, the sensitivity function in the frequency range of 10 to 60 rad/sec is larger for W1B (s ) , which is expected from the Bode integral. MATLAB PROGRAM 5.11.2: X29 AIRCRAFT % clear all close all % numw1=[0 1 1]; denw1=conv([1 0.001],[0.001 1]); %
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Sensitivity Function, p = 9 15 W1A(s) W1B(s)
10 5
Magnitude (dB)
0 –5 –10 –15 –20 –25 –30 10–1
100
101 Frequency (rad/sec)
102
FIGURE 5.11.9 Sensitivity functions for H∞ control of X29 aircraft.
numw1=[0 1 10]; denw1=conv([1 0.01],[0.0001 1]); % numw2=0.01; denw2=1; % w1=[numw1;denw1]; figure(1) wrang=logspace(3,3); bodemag(tf(numw1,denw1),wrang); grid w2=[numw2;denw2]; w3=[]; %
103
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numg=conv([20 60],[1 35]); qq=0 for icount=1:3 qq=qq+3; pq=conv([1 qq*10/6],[1 qq]); pqr=conv(pq,[1 20]); deng=conv(pqr,[1 35]); [ag,bg,cg,dg]=tf2ss(numg,deng); sysP=ss(ag,bg,cg,dg); ssg=mksys(ag,bg,cg,dg); % TSS=augtf(ssg,w1,w2,w3); %[gamopt,ssf,sscl]=hinfopt(TSS); [ssf,sscl]=h2lqg(TSS); % [af,bf,cf,df]=branch(ssf); [numf,denf]=ss2tf(af,bf,cf,df) sysK=ss(af,bf,cf,df); sysPK=series(sysP,sysK); sys_Id=ss([],[],[],1); if icount== 1 Sensfn_1B=feedback(sys_Id,sysPK); Csensfn1B=feedback(sysPK,sys_Id); end if icount== 2 Sensfn_2B=feedback(sys_Id,sysPK); Csensfn2B=feedback(sysPK,sys_Id); end if icount== 3 Sensfn_3B=feedback(sys_Id,sysPK); Csensfn3B=feedback(sysPK,sys_Id);
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end end wrang=logspace(1,3); figure(2) bodemag(Sensfn_1B,Sensfn_2B,Sensfn_3B,wrang) legend('p=3','p=6','p=9') grid
5.12 CONTROLLER BASED ON μ ANALYSIS The uncertainty matrix, Δ, which represents parametric errors, has a block diagonal structure. It will be shown in Section 5.12.3 that the solution of the robust performance control problem leads to an uncertainty matrix, Δ, which also has a block diagonal structure. But the uncertainty matrix, Δ, in the small gain theorem is a general matrix, and includes the cases of nonblockdiagonal structure. As a result, application of the small gain theorem can yield a highly conservative bound of the norm of Δ for robustness. To reduce the conservativeness of the result, structured singular values (μ) are deﬁned (Doyle et al., 2000).
5.12.1 DEFINITIONS VALUES (μ)
AND
PROPERTIES
OF
STRUCTURED SINGULAR
Structured singular value μ Δ ( M ) of a complex n × n matrix M is deﬁned with respect to the structure Δ of a block diagonal complex n × n matrix. There can be two types of blocks: repeated scalar and full. In general, the structure of a block diagonal complex n × n matrix can be deﬁned (Zhou et al., 1996) as follows: Δ = diag[δ1I r1
.
.
δS I rS
Δ1
.
.
ΔF ]
(5.12.1)
where δ i is a complex number and Δ i is a complex mi × mi matrix. Δ i is called the ith full block. Note that δ i is repeated ri times in the block δ i I ri . Therefore, δ i I ri is called a repeated block. There are S repeated and F full blocks. Dimensions of these repeated and full blocks must add up to n; i.e., S
F
∑ ∑m ri +
i =1
j
=n
(5.12.2)
j =1
Definition 5.12.1 The structured singular value μ Δ ( M ) of a complex n × n matrix M is deﬁned as follows:
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⎧0 ⎪ μΔ (M ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩
det( I − M Δ) ≠ 0 1 min {σ (Δ) : Δ ∈ Δ, if
for
any
Δ∈Δ (5.12.3)
det( I − M Δ) = 0}
The following are examples: 1. Let ⎡0 M=⎢ ⎣1
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎦
and
⎡δ Δ=⎢ 1 ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ δ2 ⎦
(5.12.4)
Then, ⎡1 I − MΔ = ⎢ ⎣ δ1
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎦
det( I − M Δ) = 1
and
(5.12.5)
Because det( I − M Δ) ≠ 0 , μΔ (M ) = 0
(5.12.6)
2. Let ⎡2 M=⎢ ⎣2
1⎤ ⎥ 1⎦
and
⎡δ Δ=⎢ 1 ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥ δ2 ⎦
(5.12.7)
Then, det( I − M Δ) = 1 + (δ 2 − 2 δ1 )
(5.12.8)
Hence, det( I − M Δ) = 0 when 2 δ1 − δ 2 = 1
(5.12.9)
The minimum value of σ( Δ) equals 1/3 when δ1 = 1 / 3 and δ 2 = −1 / 3 . Therefore, μΔ (M ) = 3 Properties of μ are as follows:
(5.12.10)
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1. If Δ = δI n , μ Δ ( M ) = ρ( M )
(5.12.11)
where ρ( M ) is the maximum modulus of eigenvalues of M. Note that ρ( M ) is called the spectral radius of M, and S = 1, F = 0, and r1 = n . 2. If Δ is a full matrix, μΔ (M ) = σ(M )
(5.12.12)
Note that S = 0, F = 1, and r1 = 0 in this case. 3. In general, ρ( M ) ≤ μ Δ ( M ) ≤ σ ( M ) 4.
(5.12.13)
max inf ρ(UM ) = μ Δ ( M ) ≤ σ ( DMD −1 ) U∈U D∈D where U = {U ∈ Δ :
{
D = diag[ D1
5. μ Δ ( M ) =
.
inf D∈D
.
Ds
d1I m1
(5.12.14)
UU * = I n } .
.
σ ( DMD −1 ) if 2 S + F ≤ 3
d F −1I mF −1
(5.12.15)
I mF
}
(5.12.16)
(5.12.17)
Computation of μ: The value of μ can be computed by numerically ﬁnding U which maximizes ρ(UM ) . However, it is difﬁcult to ﬁnd the global maximum as there can be many local maxima. The determination of D to minimize σ( DMD −1 ) can be done numerically. However, this minimum value equals μ only when 2 S + F ≤ 3 . For 2 S + F > 3 , it will be an upper bound.
5.12.2 ROBUSTNESS ANALYSIS
VIA
μ
Basic theorem: Let M (s ) and Δ(s ) be stable MIMO p1 × q1 and q1 × p1 transfer functions. Also, let Δ(s ) be a block diagonal matrix having the structure of Δ deﬁned by (5.12.1) and satisfying Δ(s )
∞
< β −1 ;
β>0
(5.12.18)
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(s )
M (s )
FIGURE 5.12.1 M–Δ system.
The loop shown in Figure 5.12.1 is wellposed and internally stable (Zhou et al., 1996) if and only if sup μ Δ ( M ( jω)) ≤ β ω
(5.12.19)
⎡M M = ⎢ 11 ⎣ M 21
(5.12.20)
Loop theorem: Let M 12 ⎤ ⎥ M 22 ⎦
Let Δ1 and Δ 2 be block structures corresponding to diagonal blocks M11 and M 22 , respectively. Then, the block diagonal structure Δ is deﬁned as ⎡Δ1 Δ =⎢ ⎣0
0⎤ ⎥; Δ2 ⎦
Δ1 ∈ Δ1
and
Δ2 ∈ Δ 2
(5.12.21)
Then, the following results hold: μ Δ ( M ) ≤ 1 ⇔ μ Δ 2 ( M 22 ) ≤ 1
and
sup μ Δ1 ( F ( M , Δ 2 )) ≤ 1 Δ2
(5.12.22)
where supremum is over all Δ 2 satisfying σ( Δ 2 ) ≤ 1 and F ( M , Δ 2 ) is the lower LFT deﬁned as follows: F ( M , Δ 2 ) = M11 + M12 Δ 2 ( I − M 22 Δ 2 )−1 M 21
5.12.3 ROBUST PERFORMANCE
VIA
(5.12.23)
μ ANALYSIS
Consider the system shown in Figure 5.12.2. The nominal model of the uncertain plant PΔ is P (s ) . Furthermore,
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P u W
d Wp
u
y
P(s )
K (s)
FIGURE 5.12.2 Robust performance problem.
P u W
u
eu
dp
du
p
ep
Wp y P(s )
K (s)
FIGURE 5.12.3 Equivalent robust stability problem.
PΔu = P (s )( I + Δ u (s )W (s ))
(5.12.24)
y (s ) = ( I + PΔu K )−1W p d(s )
(5.12.25)
Also,
Hence, the robust performance problem is deﬁned as follows. Find a controller K (s ) such that ( I + PΔu K )−1W p
∞
≤1 ∀
Δ u (s )
(5.12.26)
The robust performance problem can be converted into the robust stability problem (Dahleh, 1992) by introducing a ﬁctitious perturbation Δ p (s ), Figure 5.12.3, such that Δp Breaking loops at d p and e p ,
∞
<1
(5.12.27)
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p
(I
P u K ) 1W p
FIGURE 5.12.4 Equivalent to Figure 5.12.3.
e p (s ) = ( I + PΔu K )−1W p d p (s )
(5.12.28)
From the small gain theorem, the system shown in Figure 5.12.3 is stable for all Δ p if and only if the condition (5.11.26) is satisﬁed. Hence, the robust performance criterion is equivalent to the robust stability of the system shown in Figure 5.12.4. To solve this problem, breaking loops at d u , eu , d p , and e p in Figure 5.12.3, ⎡d p ⎤ ⎡e p ⎤ ⎢ ⎥=M⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ d u ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ eu ⎥⎦
and
⎡d p ⎤ ⎡e p ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = Δ⎢ ⎥ ⎣du ⎦ ⎣ eu ⎦
(5.12.29a,b)
where ⎡ ( I + PK )−1W p M=⎢ −1 ⎢⎣ −WK ( I + PK ) W p
⎤ ⎥ −WK ( I + PK )−1 P ⎥⎦ ( I + PK )−1 P
(5.12.30)
and ⎡Δ p Δ=⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
0 ⎤ ⎥ Δ u ⎥⎦
(5.12.31)
Comparing Figure 5.12.4 and Figure 5.12.5, F ( M , Δ u ) = ( I + PΔu K )−1W where F ( M , Δ u ) is the lower LFT deﬁned as follows:
(5.12.32)
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ep
dp
eu
M
du
u
p
FIGURE 5.12.5 Equivalent to Figure 5.12.4.
F ( M , Δ u ) = M11 + M12 Δ u ( I − M 22 Δ u )−1 M 21
(5.12.33)
Applying loop theorem (5.12.22), the robust performance is achieved when μ Δ (M ) ≤ 1
(5.12.34)
For the structure of Δ, S = 0 and F = 2. Therefore, 2 S + F = 2 , and μΔ (M ) =
inf σ ( DMD −1 ) D∈D
(5.12.35)
where D = diag[ d1I m1
I m2 ]
(5.12.36)
where Δ p and Δ u are m1 × m1 and m2 × m2 matrices, respectively. EXAMPLE 5.12.1: APPLICATION
TO A
SISO SYSTEM
In this case, D = diag[ d1
1]
(5.12.37)
and
M D = DMD
Now,
−1
⎡ M11 = ⎢⎢ 1 M ⎢⎣ d1 21
d1M12 ⎤ ⎥ M 22 ⎥ ⎥⎦
(5.12.38)
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⎡ M 11 σ ( M D ) = σ ⎢⎢ 1 M ⎢⎣ d1 21
d1M12 ⎤ ⎥ ≤ σ(N ) M 22 ⎥ ⎥⎦
(5.12.39)
M12 α ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ M 22 ⎥ ⎦
(5.12.40)
where ⎡ M 11 ⎢ N =⎢1 ⎢⎣ α M 21 α = d1
(5.12.41)
det(λI − N T N ) = λ 2 − ( p1 + p2 )λ + ( p1 p2 − q 2 )
(5.12.42)
To get the singular values of N,
where 2
p1 = M11 +
2 1 M 21 2 α
2
p2 = α 2 M12 + M 22
q = α M11 M12 +
2
1 M 21 M 22 α
(5.12.43)
(5.12.44)
(5.12.45)
If λ1 and λ 2 are eigenvalues of N T N , λ1 + λ 2 = p1 + p2
(5.12.46)
σ( N ) ≤
(5.12.47)
Therefore,
and
p1 + p2
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inf inf σ(N ) ≤ ( p1 + p2 ) α α
(5.12.48)
2 2 d ( p1 + p2 ) 2 = 2 α M 12 − 3 M 21 = 0 dα α
(5.12.49)
To minimize ( p1 + p2 ) ,
or
α2 =
M 21 M12
(5.12.50)
For this solution, 2 2 6 d 2 ( p1 + p2 ) = 2 M12 + 4 M 21 > 0 2 α dα
(5.12.51)
2 2 inf ( p1 + p2 ) = M11 + M 22 + 2 M12 M 21 α
(5.12.52)
M12 M 21 = M11 M 22
(5.12.53)
From (5.12.30),
Substituting (5.12.53) into (5.12.52), inf ( p1 + p2 ) = ( M11 + M 22 )2 α
(5.12.54)
inf σ ( N ) ≤ M 11 + M 22 α
(5.12.55)
From (5.12.48),
From (5.12.35), (5.12.39), and (5.12.55),
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μ Δ ( M ) ≤ M11 + M 22
(5.12.56)
M11 + M 22 ≤ 1
(5.12.57)
Wp WL ( jω ) + ( jω ) ≤ 1 ∀ω 1+ L 1+ L
(5.12.58)
L (s ) = P (s ) K (s )
(5.12.59)
To satisfy (5.12.34),
The condition (5.12.57) yields
where
Graphical Interpretation (Dahleh, 1992) The condition (5.12.58) will be satisﬁed if WL 1+ L
+
Wp 1+ L
≤1
(5.12.60)
or W ( jω ) L ( jω ) + W p ( jω ) ≤ 1 + L ( jω ) ∀ω
(5.12.61)
This condition implies that the circle of radius W p ( jω ) with center at (–1,0) must not intersect the circle of radius WL ( jω ) with center at L ( jω ) (Figure 5.12.6). EXAMPLE 5.12.2: BENCHMARK ROBUST CONTROL PROBLEM (WIE AND BERNSTEIN, 1992) Consider the benchmark problem shown in Figure 5.12.7 with uncertain parameters ( m1, m2 , and k), the disturbance d(t), and the sensor noise v(t). Uncertain parameters are as follows (Braatz and Morari, 1992):
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Im ag Wp ( j )
Re al
1
WL ( j ) 1 L( j )
L
FIGURE 5.12.6 Graphical interpretation of robust performance criterion for a SISO system. y (t )
x 2 (t )
v (t ) x 2 (t )
x (t ) k
u(t ) m1
m2
d (t )
FIGURE 5.12.7 Benchmark robust control problem.
k = k + wk δ k ;
m1 = m1 + w1δ1 ;
and
m2 = m2 + w2 δ 2
(5.12.62)
where k , m1, and m2 are nominal values; wk , w1, and w2 are weights to scale the corresponding uncertainties δ k , δ1 , and δ 2, respectively. Additional weighting functions are deﬁned for the sensor noise v(t), the disturbance d(t), the control input u(t), and the performance variable z(t) as follows: v = wv v′ ;
d = wd d ′ ;
u′ = wu u ;
and
z′ = wz z
(5.12.63)
Breaking loops at (x) in Figure 5.12.8, Equation 5.12.65 is obtained with the following relationships: q2 = δ1q1 ;
q4 = δ k q3 ;
v′ = δv z′ ;
and
q6 = δ 2 q2 ;
d ′ = δ d u′
(5.12.64)
Describing the system (5.12.65) by M, Equation 5.12.63 and Equation 5.12.64 are pictorially represented by Figure 5.12.9 where K(s) is the controller transfer function. The numerical values of parameters and weights are provided in Table 5.12.1.
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u(t )
1 m1
x
wu
q2
x
u'
1
x q1
1 s
x3
x1
w1
d
x
1 s
x3
k
d'
q4 x
1 m2
d (t ) q6
x
2
x q5
x
k
wd
q3
1 s
x4
wk
1 s
x4
y (t )
x2
v (t )
z(t )
w2 x z'
wz
v
x v'
wv
FIGURE 5.12.8 Simulation diagram of a twomass system with uncertain parameters.
0
0
0
0
0
k
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
2
0
0
v
0 0
0
0
0
0
d
1
q2 q4 q6 v' d'
q1 q3 q5 z' u'
M u
y K (s )
FIGURE 5.12.9 M–Δ–K representation of Figure 5.12.8.
TABLE 5.12.1 Numerical Values k = 1, m1 = 1, and m2 = 1 w1 = 0.2 , wk = 0.2 , and w2 = 0.2 wv = 0.01, wd = 1, wu = 1, and wz = 0.12
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4 Max. σ 3.5
3
2.5
μ
2
1.5
1 10–2
10–1
100 Frequency (rad/sec)
101
102
FIGURE 5.12.10 Maximum singular and μ values.
⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ x 3 ⎥ ⎢−k / m1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ x 4 ⎥ ⎢ k / m2 ⎢ − ⎥ ⎢ − ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ m1q1 ⎥ ⎢ −w1 k ⎢ q ⎥=⎢ ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ wk ⎢m2 q5 ⎥ ⎢ w2 k ⎢ − ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − ⎢ z′ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ u′ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ − ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − ⎣ y ⎦ ⎢⎣ 0
0 0
1 0
0 1
 
0 0
0 0
0 0
 
0 0
0 0
 
k / m1
0
0

1 / m1
−1 / m1
0

0
0

− k / m2 −
0 −
0 −
 +
0 −
1 / m2 −
1 / m2 −
 +
0 −
wd / m2 −
 +
w1 k −w k
0 0
0 0
 
w1
−w1
0
1
0 0
 
0 0
0 0
 
−w2 k −
0 −
0 −
 +
0 −
w2 −
w2 −
 +
0 −
w2 wd −
 +
wz
0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0 − 1
0 − 0
0 − 0
 + 
0 − 0
0 − 0
0 − 0
 + 
0 − wv
0 −
 +
0

0 ⎤⎡ x ⎤ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥⎢ x ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ 1 / m1 ⎥⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ x4 ⎥ ⎥ − ⎥⎢ − ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ w1 ⎥⎢q2 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢q4 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢q6 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − ⎥⎢ − ⎥ ⎥⎢ v ' ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ wu ⎥⎢ d ′ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ − ⎥⎢ − ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦⎣ u ⎦
(5.12.65) Using Matlab routine “hinfopt,” a controller K(s) is obtained. Matlab Program 5.12.1 is provided. It should be noted that poles have been shifted to avoid having them on the imaginary axis. Resulting maximum singular and μ values are plotted in Figure 5.12.10. The small gain theorem indicates that the closedloop system is stable for all uncertainties satisfying
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Δ
∞
<
1 = 0.2508 3.988
(5.12.66)
where ⎡ δ1 ⎢ ⎢0 Δ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
0 δk 0 0 0
0 0 δ2 0 0
0 0 0 δv 0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ δ d ⎥⎦
(5.12.67)
and the μ analysis suggests that Δ
∞
<
1 = 0.4024 2.4849
As expected, the μ analysis is less conservative. MATLAB PROGRAM 5.12.1: μ ANALYSIS % k=1; m1=1; m2=1; % wd=1; w1=0.2; w2=0.2; wk=0.2; wu=1; wv=1/100; wz=0.12; % M=[0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0;0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0; k/m1 k/m1 0 0 1/m1 1/m1 0 0 0 1/m1; k/m2 k/m2 0 0 0 1/m2 1/m2 0 wd/m2 0;
(5.12.68)
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w1*k w1*k 0 0 w1 w1 0 0 0 w1; wk wk 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0;w2*k w2*k 0 0 0 w2 w2 0 w2*wd 0; 0 wz 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0;0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 wu;0 1 0 0 0 0 0 wv 0 0]; % A=M(1:4,1:4); B1=M(1:4,5:9); B2=M(1:4,10); C1=M(5:9,1:4); C2=M(10,1:4); D11=M(5:9,5:9); D12=M(5:9,10); D21=M(10,5:9); D22=M(10,10); blksz=[1 1; 1 1; 1 1;1 1;1 1]; % w=logspace(2,2,3000); % Ag=A+0.1*eye(4); [gamopt,acpg,bcp,ccp,dcp,acl,bcl,ccl,dcl]=hinfopt (Ag,B1,B2,C1,C2,D11,D12,D21,D22); acp=acpg0.1*eye(size(acpg)) % %Merge M and K % [aclr,bclr,cclr,dclr]=lftf(A,B1,B2,C1,C2,D11,D12, D21,D22,acp,bcp,ccp,dcp); SV=sigma(aclr,bclr,cclr,dclr,w); [muf_f,logdf]=ssv(aclr,bclr,cclr,dclr,w,blksz); semilogx(w,muf_f,w,max(SV),'')
365
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xlabel('Frequency (rad./sec.)','Fontsize',12) grid
5.12.4 μ SYNTHESIS: D–K ITERATION Consider the case of structured Δ without any scalar block; i.e., S = 0. In this case, D (s ) = diag[ d1 (s ) I m1
.
.
d F −1 (s ) I mF −1
I mF ]
(5.12.69)
Therefore, D (s ) Δ(s ) D −1 (s ) = Δ(s )
(5.12.70)
Because μΔ (M ) ≤
inf D
σ ( DMD −1 )
(5.12.71)
the M–Δ system shown in Figure 5.12.11 can be converted to the system shown in Figure 5.12.12. Therefore, to maximize the robustness of the system, K(s) and D(s) are sought to minimize the following function (Chiang and Safanov, 1992b; Zhou et al., 1996, 1998): DMD −1
(5.12.72)
∞
where M = F ( P (s ), K (s ))
(s )
(s )
P(s )
K (s)
FIGURE 5.12.11 Deriving the M–Δ system.
M (s )
M (s)
F ( P ( s ), K ( s ))
(5.12.73)
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D 1
D
(s )
(s )
D
M (s )
D 1
DMD 1
FIGURE 5.12.12 M–Δ System with the diagonal scaling matrix D.
This optimization problem is solved via D–K iteration: 1. Take D (s ) = D0 pointwise across frequency. 2. With this D(s), ﬁnd a K ( s ) to minimize DMD −1 . The Matlab routine ∞ “hinfopt” may be used for this purpose: If DMD −1
∞
≤ 1, Stop
3. With this K(s), ﬁnd a diagonal D (s ) to minimize DMD −1 . This process ∞ is equivalent to ﬁnding μ Δ ( M ) . The Matlab routine “ssv” may be used for this purpose. The output of this routine will be the log Bode plot of the optimal diagonal scaling Dnew ( jω ). 4. Using a curve ﬁtting method, ﬁnd a loworder transfer function approximation to the optimal diagonal scaling Dnew ( jω ) data. The Matlab routine “ﬁtd” may be used for this purpose.
EXERCISE PROBLEMS P.5.1
Consider the following system: dx = u (t ) dt The feedback law is to be obtained such that the following objective function is minimized: ∞
I=
∫x
2
+ u 2 dt
0
a Find the optimal state feedback gain. b. Draw the LQR loop and determine its gain and phase margins.
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Consider Problem P3.17 (Chapter 3). Draw the LQR loop and determine its gain and phase margins. Consider Problem P3.18 (Chapter 3). Draw the LQR loop and determine its gain and phase margins for all three values of ρ . Consider the benchmark robust control problem. Assume that there is no parametric uncertainty in the system. Also, m1 = 1 kg , m2 = 1 kg , and k = 1 N/m. Design an LQG controller on the basis of ﬁrst mode (rigid body mode) such that ⎧⎪ 1 J = lim E ⎨ t f →∞ t ⎪⎩ f
P5.5
tf
∫ 0
⎫⎪ [ y 2 (t ) + ρu 2 (t )dt ]⎬ ⎪⎭
is minimized. Consider three values of ρ: 0.01, 0.1, and 1. Find gain and phase margins in each case by drawing the Nyquist diagram. Consider the benchmark robust control problem. Assume that there is no parametric uncertainty in the system. Also, m1 = 1 kg, m3 = 1 kg, and k = 1 N/m. a. Design an observerbased controller on the basis of ﬁrst mode (rigid body mode) only. Locate controller and observer poles on the negative real axis. b. Evaluate the following integral ∞
∫ ln S ( jω) dω 0
P5.6
P5.7
where S ( jω ) is the output sensitivity function as the controller and observer poles are pushed farther into the left half of the splane. Consider the benchmark robust control problem. Parameters m1 and m2 are exactly known to be 1 kg. The parameter k is uncertain but is known to be between 0.5 and 2 N/m. The estimated value of the stiffness is 1 N/m. a. Design an LQG controller for the nominal plant (k = 1) with W = I and V = I. b. Using the small gain theorem, determine if the closedloop system will be stable in the presence of uncertain k as deﬁned earlier. Let a loop transfer matrix H(s) be such that σ ( I + H ( jω )) ≥ α
where α < 1
Prove the following results (Dorato et al., 1995) for gain and phase margin:
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1 1 < i < 1+ α 1− α ⎛ α2 ⎞ ⎛ α2 ⎞ − cos−1 ⎜1 − ⎟ < φ i < cos−1 ⎜1 − ⎟ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝
P5.8
Hint: I + HL = (( L−1 − I )( I + H )−1 + I )( I + H ) L . Consider the system shown in Figure P5.8 where the plant transfer function is
K (s )
PL (s )
FIGURE P5.8 An uncertain closed loop system.
PL (s ) = (1 + Δ(s )) P (s )
1 s −1 Suppose that the controller is the pure gain K(s) = k, and the perturbation Δ(s) is stable and satisﬁes Δ(s)∞ ≤ 2. Determine the range of k for which the closed loop is stable for all such perturbations. Consider the system shown in Figure P5.9. The plant transfer function is where P (s ) =
P5.9
K (s )
FIGURE P5.9 An uncertain closed loop system.
PL (s ) = (1 + Δ(s )W2 (s )) P (s ) where
PL (s )
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P (s ) =
1 s −1
and
W2 (s ) =
2 s + 10
Suppose that the controller is the pure gain K(s) = k, and the perturbation Δ(s) is stable and satisﬁes Δ(s)∞ ≤ 2. a. Convert the system shown in Figure P5.9 to MΔ form. b. Using the small gain theorem, ﬁnd the condition for the stability of the system shown in Figure P5.9. c. Determine the range of k for the stability of the system shown in Figure P5.9. P5.10 Consider the following system: dx = –0.1x(t) + u(t) + d(t) dt y(t) = x(t) where u(t) is the control input and d(t) is the external disturbance. Let the the control law be u(t) = –kx(t). Find the value of k such that the H∞ norm of the closedloop transfer function relating the vector [y(t) u(t)]T and the disturbance d(t) is minimized. P5.11 Consider the following state space model: dx1 = x3 dt dx2 = x4 dt dx3 = α11 x1 + α12 x2 + β1u1 dt dx 4 = α 21 x1 + α 22 x2 + β2 u2 dt Outputs: y1 = x1 and y2 = x2 . The parameters α12 and β2 are uncertain. Pull out the uncertainty channels into the M − Δ form and ﬁnd M. P5.12 Consider the bending and torsional vibration control of a ﬂexible plate structure (Kar et al., 2000). The matrices A, b, b d, and C in Figure P5.12 are as follows.
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d (s )
bd
W1 ( s )
b
( sI
A) 1
C
W2 ( s )
e1 ( s )
e2 ( s )
K (s )
FIGURE P5.12 Vibration control of a ﬂexible plate.
⎡A A = ⎢ 11 ⎣ A21 ⎡0 ⎢ 0 A11 = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0
0 0 0 0
b = [0
7.3234e+003 –1.5589e+004 1.4907e+004 1.5589e+004
0.6713
b d = [ 0.2857
⎤ 0 ⎥ 1.5440 ⎥ rad/sec; A21 = I 4 and A22 = 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ −16.3446⎦
0 0 0 0
⎡–5.5710e+003 ⎢ 7.32334e+003 A12 = ⎢ ⎢ 6.82111e+003 ⎢ ⎣–7.3234e+003
0
0.6713
⎡1 ⎢ C = ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣
A12 ⎤ ⎥ A22 ⎦
0 1 0
⎤ 0 ⎥ 38.8561 ⎥ (rad/sec) ⎥ 0 ⎥ –411.3142⎦
2.4439e+003 1.2548e+004 –1.8008e+004 –1.2548e+004
7.1063
0
0
0
0 ] (rad/sec)2
0.7975
0
0
0
0
4 0 0
0 4 0
0 0 4
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
0 0 1
0 0 0
T
0 ] (kg)−1 T
a. Design the controller K(s) such that Ted is minimized. ∞ b. Design the controller K(s) such that Ted is minimized. H2 P5.13 Consider the system shown in Figure 5.11.4 in which the torque T(t) is the control input. a. Consider the model based on the ﬁrst two modes of vibration. Select suitable weight functions W1 (s ) and W3 (s ) and design full state feedback controllers such that
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W1So (s ) W3 To (s ) H
and ∞
W1So (s ) W3 To (s ) H
2
are minimized. b. Discuss your results with respect to the choice of weight functions W1 (s ) and W3 (s ) and norms used for controller design. Parameters J1 = 0.0024 kg − m 2 ,
J 2 = 0.0019 kg − m 2 ,
J 3 = 0.0019 kg − m 2
k1 = k2 = 2.8 N − m / rad c1 = 0.007 N − m / rad / sec , c2 = c3 = 0.001 N − m / rad / s ec khw =
100 units 6
P5.14 Consider the ﬂexible tetrahedral truss structure (Appendix F) with collocated sensors and actuators. The controller is to be designed on the basis of the ﬁrst four modes of vibration. a. Select suitable weight functions W1 (s ) and W3 (s ) and design full state and output feedback controllers such that W1So (s ) W3 To (s ) H
and ∞
W1So (s ) W3 To (s ) H
2
are minimized. b. Discuss your results with respect to the choice of weight functions W1 (s ) and W3 (s ) and norms used for controller design. c. Find the controller transfer matrix and determine its stability. P5.15 Consider the control of molten steel level in a continuous caster (Kitada et al., 1998). Many factors such as upward steel ﬂow in the mold, immersion nozzle clogging, etc. complicate the design of a control system (Figure P5.15A). The block diagram of the control system is shown in Figure P5.15B. Eddy current sensor transfer function: Gs (s ) = Slide gate transfer function: Gg (s ) =
1 1 + 0.05s
1 + 0.0035s 1 + 0.35s
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Molten Steel stepping motor
slide gate nozzle immersion nozzle
control law mold
eddy current sensor
FIGURE P5.15A Control of molten steel level. e2 W4 ( s )
d2 W2 ( s )
G g (s )
Gm (s )
d1
e1
W1 ( s )
W3 ( s )
Gs (s )
K (s )
FIGURE P5.15B Block diagram for molten steel level control.
Transfer function for linearized dynamics of the molten steel level: Gm (s ) = −0.5274
1 + 0.266 s 1 − 0.6 s 0.378s 1 + 0.6 s
Weighting functions:
W1 (s ) = 0.065 ;
W2 (s ) = 0.065
W4 (s ) = 0.9
4[0.25πs + (0.25π)2 ] ; s 2 + 0.25πs + (0.25π)2
s 2 + 8πs + (0.8π)2 (0.5s + 1) s 2 + 0.8πs + (0.8π)2
a. Find the controller K(s) such that
W3 (s ) =
s + 0.05 ; s
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⎡ W3 SW1 ⎢ ⎢ − W4 TW1 ⎢⎣ Gm
W3 SGm W2 ⎤ ⎥ <1 −W4 TW2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ ∞
where
S (s ) =
1 1 + Gs Gm Gg K
T (s ) =
and
Gs Gm Gg K 1 + Gs Gm G g K
b. Examine the stability of the system for the following multiplicative uncertainty: Gm Δ = Gm (1 + Δ(s ))
where Δ(s ) =
0.9 (0.24π)−1 s + 1
P5.16a Design a controller kH∞ (s ) around the LQG controller for a singlelink ﬂexible manipulator in P4.8 to minimize the following objective function: W1 (s )( I + Gl (s ) kH∞ (s ))−1 W3 (s )Gl (s ) kH∞ (s )( I + Gl (s ) kH∞ (s ))−1
H∞
is minimized. The weighting functions are as follows: W1 (s ) =
10 (15s + 1)
and
W3 (s ) =
s 50
b. Plot the unit step response of the system shown in Figure P5.16. kf v (t ) k H (s )
k lqg (s )
y ( L, t )
u(t ) G (s )
FIGURE P5.16 Control system for a single link ﬂexible manipulator.
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c. Determine the stability of the system in the presence of unmodeled dynamics. P5.17 Consider the benchmark robust control problem (Figure 5.12.7). Parameters m1 and m2 are exactly known to be 1 kg. The parameter k is uncertain but is known to be between 0.5 and 2 N/m. The estimated value of the stiffness is 1 N/m. a. Design an LQG controller for the nominal plant (k = 1) with W = V = I. b. Using μ analysis, determine if the closedloop system will be stable in the presence of uncertain k as deﬁned earlier. c. Using μ analysis, determine if the magnitude of the transfer function relating the disturbance w and x2 will be less than 1 for all possible values of k. P5.18 Consider the electromagnetic system with coil inductance (Fujita et al., 1995). The nominal plant model is
P (s ) =
−36.27 (s + 66.94)(s − 66.94)(s + 45.69)
The uncertainty in the plant is described as PΔ (s ) = P (s ) + W (s ) Δ(s ) ;
Δ(s )
∞
≤1
where
W (s ) =
1.4 x10 −5 (1 + s / 8)(1 + s / 170 )(1 + s / 420 ) (1 + s / 30 )(1 + s / 35)(1 + s / 38)
Design an output feedback control system (Figure 5.12.2) to achieve the following objective: ( I + PΔ K )−1Wp
∞
≤1
∀
Δ
P5.19 Consider the space shuttle ﬂight control system during reentry (Appendix G). Convert Figure G.2 to Figure P.5.19.
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noise gust
e perf e act
M (s )
com
y meas
u act
com
K (s )
FIGURE P5.19 M–Δ–K system for the space shuttle.
a. Design an H ∞ control system to minimize Tev (s ) . ∞ b. Design an H ∞ control system to minimize Tev (s ) via D–K iteration. ∞
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6
Robust Control: Sliding Mode Methods
First, basic concepts of sliding modes are presented along with the sliding mode control of a linear system with full state feedback. Then, it is shown how H ∞ and sliding mode theories can be blended to control an uncertain linear system with full state feedback. Next, the sliding mode control of a deterministic linear system is developed with the feedback of estimated states. Lastly, the optimal sliding Gaussian (OSG) control theory is presented for a stochastic system.
6.1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF SLIDING MODES Consider the following singleinput secondorder linear system: ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣α
1 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥u β ⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦
(6.1.1)
This system represents a springmassdamper system. Define a line in the state space, Figure 6.1, as follows: s (t ) = x2 (t ) + λx1 (t ) ;
λ>0
(6.1.2)
When s = 0, the line passes through the origin of the state space, and this line will be called the sliding line. The first objective is to ensure that the system will reach this line from any initial conditions in a finite time and will remain on this line after reaching it. The condition to achieve this objective is called reaching or attractive condition (Utkin, 1977; Asada and Slotine, 1986) and is described as s = −δ sgn(s ) ;
δ>0
(6.1.3)
where the sign function sgn(s) is defined as follows: ⎧+1 sgn(s ) = ⎨ ⎩⎪−1
if if
s >0 s <0
(6.1.4)
377
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s
x2
0
x1
x2
s
s
0
x1
0 s
0
FIGURE 6.1 A sliding line (s = 0).
When s > 0, s is a negative constant δ , and s will decrease linearly to s = 0 in a finite time. Similarly, when s < 0, s is a positive constant δ , and s will increase linearly to s = 0 in a finite time. The condition (6.1.3) is also written as ss < 0
(6.1.5)
When the system remains on the sliding line, s = 0 . The corresponding input u is called the equivalent control, ueq , and is obtained by differentiating (6.1.2) and using state equations (6.1.1): s = αx1 + (β + λ) x2 + u
(6.1.6)
ueq (t ) = −αx1 (t ) − (β + λ) x2
(6.1.7)
For s = 0 ,
Therefore, to satisfy the reaching condition (6.1.3), the control law is u (t ) = ueq (t ) − δ sgn(s )
(6.1.8)
On the sliding line, u (t ) = ueq (t ) and state equations (6.1.1) become ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ 0
1 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ − λ ⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦
(6.1.9)
The eigenvalues of this system are 0 and −λ . The zero eigenvalue reflects the fact that the system is constrained to remain on the s = 0 line. Hence, the effective dynamics on the sliding line is represented by −λ , which is in the left half of the complex plane when λ > 0 . Here, the effective dynamics can also be derived from (6.1.2) by using the first state equation and s = 0:
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x1 + λx1 = 0
(6.1.10)
In summary, the sliding mode control input has two parts: linear and nonlinear. The nonlinear part, sgn function, ensures the reaching condition. After the system has reached the sliding line, the control law (ueq (t )) is linear full state feedback (Equation 6.1.7).
6.2 SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF A LINEAR SYSTEM WITH FULL STATE FEEDBACK Consider the following uncertain linear system: x = Ax + Bu
(6.2.1)
For m inputs, m hyperplanes in the state space are defined as si (t ) = g Ti x (t ) ; i = 1, 2, …, m
(6.2.2)
These hyperplanes pass through the origin of the state space for si = 0 . From (6.2.1) and (6.2.2), si (t ) = g Ti x (t ) = g Ti Ax + g Ti Bu ; i = 1, 2, …, m
(6.2.3)
Equation 6.2.3 can be written in the matrix form as s (t ) = GAx + GBu
(6.2.4)
where s = ⎡⎣s1
s2
G = ⎡⎣g1
g2
.
sm ⎤⎦
.
T
(6.2.5)
and .
.
g m ⎤⎦
T
(6.2.6)
It should also be noted that s(t ) = Gx (t )
(6.2.7)
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and the vector s(t ) = 0 represents the intersection of all the m sliding hyperplanes passing through the origin of the state space. The equivalent control input, u eq (t ) , corresponds to s = 0 . Therefore, from (6.2.4), u eq (t ) = −(GB)−1 GAx
(6.2.8)
Note that the matrix GB has been assumed to be nonsingular. The reaching condition for each hyperplane is si si < 0
(6.2.9)
Conditions (6.2.9) are satisfied by the following control law: u(t ) = ueq (t ) − (GB)−1 diag(η)sgn(s(t ))
(6.2.10)
where diag(η) is a diagonal matrix with the ith diagonal element equal to a positive number ηi .
6.2.1 COMPUTATION
OF
SLIDING HYPERPLANE MATRIX G
Define a similarity transformation q(t ) = Hx (t )
(6.2.11)
where H = ⎡⎣ Ν
B ⎤⎦
T
(6.2.12)
and the columns of the nx(n−m) matrix Ν are composed of basis vectors of the null space (Utkin and Yang, 1978; Strang, 1988) of BT . From (6.2.1) and (6.2.11), q = Aq(t ) + Bu(t )
(6.2.13)
A = HAH −1
(6.2.14)
where
and
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B = HB
(6.2.15)
Because of the special structure of the matrix H, the first (n−m) rows of B turn out to be zeros. Hence, the vector q is decomposed as follows: ⎡q ⎤ q = ⎢ 1⎥ ⎣q 2 ⎦
(6.2.16)
where q1 and q 2 are (n−m) and mdimensional vectors, respectively. Partitioning (6.2.13), ⎡ q 1 ⎤ ⎡ A11 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣q 2 ⎦ ⎣ A21
A12 ⎤ ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥u A22 ⎦ ⎣q 2 ⎦ ⎣ Br ⎦
(6.2.17)
and sliding hyperplanes can be described as s(t ) = q 2 (t ) + Kq1 (t )
(6.2.18)
From (6.2.7) and (6.2.18), G = ⎡⎣ K
I m ⎤⎦ H
(6.2.19)
Equation 6.2.19 indicates that the matrix G can be determined via the matrix K. The first objective behind the choice of the matrix G or the matrix K is to ensure the system stability on the intersection of all hyperplanes. When s(t ) = 0 , q 2 (t ) = − Kq1 (t )
(6.2.20)
q 1 = A11q1 + A12 q 2
(6.2.21)
q 2 = A21q1 + A22 q 2 + Br u
(6.2.22)
Equation 6.2.17 yields
and
For the system (6.2.21), q 2 (t) can be viewed as the input, and Equation 6.2.20 as the state feedback law. Utkin and Yang (1978) have shown that ( A11, A12 ) is
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controllable if (A, B) is controllable. Therefore, the matrix K can be selected to arbitrarily place the eigenvalues of ( A11 − A12 K ) in the left half of the complex plane. From (6.2.1) and (6.2.8), the system dynamics on the intersection of sliding hyperplanes is given by x = [ A − B(GB)−1 GA]x
(6.2.23)
When G is chosen according to Equation 6.2.19, (nm) eigenvalues of [ A − B(GB)−1 GA] are those of ( A11 − A12 K ) and remaining m eigenvalues are 0, which is a reflection of the fact that m degrees of freedom of the system is lost when s(t ) = 0 . EXAMPLE 6.1: A HELICOPTER Consider the state equations for a CH47 tandem rotor helicopter (Doyle and Stein, 1981): ⎡ −0.02 ⎢ −0.14 A=⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
0.005 0.44 0.018 0
−32 ⎤ ⎥ −30 ⎥ ; 1.2 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
2.4 −1.3 −1.6 6 1
−0.12 ⎤ ⎥ −8.6 ⎥ 0.009 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ 0.14 ⎢ 0.36 B=⎢ ⎢ 0.35 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
(6.2.24a,b)
Independent vectors in the null space of BT are found by using the Matlab command “null.” From Equation 6.2.12, ⎡ −0.9331 ⎢ 0 H=⎢ ⎢ 0.14 ⎢ ⎢⎣ −0.12
0.0134 0 0.36 −8.6
0.3594 0 0.35 0.009
0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
(6.2.25)
Therefore, ⎡ −1.0335 A11 = ⎢ ⎣ 0.3594
29.8877 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎦
and
⎡ −7.0221 A12 = ⎢ ⎣ 2.4853
−0.2965 ⎤ ⎥ (6.2.26a,b) 0.1046 ⎦
To locate the eigenvalues of the reducedorder system (6.2.21) at –1 and –4, the state feedback gain matrix is ⎡ 45 K=⎢ ⎣ −1064
1880 ⎤ ⎥ −44623 ⎦
(6.2.27)
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And from Equation 6.2.19, the sliding hyperplane matrix is defined by ⎡ −42 G=⎢ ⎣ 993
1 −23
16 −382
1880 ⎤ ⎥ −44623 ⎦
(6.2.28)
Lastly, it is obvious that the matrix K can also be obtained by minimizing a quadratic objective function involving the state vector q1 and the effective input q 2 , that is, by solving a liner quadratic (LQ) problem. This brings us to a new type of controller that is called the OS (Optimal Sliding Mode) controller.
6.2.2 OPTIMAL SLIDING MODE (OS) CONTROLLER For the linear system x = Ax (t ) + Bu(t )
(6.2.29)
the objective is to minimize ∞
J=
∫ x Qxdt T
(6.2.30)
0
subject to constraints s(t ) = Gx (t ) = 0
(6.2.31)
For the LQ control, it is necessary to have the input term in the quadratic objective function (Chapter 3, Section 3.5). Here, the input term is not present in the objective function (6.2.30), and the constraints are that the system is on the intersection on m sliding hyperplanes. Furthermore, the matrix G is not specified a priori and will come out as a solution to the problem. Using the similarity transformation (6.2.11), ∞
J=
∫ q Q qdt T
q
(6.2.32)
0
where Qq = ( H −1 )T QH −1
(6.2.33)
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If Q = Q T ≥ 0 , then Qq = QqT ≥ 0 because the signs of eigenvalues are preserved under congruence transformation (Strang, 1988). Partition Qq to conform to the partition of q in (6.2.17) as follows: ⎡Q Qq = ⎢ Tr ⎣N
N⎤ ⎥ R⎦
(6.2.34)
Then, from (6.2.32), ∞
J=
∫ q Q q + 2q Nq T 1
r
1
T 1
2
+ q 2T Rq 2 dt
(6.2.35)
0
When s(t ) = 0 , the (n−m) dimensional dynamics is represented by q 1 = A11q1 + A12 q 2
(6.2.36)
Equation 6.2.35 and Equation 6.2.36 constitute a standard LQ problem provided R > 0. If Q is chosen to be positive definite, R is guaranteed to be positive definite. In general, R is not guaranteed to be positive definite if Q is positive semidefinite. If R does not turn out to be positive definite, it has to be arbitrarily chosen to be a positive definite matrix (Sinha and Miller, 1995). In this case, a new Q will be defined according to (6.2.34). The gain matrix K for the minimum value of J is K = R −1 ( A12T P + N T )
(6.2.37)
where T T T P( A11 − A12 R−1N T ) + ( A11 − NR−1A12 )P − PA12 R−1A12 P+
Qq − NR−1N T = 0
(6.2.38)
Finally, the optimal sliding hyperplane matrix G is obtained by substituting K from (6.2.37) into (6.2.19). EXAMPLE 6.2: A DOUBLE INTEGRATOR SYSTEM Consider the following linear system: ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣0
1 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ u (t ) 0 ⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦
(6.2.39)
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The objective is to minimize 1 I= 2
∞
∫x
2 1
+ x22 dt
(6.2.40)
0
subject to the constraint x1 + αx2 = 0
(6.2.41)
Equation 6.2.39 is already in the form of Equation 6.2.17. Hence, the state space equation for minimization of the objective function (6.2.40) is x1 = x2
(6.2.42)
Treating x2 as the input, Equation 6.2.42 and Equation 6.2.40 form a standard LQ problem. The ARE (6.2.38) is 1 − P2 = 0
(6.2.43)
K = P = +1
(6.2.44)
and the optimal gain (6.2.37) is
Therefore, from Equation 6.2.20, x2 = − x1
(6.2.45)
This relationship describes the sliding line; i.e., α = 1 in Equation 6.2.41. From the second state equation, x2 = u (t )
(6.2.46)
u (t ) = − x2
(6.2.47)
Using (6.2.42) and (6.2.45),
In other words, the state feedback gain vector is K os = [0
1]
(6.2.48)
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6.3 SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF AN UNCERTAIN LINEAR SYSTEM WITH FULL STATE FEEDBACK: BLENDING H∞ AND SLIDING MODE METHODS Consider the dynamics of a plant with k uncertain parameters, δ1, ⋅ ⋅ ⋅, δ k , which are expressed as x (t ) = Ap x (t ) + B u(t )
(6.3.1)
Ap = A + Δ A
(6.3.2)
where
Also, states x(t ) ∈ R n , input u(t ) ∈ R m , and the nominal system is given by known matrices A and B. Assume that the bound of the uncertain matrix Δ A is Q, i.e., ΔA ≤ Q
(6.3.3)
where the absolute value of the matrix implies the matrix with the absolute value of each element and the inequality sign holds good for each element of the matrices. Also, the uncertain matrix Δ A need not satisfy the socalled matching conditions, i.e., ΔA = BD
(6.3.4)
where D is a bounded matrix (Drazenovic’, 1969). The goal is to find the upper bound of δ i for the stability of the closedloop system. For m inputs, m hyperplanes passing through the origin of the state space are defined by (6.2.7): s(t ) = Gx (t )
(6.3.5)
To satisfy reaching conditions (6.2.9) under parametric uncertainties, the control law (6.2.10) is modified to be u(t ) = ueq (t ) − (GB)−1 diag( ψ) sgn(s(t ))
(6.3.6)
where u eq (t ) is given by Equation 6.2.8 and diag( ψ) is an m × m diagonal matrix with the ith diagonal element to be the ith element of an m × 1 vector ψ , which is defined as ψ = G Q x(t ) + η
(6.3.7)
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Boundary Layer x2
s
0 x1
s
0
si si
si
i
0
i
FIGURE 6.2 Boundary layer around a sliding hyperplane.
In this case, s = G ΔAx − diag( ψ)sgn(s(t ))
(6.3.8)
Note that si will not be exactly equal to zero because of parametric uncertainties. Therefore, the system will try to leave the hyperplanes. But as it moves out of hyperplanes, the sgn(⋅) function in Equation 6.3.8 will become active, and the system will be pushed back to sliding hyperplanes. This process gives rise to chatter. To eliminate the chattering behavior caused by the sgn(⋅) function, a boundary layer is introduced around each sliding hyperplane by replacing the sgn(⋅) function in Equation 6.3.6 by the saturation function (Asada and Slotine, 1986). Hence, the control law (6.3.6) is modified to be u(t ) = ueq (t ) − (GB)−1 diag( ψ) sat (s(t ))
(6.3.9)
The ith element of sat ( s(t )) is defined as ⎪⎧sgn(si (t )) sat (si (t )) = ⎨ si / ρi ⎩⎪
if
si (t ) > ρi
(6.3.10)
otherwise
where ρi is the boundary layer thickness around the ith hyperplane, as illustrated in Figure 6.2.
6.3.1 IMPACT OF UNCERTAINTIES SLIDING MODES
ON
SYSTEM DYNAMICS
IN
Having satisfied reaching conditions (6.2.9), the system is guaranteed to be on the intersection of all sliding hyperplanes for all ΔA satisfying the bound (6.3.3). However, if the matching conditions (6.3.4) are not satisfied, system dynamics is affected. To see this, the similarity transformation (6.2.11) is again used on the state equations (6.3.1). The equation (6.2.13) is modified to be
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q = Aq(t ) + ΔAq(t ) + Bu(t )
(6.3.11)
where ⎡ ΔA ΔA = H ΔAH −1 = ⎢ 11 ⎣ ΔA21
ΔA12 ⎤ ⎥ ΔA22 ⎦
(6.3.12)
When the matching condition (6.3.4) is satisfied, ΔA = BDH −1
(6.3.13)
As the first (n−m) rows of B are 0, Equation 6.3.13 yields ΔA11 = 0
ΔA12 = 0
and
(6.3.14)
Therefore, Equation 6.2.21 still holds, and system dynamics on sliding hyperplanes chosen according to Equation 6.2.13 are insensitive to the uncertainty ΔA .
6.3.2 COMPUTATION OF SLIDING HYPERPLANE MATRIX CONTROL METHOD
VIA
H∞
When matching conditions are not satisfied, q 1 = ( A11 + ΔA11 )q1 + ( A12 + ΔA12 )q 2
(6.3.15)
Let ΔA , which is parameterized by the k scalar uncertain parameters δ1, ⋅ ⋅ ⋅, δ k , be written as follows: k
ΔA =
∑ δ Aˆ i
(6.3.16)
i
i =1
where the knowledge about the structure of the uncertainty is contained in the matrix Aˆ i , which indicates how the ith uncertainty, δ i , influences the state space model. In order to utilize the H ∞ method, the subsystem with parametric uncertainties, Equation 6.3.15, is transformed (Pai and Sinha, 1998) into the N − Δ− K s diagram (Figure 6.3a) through the linear fractional transformation method (Chapter 5, Section 5.9.2). Let ⎡ Aˆ11i ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0
∗ Aˆ12 i ⎤ ⎡ Lsi ⎤ ⎡ Rsi ⎤ ⎥=⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣Wsi ⎦ ⎣ Z si ⎦
for each i
(6.3.17)
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zs
389
zs
ds
ds
N
N q1
q1
q2
q2 Ks
Ks
FIGURE 6.3 N − Δ − K s diagram.
The matrices N and Δ can be expressed as follows: ⎡ A11 ⎢ N = ⎢ Cs ⎢ I n −m ⎣
Bs 0 0
A12 ⎤ ⎥ Ds ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ q 1 (t ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ z s (t ) ⎥ = N ⎢ y s (t ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
and
⎡q1 (t ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ d s (t ) ⎥ ⎢ q 2 (t ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
Δ = diag {δ1I r1 ,…, δ k I rk }
(6.3.18)
(6.3.19)
where Bs = ⎡⎣ Ls 1
⋅
⋅
⋅
Lsk ⎤⎦
C s = ⎡⎣ Rs 1
⋅
⋅
⋅
Rsk ⎤⎦
Ds = ⎡⎣ Z s 1
⋅
⋅
⋅
Z sk ⎤⎦
∗
∗
(6.3.20)
(6.3.21)
(6.3.22)
or q 1 (t ) = A11q1 (t ) + A12 q 2 (t ) + Bs d s
(6.3.23)
z s (t ) = C s q1 (t ) + Ds q 2 (t )
(6.3.24)
The state feedback controller K s (s ) is obtained to stabilize the subsystem shown in Figure 6.3b and minimize γ s such that the cost function Tz s ds < γ s , γ s > 0 . ∞ The corresponding quadratic objective function is 1 J= 2
∞
∫ [z 0
T s
(t )z s (t ) − γ s 2 d s T (t )d s (t )]dt, γ s > 0
(6.3.25)
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or 1 J= 2
∞
∫ [q (t )Q q (t ) + 2q Q q (t ) + q (t )Q T 1
11 1
T 1
12
2
T 2
22
q2 (t ) − γ s 2 d s T (t )d s (t )]dt ,
0
(6.3.26)
γs > 0 where Q11 = C s T C s ,
Q12 = C sT Ds ,
and
Q22 = Ds T Ds
(6.3.27)
The optimal gain K s is given (Lublin and Athans, 1996; Zhou et al., 1996) as −1 T K s = Q22 ( A12T P2 + Q12 )
(6.3.28)
where P2 is the unique, symmetric, positive semidefinite solution of the matrix Riccatilike equation: −1 T T −1 T −1 T P2 ( A11 − A12Q22 Q12 ) + ( A11 − Q12Q22 A12 )P2 − P2 ( A12Q22 A12 − γ−s 2 Bs BsT )P2 −1 T + (Q11 − Q12Q22 Q12 ) = 0
(6.3.29)
Note that as γ → ∞ , Equation 6.3.29 reduces to Equation 6.2.38. Next, the sliding hyperplane matrix G is obtained from Equation 6.3.28 and Equation 6.2.19. EXAMPLE 6.3: FLEXIBLE TETRAHEDRAL TRUSS STRUCTURE Consider the flexible tetrahedral truss structure described in the Appendix F. For the first four controlled modes, state space equations are x (t ) = A x (t ) + B u(t )
(6.3.30)
where x T (t ) = ⎡⎣ ψ 1
ψ 1
ψ2
⎛⎡ 0 Aδ = diag ⎜⎜⎢ 2 ⎝⎣−ωai
ψ 2
ψ3
1 ⎤⎞ ⎥⎟ ; −2 ζ aiωai ⎦⎟⎠
ψ 3
ψ4
i = 1,…, 4
ψ 4 ⎤⎦
(6.3.31)
(6.3.32)
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⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎢ −0.023 ⎢ 0 ⎢ −0.112 B = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ −0.077 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0.189
391
0 ⎤ ⎥ −0.044 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0.069 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0.046 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −0.249 ⎥⎦
0 −0.067 0 0.017 0 0.271 0 −0.06
(6.3.33)
The uncertainty matrix Δ is defined by Equation 6.3.19, with k = 8 and r1 = r2 = .... = rn = 1 . The relations among parametric uncertainties, δ j (j = 1, 3, 5, 7), actual natural frequencies, ω ai , and estimated natural frequencies, ω i , can be expressed as follows: ω 2ai − ω i2 ≤ δ j ω i2 ;
( j = 2 i − 1; i = 1, 2, 3, 4)
(6.3.34)
where estimated natural frequencies ω1, ω 2 , ω 3 , and ω 4 are 1.342, 1.643, 2.891, and 2.958 rad/sec, respectively. Uncertain parameters, δ j ( j = 2, 4, 6, 8), refer to uncertainties in ζ ai ω ai defined as follows: 2ζ ai ω ai − 2ζi ω i ≤ δ j (2ζi ω i ) ;
( j = 2 i; i = 1, 2, 3, 4)
(6.3.35)
where the estimated damping coefficient ζi is assumed to be 0.005 for each mode. From Equation 6.3.16, 8
Aδ = A +
∑δ
i i
Aˆ
(6.3.36)
i =1
where ⎛⎡ 0 A = diag ⎜⎜⎢ 2 ⎝⎣−ωi
1 ⎤⎞ ⎥⎟ ; −2 ζ iωi ⎦⎟⎠
i = 1,…, 4
(6.3.37)
and all elements of each matrix i Aˆ are zero except one, which is defined as follows:
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a. For i = 1, 3, 5, 7 i
Aˆ ji = δ i ω 2k ;
k = (i + 1) / 2 , j = i + 1
(6.3.38)
b. For i = 2, 4, 6, 8 i
Aˆ ii = δ i 2ζ k ω k ;
k =i/2
(6.3.39)
Using the Matlab routine, aresolv, Equation 6.3.29 is solved. The Matlab program is shown in Program 6.1. The output “wellposed” from the routine aresolv is found to be true for γ s ≥ 1.475 . With γ s = 1.475 , Equation 6.3.28 and Equation 6.2.19 yield G= ⎡ 0.2512 − 1.5928 − 0.2315 0.6486 0.1419 − 0.2934 − 0.0410 0.1162 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − 1.2602 0.7880 1.1050 0.0023 − 0..2277 0.1938 0.2359 0.0109 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ − 1.1996 1.4711 0.0256 − 0.8061 − 0.2633 0.3103 − 0.0019 − 0.1522⎥⎦ MATLAB PROGRAM 6.1: UNCERTAIN TETRAHEDRAL TRUSS STRUCTURE % clear all close all % freq2dm=diag([1.8 2.7 8.36 8.75]); dampdm=0.01*2*sqrt(freq2dm); Bf=[0.023 0.067 0.044;0.112 0.017 0.069;0.077 0.271 0.046;0.189 0.060 0.249]; A=[zeros(4,4) eye(4);freq2dm dampdm]; B=[zeros(4,3);Bf]; Ah=[zeros(4,4) zeros(4,4);freq2dm dampdm]; % F=null(B'); H=[F B]'; Ah=[zeros(4,4) zeros(4,4);freq2dm dampdm];
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% AA=H*A*inv(H); AA11=AA(1:5,1:5); AA12=AA(1:5,6:8); for i=1:4 Ah=zeros(8,8); Ah(4+i,i)=freq2dm(i,i); AAh=H*Ah*inv(H); AAh(6:8,1:8)=zeros(3,8); [U,S,V]=svd(AAh); R(:,i)=U(:,1)*S(1,1); L(i,:)=V(:,1)'; end % for i=1:4 Ah=zeros(8,8); Ah(4+i,i+4)=dampdm(i,i); AAh=H*Ah*inv(H); AAh(6:8,1:8)=zeros(3,8); [U,S,V]=svd(AAh); R(:,i+4)=U(:,1)*S(1,1); L(i+4,:)=V(:,1)'; end % Bs=R(1:5,1:8); Cs=L(1:8,1:5); Ds=L(1:8,6:8); % Q11=Cs'*Cs; Q12=Cs'*Ds; Q22=Ds'*Ds;
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% AAe=AA11AA12*inv(Q22)*Q12'; Re=AA12*inv(Q22)*AA12'Bs*Bs'/(1.475)^2; Qe=Q11Q12*inv(Q22)*Q12'; % [p1,p2,lamp,perr,wellposed,p]=aresolv(AAe,Qe,Re) % K=inv(Q22)*(AA12'*p+Q12') G=[K eye(3)]*H eig(AA11AA12*K)
6.4 SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF A LINEAR SYSTEM WITH ESTIMATED STATES Consider the following linear system: x = Ax + Bu
(6.4.1)
y = Cx
(6.4.2)
First, states are estimated using the Luenberger observer (Chapter 4, Section 4.2): xˆ = Axˆ + Bu + L ( y − Cxˆ )
(6.4.3)
Now, sliding hyperplanes are defined in the estimated state space (Kao and Sinha, 1991): s(t ) = Gxˆ (t )
(6.4.4)
Here, the equivalent control input for s = 0 is u eq (t ) = −(GB)−1[G ( A − LC ) xˆ + GLy (t )]
(6.4.5)
To satisfy the reaching conditions and eliminate chattering behavior, the control law is chosen as u (t ) = ueq (t ) − (GB)−1 diag(η)sat (s(t ))
(6.4.6)
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where diag(η) is a diagonal matrix with the ith diagonal element equal to a positive number ηi . The ith element of sat ( s(t )) is defined as ⎧⎪sgn(si (t )) sat (si (t )) = ⎨ si / ρi ⎪⎩
if
si (t ) > ρi
(6.4.7)
otherwise
where ρi is the boundary layer thickness around the ith hyperplane, illustrated in Figure 6.2. The system is linear inside the boundary layers. From (6.4.5) through (6.4.7), ⎡ ⎛ ⎤ η ⎞ u(t ) = −(GB)−1 ⎢G ⎜ A − LC + I n ⎟ xˆ (t ) + GLy(t )⎥ μ ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦
(6.4.8)
Without any loss of generality, ηi and ρi have been assumed to be identical for each hyperplane and have been set equal to η and ρ, respectively. Furthermore, inside boundary layers, si = −νsi
(6.4.9)
where ν=
η ρ
(6.4.10)
For state estimation, xˆ (0 ) is usually set to zero. In this case, s(0 ) = 0 , and the solution of (6.4.9) indicates that s(t ) = 0 . In other words, the system is always on the intersection of all sliding hyperplanes, and the resulting control input is always linear as described by (6.4.8). An important point to note here is that the control input depends on estimated states and directly on outputs as well (Sinha and Millar, 1995). This is a significant difference with the standard observer based control system where inputs only depend on estimated states. From (6.4.3) and (6.4.8), the controller transfer function is as follows: u(s ) = − K es (s ) y (s )
(6.4.11)
K es (s ) = Ζ 1 (sI n − A + BΖ 1 + LC )−1 Ζ 2 + (GB)−1 GL
(6.4.12)
Ζ 1 = (GB)−1 G ( A + νI n − LC )
(6.4.13)
where
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Ζ 2 = ( L − ΩL )
(6.4.14)
Ω = B(GB)−1 G
(6.4.15)
Using (6.4.1) through (6.4.3), and (6.4.8), the dynamics of the closedloop system is described as ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ A − Ω( A + νI n ) ⎢⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎣ x ⎦ ⎣
Ω( A + νI n ) − ΩLC ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ A − LC ⎦ ⎣ x ⎦
(6.4.16)
where x = x − xˆ
(6.4.17)
Equation 6.4.16 shows that the eigenvalues of the closedloop system are those of A − Ω( A + νI n ) and A − LC . Therefore, the sliding hyperplane matrix G and the boundary layer parameter ν , which constitute the controller parameters, can be chosen independently of the observer gain matrix L. In other words, the separation property holds, and the controller and observer can be designed independently. Fact The m eigenvalues of A − Ω( A + νI n ) are −ν and the remaining n−m eigenvalues can be arbitrarily placed in the complex plane by a proper choice of G (Sinha and Miller, 1995) as the system (A,B) is controllable.
6.5 OPTIMAL SLIDING MODE GAUSSIAN (OSG) CONTROL State Dynamics x (t ) = Ax (t ) + Bu(t ) + w(t )
(6.5.1)
The vector w(t ) is a stochastic process called process (or plant) noise. It is assumed that w(t ) is a continuoustime Gaussian white noise vector (Appendix D). Its mathematical characterization is E ( w(t )) = 0
(6.5.2)
E ( w(t ) w T (t + τ)) = W δ(τ)
(6.5.3)
and
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The matrix W is called the intensity matrix with the property W = W T ≥ 0. Measurement Equation y(t ) = Cx(t ) + θ(t )
(6.5.4)
where y(t ) is the sensor noise vector, and θ(t ) is a continuoustime Gaussian white noise vector. It is assumed that E (θ(t )) = 0
(6.5.5)
E (θ(t )θT (t + τ )) = Θδ( τ )
(6.5.6)
and
where Θ = ΘT > 0. It is also assumed that process and measurement noise vectors are uncorrelated; i.e., E (θ(t )wT (t + τ )) = E (θ(t ))E (wT (t + τ )) = 0
(6.5.7)
Theorem (Sinha and Miller, 1995) For the stochastic system (6.5.1)–(6.5.7), the matrix G chosen on the basis of Equation 6.2.37 minimizes the following objective function: ⎧⎪ 1 J = lim E ⎨ t f →∞ t ⎪⎩ f
tf
∫ 0
⎫⎪ xT (t )Qx(t )dt ⎬ ⎪⎭
(6.5.8)
when states are estimated by the Kalman filter (Chapter 4, Section 4.6); i.e., xˆ = Axˆ + Bu + L ( y − Cxˆ )
(6.5.9)
L = ΣC T Θ −1
(6.5.10)
AΣ + ΣAT + W − ΣC T Θ −1C Σ = 0
(6.5.11)
and
It should be noted here that the constraints for the minimization of the objective function (6.5.8) are
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s(t ) = Gxˆ (t ) = 0
(6.5.12)
J = lim E {xˆ T (t )Qxˆ (t )} + tr ( ΣQ )
(6.5.13)
Proof Using (4.8.11),
t →∞
As tr ( ΣQ ) is independent of the input u(t), the minimization of Equation 6.5.13 is equivalent to minimizing the following objective function: J m = lim E {xˆ T (t )Qxˆ (t )} t →∞
(6.5.14)
Define the following similarity transformation: qˆ (t ) = Hxˆ (t )
(6.5.15)
where the matrix H is same as (6.2.12). From (6.5.9) and (6.5.15), qˆ = Aqˆ + Bu + Lv (t )
(6.5.16)
where A and B are the same as defined by (6.2.14) and (6.2.15); and L = HL
(6.5.17)
v (t ) = y (t ) − Cxˆ (t )
(6.5.18)
Similar to Equation 6.2.16, the vector qˆ is again partitioned as ⎡ qˆ ⎤ qˆ = ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣qˆ 2 ⎦
(6.5.19)
The first (n−m) equations of (6.5.16) can be written as qˆ 1 = A11qˆ 1 + A12 qˆ 2 + Lnm v (t )
(6.5.20)
where the matrix Lnm is composed of the first (n−m) rows of the matrix L . Similar to (6.2.35), J m = lim E {qˆ 1T (t )Qr qˆ 1 (t ) + 2 qˆ 1T Nqˆ 2 + qˆ T2 Rqˆ 2 } t →∞
(6.5.21)
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As v(t ) in Equation 6.5.20 is a white noise vector, the stochastic regulator theory described in Chapter 4, Section 4.7 is directly applicable here. Therefore, the following relationship will yield the optimal solution: qˆ 2 (t ) = − Kqˆ 1 (t )
(6.5.22)
where K is given by (6.2.37). Lastly, the matrix G is given by Equation 6.2.19: G = ⎡⎣ K
I m ⎤⎦ H
(6.5.23)
This completes the proof. EXAMPLE 6.4: A THREEDISK SYSTEM (ECP MANUAL) Consider the threedisk system shown in Figure 5.11.4. Define the state vector as θ (t )⎤⎦
xT (t ) = ⎡⎣θ(t )
(6.5.24)
The state equations are derived to be x = Ax (t ) + bτ(t )
(6.5.25)
where ⎡ 0 A=⎢ −1 ⎣− M C
I3 ⎤ ⎥; − M −1K ⎦
⎡ 0 ⎤ b = ⎢ −1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ M B f ⎥⎦
(6.5.26a,b)
Let the output be y (t ) = θ1 (t ). In this case, y (t ) = Cx (t )
(6.5.27)
where C = ⎡⎣1
0
0
0
0
0 ⎤⎦
(6.5.28)
Take W = I 6 and Θ = 1. In this case, the Kalman filter gain vector is K F = ⎡⎣0.9732
0.6177
0.7304
−0.0264
−0.4088
0.3570 ⎤⎦
T
(6.5.29)
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To design the sliding mode control, Q = C TC
(6.5.30)
From the decomposition (6.2.34), Qr , N, and R are computed. Because R turns out to be zero, it is arbitrarily chosen to be 10–7. The OSG controller transfer function, Equation 6.4.12, is plotted in Figure 6.4. The variance of the output, E ( y 2 ) , is found to be 1.0356. Next, an LQG controller is designed by taking Q = C T C and R = 0.01 in Equation 4.8.8. The LQG controller transfer function, Equation 4.3.11, is also plotted in Figure 6.4. The variance of the output, E ( y 2 ) , is found to be 0.9898. Therefore, both LQG and OSG controllers lead to similar levels of performance. This is also confirmed by the singular value plots of the closedloop transfer matrices T relating the 7 × 1 stochastic disturbance vector [ w T (t ) θ(t )] to the output, y(t), illustrated in Figure 6.5. Observing locations of peaks and troughs in Figure 6.4, controller transfer functions seem to be inversions of the open loop transfer function. However, this inversion phenomenon is less severe around the natural frequency ω 3 = 65.39 rad/sec. in the case of the OSG controller transfer function, in Figure 6.6. Similar results were also found for a flexible spacecraft (Sinha and Miller, 1995). 40
Singular Values (dB)
20
Open Loop
0 LQG –20
–40
OSG
–60
–80 100
101
102 Frequency (rad/sec)
FIGURE 6.4 OSG and LQG controller transfer functions.
103
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401
40
Open Loop
Singular Values (dB)
20
0 LQG –20 OSG –40
–60
–80 100
101
102
103
Frequency (rad/sec)
FIGURE 6.5 OSG and LQG closedloop transfer functions. 0
–5
–10 Singular Values (dB)
Open Loop –15
–20
–25
LQG
–30
–35
–40 1017
OSG
1018 Frequency (rad/sec)
1019
FIGURE 6.6 OSG and LQG controller transfer functions in a small frequency range.
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EXERCISE PROBLEMS P6.1
Consider the singlelink flexible manipulator, Figure P3.4, with a single vibratory mode. Define the state vector as q0
x = ⎡⎣q0
q1
q1 ⎤⎦
T
Design a sliding hyperplane matrix to locate the eigenvalues at −σ , − σ ± jω1 . Choose σ such that the damping ratio in the vibratory mode equals 0.1. P6.2 Consider the singlelink flexible manipulator, Figure P3.4, with a single vibratory mode. Define the state vector as q0
x = ⎡⎣q0
q1
q1 ⎤⎦
T
Design a sliding hyperplane matrix to minimize the following objective function: ∞
∫ x xdt T
0
P6.3
Consider the singlelink flexible manipulator, Figure P3.4, with a single vibratory mode. The output is y(L,t). Define the state vector as x = ⎡⎣q0
P6.4
q0
q1
q1 ⎤⎦
T
Taking W = I and Θ = 0.5 , design an OSG controller such that E ( x T x ) is minimized. Demonstrate the performance of the controller via numerical simulations. Design an LQG control system with a comparable value of E ( y 2 (t )) . Compare the OSG and LQG sensitivity and controller transfer functions. Consider the Problem 4.8. On the basis of the rigid and the first mode, design an OSG controller kosg (s ) to minimize E ( y 2 ) . If the weighting of equivalent input is zero, assume it to be a small number. Introduce fictitious noises w(t) and θ(t ) , Equation 4.6.1 and Equation 4.6.4, where W = 0.1I 4 and Θ = 100 . Demonstrate the performance of the controller via numerical simulations. Design an LQG control system with a comparable value of E ( y 2 (t )) . Compare the OSG and LQG sensitivity and controller transfer function.
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P6.5
403
Consider the flexible tetrahedral truss structure (Appendix F). The controller is to be designed on the basis of the first four modes of vibration. Introduce fictitious noises w(t) and θ(t ) , Equation 4.6.1 and Equation 4.6.4, where W = I 8 and Θ = I 3 . a. Design an OSG controller with collocated sensors and actuators, such that J = E (y T y) is minimized. If the weighting of equivalent input is zero, assume it to be a small number. b. Design an LQG controller with collocated sensors and actuators such that J = E ( y T y + ρu T u)
P6.6
is minimized. Select ρ such that E ( y T y ) is almost equal to that for OSG control. c. Compare the controller transfer matrices in part (a) and part (b). d. Compare the closedloop transfer matrices in part (a) and part (b). Consider the OSG and LQG controllers designed in P6.5. Assume that parameters are uncertain according to (6.3.34) and (6.3.35). a. Find the maximum range of each parametric uncertainty for robust stability using the small gain theorem. b. Find the maximum range of each parametric uncertainty for robust stability using μanalysis.
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References Abate, M., Barmish, B.R., MurilloSanchez, C., and Tempo, R., Applications of some new tools to robust stability analysis of spark ignition engines: a case study, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 22–30, 1994. Annaswamy, A.M., Fleifil, M., Rumsey, J.W., Prasanth, R., Hathout, J.P., and Ghoneim, A.F., Thermoacoustic instability: modelbased optimal control designs and experimental validation, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 8, No. 6, 905–918, 2000. Anderson, B.D.O. and Moore, J.B., Optimal Control: Linear Quadratic Methods, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990. Asada, H. and Slotine, J.J.E., Robot Analysis and Control, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1986. Astrom, K.J., Klein, R.E., and Lennartsson, A., Bicycle Dynamics and Control, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 4, 26–47, 2005. Athans, M., A tutorial on the LQG/LTR method, Proceedings of American Control Conference, 1289–1296, 1986. Athans, M., Notes for Multivariable Control Systems Course, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1992. Balas, M.J., Feedback control of flexible systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. AC23, No. 4, 673–679, 1978. Banavar, R. and Dominic, P., An LQG/H∞ controller for a flexible manipulator, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 409–416, 1995. Biegler, L., Class Notes of Advanced Process Control Course, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 1982. Braatz, R. and Morari, M., Robust control for a noncollocated springmass system, AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1103–1110, 1992. Bryson, A.E., Some connections between modern and classical control concepts, ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol. 101, 91–98, June 1979. Cannon, R.H. and Schmitz, E., Initial experiments on the endpoint control of a flexible onelink robot, International Journal of Robotic Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1984. Chen, CT., Systems and Signal Analysis, Saunders College Publishing: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, NY, 1989. Chiang, R.Y. and Safonov, M.G., H∞ synthesis using a bilinear pole shifting transform, AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1111–1117, 1992a. Chiang, R.Y. and Safonov, M.G., Robust Control Toolbox — User’s Guide, The MathWorks, 1992b (www.mathworks.com). Dahleh, M., Notes on μanalysis (Multivariable Control Systems Course), MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1992. Dorato, P., Abdallah, C., and Cerone, V., Linear Quadratic Control: An Introduction, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995. Doyle, J.C., Guaranteed margins for LQG regulators, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 23, No. 4, 756–757, August 1978. Doyle, J.C. and Stein, G., Multivariable feedback design: concepts for a classical/modern synthesis, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. AC26, No. 1, February 1981. 405
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Doyle, J.C., Lenz, K., and Packard, A., Design examples using μsynthesis: space shuttle lateral axis FCS during reentry, Proceedings of NATO Workshop: Modelling, Robustness and Sensitivity Reduction in Control Systems, Curtain, R.F., Ed., 1986, pp. 127–154. Doyle, J.C., Glover, K., Khargonekar, P.P., and Francis, B.A., Statespace solutions to standard H2 and H∞ control problems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. AC34, No. 8, 831–847, 1989. Drazenovic, B., The invariance condition in variable structure systems, Automatica, Vol. 5, 287–295, 1969. ECP, Educational Control Products (ECP) Manual, http://www.ecpsystems.com/. Friedland, B., Control System Design — An Introduction to State Space Analysis, McGrawHill, NY, 1985. Fujita, M., Namerikawa, T., Matsumura, F., and Uchida, K., μsynthesis of an electromagnetic suspension system, IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, Vol. 40, No. 3, 530–536, 1995. Gopal, M., Modern Control System Theory, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1984. Green, M. and Limebeer, D.J.N., Linear Robust Control, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995. Gupta, N.K., Frequencyshaped cost functionals: extension of linearquadraticGaussian design methods, AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 3, No. 6, 529–535, November–December 1980. Hughes, R.O., Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators, ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol. 101, 157–161, June 1979. Kailath, T., Linear Systems, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980. Kalman, R.E. and Bucy, R.S., New results in linear filtering and prediction theory, ASME Journal of Basic Engineering, Vol. 83, 95–107 1961. Kao, C.K., Robust Control of Vibration in Flexible Structures, Ph.D. dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 1989. Kao, C.K. and Sinha, A., 1991, Sliding mode control of vibration in flexible structures using estimated states, Proceedings of American Control Conference, Vol. 3, 1991, pp. 2467–2474. Kar, I.N., Miyakura, T., and Seto, K., Bending and torsional vibration control of a flexible plate structure using H∞based robust control law, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 8, No. 3, 545–553, 2000. Kitada, H., Kondo, O., Kusachi, H., and Sasame, K., H∞ control of molten steel level in continuous caster, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 6, No. 2, 200–207, 1998. Kuo, B.C., Automatic Control Systems, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995. Kwakernaak, H. and Sivan, R., Linear Optimal Control Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1972. Lowell, J. and McKell, H.D., The stability of bicycles, American Journal of Physics, Vol. 50, No. 12, 1982, 1106–1112, 1982. Lublin, L. and Athans, M., Linear quadratic regulator control, The Control Handbook, 1996, pp. 635–650. Maciejowski, J.M., Multivariable Feedback Design, AddisonWesley, Workingham, England, 1989. Meditch, J.S., Stochastic Optimal Linear Estimation and Control, McGrawHill, New York, 1969. Pai, M.C. and Sinha, A., Generating command inputs to eliminate residual vibration via direct optimization and quadratic programming techniques, Active control of vibration and noise, DEVol. 93, Proceedings of the 1996 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, November 1996.
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Pai, M.C. and Sinha, A., Active control of vibration in a flexible structure with uncertain parameters via sliding mode and H ∞ / μ techniques, Vibration and noise control, DEVol. 97, DSCVol. 65, Proceedings of the 1998 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, November 1998. Pai, M.C. and Sinha, A., Sliding mode control of vibration in a flexible structure via estimated states and H ∞ / μ techniques, Proceedings of American Control Conference, Chicago, IL, June 2000, pp. 1118–1123. Pao, L. and Singhose, W.E., Robust minimum time control of flexible structures, Automatica, Vol. 34, No. 2, 229–236, 1998. Papoulis, A., Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, McGrawHill, NY, 1965. Ray, W.H., Advanced Process Control, McGrawHill, 1981. Reddy, B.D., Functional Analysis and BoundaryValue Problems: An Introductory Treatment, Longman Scientific and Technical, U.K., 1986. Rugh, W., Linear System Theory, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993. Safanov, M.G., Imaginaryaxis zeros in multivariable H∞optimal control, Proceedings of NATO Workshop: Modelling, Robustness and Sensitivity Reduction in Control Systems, Curtain, R.F., Ed., 1986, pp. 71–81. Sage, A.P. and White, C.C., Optimum Systems Control, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1977. Schultz, M.J. and Inman, D.J., Eigenstructure assignment and controller optimization for mechanical systems, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 88–100, 1994. Seo, B., and Chen, C.T., The relationship between the Laplace transform and the Fourier transform, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. AC31, No. 8, 751, August 1986. Singer, N.C. and Seering, W.P., Preshaping command inputs to reduce system vibration, ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol. 112, 76–82, 1990. Singhose, W. and Pao, L., A comparison of input shaping and timeoptimal flexible body control, Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 5, No. 4, 459–467, 1997. Sinha, A. and Miller, D.W., Optimal sliding mode control of a flexible spacecraft under stochastic disturbances, AIAA Journal of Guidance, Dynamics and Control, Vol. 118, No. 3, 486–492, 1995. Stein, G., Formal Control System Synthesis with H 2 / H ∞ Criteria, Lecture Notes for Multivariable Control Systems Course, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1988. Stein, G., Respect the Unstable, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 23, No. 4, 12–25, 2003. Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, San Diego, CA, 1988. Strunce, R., Lin, J., Hegg, D., and Henderson, T., Actively Controlled Structures Theory, C.S. Draper Lab., Cambridge, MA, Final Report Vol. 2, R1338, 1979. Thompson, A.G., An active suspension with optimal linear state feedback, Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 5, 187–203, 1976. Triantafyllou, M.S. and Hover, F.S., Loop transfer recovery, Maneuvering and Control of Marine Vehicles, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 2000 (www.mit.edu and www.core.org.cn). Tsach, U., Koontz, J.W., Ignatoski, M.A., and Geselowitz, D.B., An adaptive aortic pressure observer for the Penn State electric ventricular assist device, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 4, 374–383, April 1990. Utkin, V.I., Variable structure systems with sliding modes: a survey, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. AC22, 212–222, 1977.
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Utkin, V.I. and Yang, K.D., Methods for constructing discontinuity planes in multidimensional variable structure systems, Automation and Remote Control, Vol. 31, 1466–1470, 1978. Vidyasagar, M., Control System Synthesis: A Factorization Approach, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985. Vidyasagar, M., Nonlinear Systems Analysis, 2nd ed., PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993. Wiberg, D.M., State space and linear systems, Schaum’s Outline Series, McGrawHill, New York, 1971. Wie, B. and Bernstein, D.S., Benchmark problems for robust control design, AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1057–1059, 1992. Yang, V., Sinha, A., and Fung, Y.T., State feedback control of longitudinal combustion instabilities, AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 8, No. 1, 66–73, 1992. Zhou, K. and Doyle, J.C., Essentials of Robust Control, PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. Zhou, K., Doyle, J.C., and Glover, K., Robust and Optimal Control, PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1996.
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Appendix A: Linear Algebraic Equations, Eigenvalues/Eigenvectors, and Matrix Inversion Lemma A.1 SYSTEM OF LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS (GOPAL, 1984; STRANG, 1988) Consider the solution of the following system of linear algebraic equations: Ax = b
(A.1)
where A is an m × n matrix. Given an mdimensional vector b, the objective is to find the ndimensional vector x. It should be noted that m and n need not be equal.
DEFINITIONS Linear Independence of Vectors The vectors x1 , x 2 ,…, x n are linearly independent provided the condition α1x1 + α 2 x 2 + … + α n x n = 0 is true only when scalars α1 = α 2 = … = α n = 0 . Range or Column Space Range or column space consists of all combinations of column vectors of a matrix. Rank of a Matrix The rank of a matrix is the maximum number of linearly independent columns, which is also the dimension of the range or column space of A. The maximum number of linearly independent columns always equals the maximum number of linearly independent rows of a matrix. Therefore, the rank of a matrix is also the maximum number of linearly independent rows. The rank of a matrix also equals the dimension of the largest nonsingular square array.
409
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Null Space The null space of the matrix A consists of all vectors y satisfying Ay = 0 . The dimension of the null space, also known as nullity, is the maximum number of independent solutions of Ay = 0 . Theorem A.1 Let A be an m × n matrix. Then, γ = n−ρ
(A.2)
where ρ and γ are the rank and nullity of the matrix A. EXAMPLE A.1 ⎡1 ⎢ A = ⎢1 ⎢2 ⎣
3 2 5
5 3 8
7⎤ ⎥ 4⎥ 11⎥⎦
(A.3)
The last row is the sum of first two rows, which are independent. Therefore, rank(A) = 2
(A.4)
From (A.2), the dimension of the null space = 2. There are two independent solutions of Ay = 0, which can be written as follows after ignoring the last row:
⎡1 ⎢ ⎣1
3 2
5 3
⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 7 ⎤ ⎢ y2 ⎥ ⎡ 0 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 4 ⎦ ⎢ y3 ⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ y 4 ⎦⎥
(A.5)
or y1 + 3 y2 + 5 y3 + 7 y 4 = 0
(A.6)
y1 + 2 y2 + 3 y3 + 4 y 4 = 0
(A.7)
We have two equations in four unknowns. Two unknowns can be chosen arbitrarily, and then the two remaining unknowns can be determined uniquely. Equations can be expressed as
9217_book.fm Page 411 Tuesday, December 19, 2006 10:44 AM
Appendix A
411
⎡1 ⎢ ⎣1
3 ⎤ ⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎡ −5 y3 − 7 y 4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⎦ ⎣ y2 ⎦ ⎣ −3 y3 − 4 y 4 ⎦
(A.8)
Solving for y1 and y2 , ⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ y2 ⎦ ⎣1
−1
3⎤ ⎡−5 y3 − 7 y4 ⎤ ⎡ y3 + 2 y4 ⎤ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎦ ⎣−3y3 − 4 y4 ⎦ ⎣−2 y3 − 3y4 ⎦
(A.9)
Choosing y3 = 1 and y4 = 0,
y b1
⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ y −2 = ⎢ 2⎥= ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ y3 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ y 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
(A.10)
yb2
⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ y −3 = ⎢ 2⎥= ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ y3 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ y 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 ⎥⎦
(A.11)
Choosing y3 = 0 and y 4 = 1,
Solutions y b1 and y b2 are independent of each other. Therefore, any vector in the null space can be written as y = αy b1 + βy b 2
(A.12)
where α and β are arbitrary real numbers. Theorem A.2 The system of equations (A.1) is solvable if and only if the vector b belongs to the range or column space of the matrix A; i.e., rank ([ A b]) = rank ( A)
(A.13)
Theorem A.3 Consider the system of equations (A.1), which satisfies the solvability condition (A.13).
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a. Irrespective of whether m is greater than or equal to or less than n, the number of independent equations will always be less than or equal to the number of unknowns. In other words, effectively, m ≤ n . b. When rank(A) = n, Equation A.1 has the unique solution x = A −1b
(A.14)
c. When rank ( A) < n , the dimension of the null space is greater than zero (Equation A.2). In this case, there are infinite many solutions of Equation A.1, which can be written as x = x p + xh
(A.15)
where x p is a particular solution satisfying Ax p = b , and x h is any solution in the null space of the matrix A; i.e., Ax h = 0 . Note that there are infinite many nonzero vectors in the null space. As a result, there are infinite many solutions for x. Example: ⎡1 ⎢ A = ⎢1 ⎢2 ⎣
3 2 5
5 3 8
7⎤ ⎥ 4⎥; 11⎥⎦
⎡4⎤ ⎢ ⎥ b = ⎢3 ⎥ ⎢7⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(A.16)
The vector b is the sum of the first two columns of the matrix A. Therefore, b belongs to the column or the range space of the matrix A, and Equation A.1 is solvable. As shown in Example A.1, rank(A) = 2, and ignoring the last row,
⎡1 ⎢ ⎣1
3 2
5 3
⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 7 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎡ 4 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 4 ⎦ ⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ x 4 ⎥⎦
(A.17)
Rewriting this equation as ⎡1 ⎢ ⎣1 Solving for x1 and x2 ,
3 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 4 − 5 x3 − 7 x 4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ 3 − 3 x3 − 4 x 4 ⎦
(A.18)
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Appendix A
413
⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣1
−1
3 ⎤ ⎡ 4 − 5 x3 − 7 x 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 + x3 + 2 x 4 ⎤ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 3 − 3 x3 − 4 x 4 ⎦ ⎣1 − 2 x3 − 3 x 4 ⎦
(A.19)
A particular solution is generated by arbitrarily setting x3 = x 4 = 0 : ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ x 1 xp = ⎢ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ x 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦
(A.20)
The independent solutions in the null space have already been generated (A.10 and A.11). Therefore, all the infinite many solutions can be expressed as ⎡1⎤ ⎡1⎤ ⎡2⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 −2 −3 x = ⎢ ⎥+α⎢ ⎥+β⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 ⎥⎦
(A.21)
where α and β are arbitrary real numbers. Theorem A.4 Consider the system of equations (A.1), which does not satisfy the solvability condition (A.3). In this case, m > n , and the following error vector ε will always be nonzero: ε = Ax − b ≠ 0
(A.22)
x = ( AT A)−1 AT b
(A.23)
Then, the solution
minimizes the following least squares error LSE: m
LSE =
∑ε i=1
2 i
= εT ε
(A.24)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
A SYSTEMATIC TEST
FOR
LINEAR INDEPENDENCE
VECTORS
OF
Consider a set of vectors x1 , x 2 ,…, x n , with each vector having m elements. First, a scalar or inner product of any two vectors is defined as follows: m
x i , x j = x iT x j = x Tj x i =
∑x x i
j
(A.25)
=1
To test linear independence of vectors, the following relationship is considered: α1x1 + α 2 x 2 + … + α n x n = 0
(A.26)
Taking the scalar product of (A.26) with the vector x i , α1 x i , x1 + α 2 x i , x 2 + … + α n x i , x n = 0;
i = 1, 2,…, n
(A.27)
Putting (A.27) in matrix form, Gα α=0
(A.28)
where ⎡ x 1, x 1 ⎢ ⎢ x 2 , x1 ⎢ G=⎢ . ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢⎣ x n , x1
x 1, x 2
.
.
x2 , x2
.
.
. . x n , x2
. . .
. . .
x 1, x n ⎤ ⎥ x2 , x n ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ x n , x n ⎥⎦
(A.29)
and α = [α1
α2
.
.
αn ]
T
(A.30)
Note that the matrix G is symmetric. From (A.28), α = 0 if and only if det G ≠ 0
(A.31)
Therefore, vectors x1, x 2 ,…, x n are independent if and only if det G ≠ 0 . detG is known as Gramian or Gram determinant.
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Appendix A
415
A.2 EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS (STRANG, 1988) The eigenvalue/eigenvector relationship for a square matrix A of order n is given by Av = λv
(A.32)
where λ is an eigenvalue, and v is the corresponding eigenvector. Equation A.32 can also be written as (λI − A)v = 0
(A.33)
det(λI − A) = 0
(A.34)
For nontrivial solution of v,
Equation A.34 is a polynomial equation of order n. Therefore, there are n roots or n eigenvalues of the matrix A. Let these eigenvalues be denoted as λ1, λ 2 ,…, λ n . Then, the eigenvector v i corresponding to the eigenvalue λ i is determined by solving (λ i I − A)v i = 0
(A.35)
It should be noted that the eigenvector v i belongs to the null space of (λ i I − A) .
A.3 MATRIX INVERSION LEMMA ( A + BCD )−1 = A −1 − A −1B(C −1 + DA −1B)−1 DA −1
(A.36)
Proof Consider the following relationship: ( A + BCD )( A + BCD )−1 = I
(A.37)
A( A + BCD )−1 + BCD ( A + BCD )−1 = I
(A.38)
( A + BCD )−1 = A −1 − A −1BCD ( A + BCD )−1
(A.39)
or
or
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
or ( A + BCD )−1 = A −1 − A −1B[ A( I + A −1BCD )(CD )−1 ]−1
(A.40)
( A + BCD )−1 = A −1 − A −1B[ A(CD )−1 + A −1B)]−1
(A.41)
( A + BCD )−1 = A −1 − A −1B( D −1C −1 + A −1B)−1 D −1DA −1
(A.42)
( A + BCD )−1 = A −1 − A −1B[ D ( D −1C −1 + A −1B)]−1 DA −1
(A.43)
( A + BCD )−1 = A −1 − A −1B(C −1 + DA −1B)−1 DA −1
(A.44)
or
or
or
or
This completes the proof. Special Case Let A = C = D = I. Then, the matrix inversion lemma yields ( I + B)−1 = I − B( I + B)−1
(A.45)
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Appendix B: Quadratic Functions, Important Derivatives, Fourier Integrals, and Parseval’s Relation B.1 QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS With a single variable x1, the quadratic function is simply I = αx12
(B.1)
With two variables x1 and x2 , the quadratic function is I = αx12 + βx22 + γx1 x2
(B.2)
Equation B.2 can be expressed as I = x T Px
(B.3)
where x = ⎡⎣ x1
x2 ⎤⎦
T
(B.4)
and P is a nonunique matrix; for example, ⎡α P=⎢ ⎣γ
0⎤ ⎥ β⎦
or
⎡α P=⎢ ⎣2 γ
−γ ⎤ ⎥ β⎦
or
⎡ α P=⎢ ⎣γ / 2
γ / 2⎤ ⎥ β ⎦
(B.5)
Out of three examples of P shown in (B.5), note that one of them is a symmetric matrix. 417
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
A quadratic function in n variables can always be written as Equation B.3 where x = ⎡⎣ x1
x2
.
.
x n ⎤⎦
T
(B.6)
and P is an n × n matrix that can always be chosen to be symmetric. Usually, the matrix P is chosen to be symmetric without any loss of generality. In fact, Equation B.3 can always be expressed as T ⎛ ⎞ T P−P ⎟x + x ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ 2
⎛ P + PT I = xT Px = xT ⎜ ⎝ 2
⎞ ⎟x ⎠
(B.7)
The matrix ( P + P T ) / 2 is symmetric, whereas the matrix ( P − P T ) / 2 is skew symmetric. For any skewsymmetric matrix, ⎛ P − PT xT ⎜ ⎝ 2
⎞ ⎟x = 0 ⎠
(B.8)
P + PT )x 2
(B.9)
Therefore, from (B.7),
I = x T Px = x T (
Definition B.1: Positive Definite Quadratic Function For a positive definite quadratic function I, I = x T Px > 0
when
x≠0
(B.10)
Definition B.2: Positive Semidefinite Quadratic Function For a positive semidefinite quadratic function I, I = x T Px ≥ 0
when
x≠0
(B.11)
As explained earlier, the matrix P is chosen to be symmetric in (B.10) and (B.11) without any loss of generality; i.e., P = P T . Fact B.1 All eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix are real, and we can always find n orthogonal eigenvectors irrespective of whether eigenvalues are distinct or repeated (Strang, 1988).
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Appendix B
419
Definition B.3: Positive Definite Matrix For a positive definite matrix P, x T Px > 0
when
x≠0
(B.12)
A positive definite symmetric matrix is denoted as P = PT > 0
(B.13)
Fact B.2 All eigenvalues of a positive definite symmetric matrix P = P T are positive and nonzero numbers (Strang, 1988). Definition B.4: Positive Semidefinite Matrix For a positive semidefinite matrix P, x T Px ≥ 0
when
x≠0
(B.14)
A positive semidefinite symmetric matrix is denoted as P = PT ≥ 0
(B.15)
Fact B.3 All eigenvalues of a positive semidefinite symmetric matrix P = P T are zero or positive numbers (Strang, 1988).
B.2 DERIVATIVE OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION Fact B.5 Let I = x T Px ;
P = PT
(B.16)
Then, ∂I ⎡ ∂I = ∂x ⎢⎣ ∂x1
∂I ∂x2
T
.
.
∂I ⎤ = 2 Px ∂x n ⎥⎦
(B.17)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Proof Denote ⎡ p11 ⎢ ⎢ p21 P=⎢ . ⎢ ⎢ . ⎢p ⎣ n1
p12 p22 . . pn 2
. . . . .
. . . . .
p1n ⎤ ⎥ p2 n ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ pnn ⎥⎦
(B.18)
The condition P = P T is expressed as pij = p ji
(B.19)
Equation B.16 can be written as I = x1 [ p11x1 + p12 x2 + … + p1n xn ] +
x2 [ p21x1 + p22 x2 + … + p2 n xn ]
+
x3 [ p31x1 + p32 x2 + … + p3n xn ]
(B.20)
. . +
xn [ pn1x1 + pn 2 x2 + … + pnn xn ]
Therefore, ∂I = 2 p11x1 + ( p12 x2 + … + p1n xn ) + p21x2 + … pn1xn ∂x1
(B.21)
Because of (B.19), ∂I = 2( p11x1 + p12 x2 + … + p1n xn ) ∂x1
(B.22)
∂I = 2( pi1x1 + pi 2 x2 + … + pin xn ) ∂xi
(B.23)
In general,
9217_book.fm Page 421 Tuesday, December 19, 2006 10:44 AM
Appendix B
421
Therefore, ⎡ ∂I ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎡ p11 ⎢ ∂I ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ p21 ∂ x ⎢ 2 ⎥=2⎢ . ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎢ . ⎥ ⎢p ⎣ n1 ⎢ ∂I ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ∂x n ⎥⎦
p12 p22 . . pn 2
. . . . .
. . . . .
p1n ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ p2 n ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ . ⎥⎢ . ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ . ⎥⎢ . ⎥ pnn ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ x n ⎥⎦
(B.24)
or ∂I = 2 Px ∂x
(B.25)
This completes the proof.
B.3 DERIVATIVE OF A LINEAR FUNCTION Fact B.6 Let J = λT x
(B.26)
where λ = [ λ1
λ2
.
.
λn ]
T
(B.27)
Then, ∂J ⎡ ∂J =⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂x1
∂J ∂x2
∂J ⎤ ⎥ =λ ∂xn ⎦ T
.
.
(B.28)
Proof From (B.26), J = λ1x1 + λ 2 x2 + … + λ n xn
(B.29)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Then, ∂J = λi ; ∂xi ∂J ⎡ ∂J =⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂x1
∂J ∂x2
i = 1, 2, …, n
∂J ⎤ ⎥ = [ λ1 ∂xn ⎦
(B.30)
T
.
.
λ2
.
.
λ n ]T = λ
(B.31)
This completes the proof.
B.4 FOURIER INTEGRALS AND PARSEVAL’S THEOREM B.4.1 SCALAR SIGNAL Consider a signal x (t )us (t ) ∈ L2 where the L2 space is defined in Chapter 5, Section 5.5.1, and us (t ) is the unit step function defined as ⎧1 us (t ) = ⎨ ⎩⎪0
t≥0 t<0
for for
(B.32)
The Fourier transform (Chen, 1989) of x (t )us (t ) ∈ L2 is defined as ∞
x ( jω ) =
∫ x(t)e
− jωt
dt
(B.33)
0
with the following property for a real function x(t): x(− jω) = x *( jω)
(B.34)
where x *( jω) is the complex conjugate of x ( jω ) . Corresponding to (B.33), the inverse Fourier transform is described as
x (t ) =
1 2π
∞
∫ x( jω)e
jωt
−∞
The Laplace transform of x (t )us (t ) is defined as
dω
(B.35)
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Appendix B
423
∞
x (s ) =
∫ x(t)e
− st
dt
(B.36)
0
Comparing (B.33) and (B.36), x ( jω ) can also be obtained by replacing s in the Laplace transform x(s) by jω . EXAMPLE B.1.1 x (t ) = (sin bt )us (t )
(B.37)
where the unit step function us (t ) is defined by Equation B.32. Note that x (t ) ∉ L2 . Therefore, its Fourier transform is not defined. However, its Laplace transform is defined and is well known to be
x (s ) =
b s + b2
(B.38)
2
Therefore, one can substitute s = jω in (B.38), but it will not be the Fourier transform. Seo and Chen (1986) and Chen (1989) have used impulse functions to describe the Fourier transform of a periodic sinusoidal function: x (t ) = sin bt . EXAMPLE B.1.2 x (t ) = (e − at sin bt )us (t ) ;
a >0.
(B.39)
where the unit step function us (t ) is defined by (B.32). The Laplace transform of the signal (B.39) is
x (s ) =
b (s + a )2 + b 2
(B.40)
Because x (t ) ∈ L2, the Fourier transform can be obtained by substituting s = jω in (B.40):
x ( jω ) =
b ( j ω + a )2 + b 2
(B.41)
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Scalar Parseval Relation ∞
∫
 x (t ) 2 dt =
0
1 2π
+∞
∫  x ( jω )  d ω 2
(B.42)
−∞
where x ( jω ) is the Fourier transform of x (t ) ∈ L2 . Proof Using (B.35), ∞
∫
∞
 x(t ) 2 dt =
0
∞
∫
∫
x(t )x * (t )dt =
0
0
⎡ 1 x(t )⎢ ⎢⎣ 2 π
⎤ x( jω)e jωt dω⎥ * dt ⎥⎦ −∞
+∞
∫
(B.43)
Interchanging the order of integrations on the right side of (B.43), ∞
∫ 0
1  x(t )  dt = 2π 2
⎤ ⎡ +∞ x ( jω)⎢ x(t )e− jωt dt ⎥ dω ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 −∞ ∞
∫
*
∫
(B.44)
Using the definition (B.33), ∞
∫
 x(t ) 2 dt =
0
1 2π
∞
∫
x *( jω)x( jω)dω =
−∞
1 2π
∞
∫  x ( j ω) 
2
dω
(B.45)
−∞
This completes the proof.
B.4.2 VECTOR SIGNAL For an ndimensional vector signal x(t )us (t ) ∈ L2 with the unit step function us (t ) defined by (B.32), the Fourier transform pair is defined as ∞
x ( jω ) =
∫ x(t)e
− jωt
dt
(B.46)
0
and 1 x (t ) = 2π
∞
∫ x( jω)e
−∞
jωt
dω
(B.47)
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Appendix B
425
Multivariable Parseval Relation For a symmetric matrix Q, ∞
∫ 0
1 x (t )Qx (t ) dt = 2π H
+∞
∫x
H
( jω )Qx ( jω ) d ω
(B.48)
−∞
where x( jω ) is the Fourier transform of x(t ) ∈ L2 . Proof Using (B.47), ∞
∫x
∞
H
(t )Qx (t ) dt =
0
+∞
∫ ∫ [x( jω)e 0
1 2π
jωt
d ω ]H Qx (t ) dt
(B.49)
x H ( jω )Q e − jωt x (t ) dtdω
(B.50)
−∞
Interchanging the order of integrations in (B.49), ∞
∫
x H (t )Qx (t ) dt =
0
1 2π
∞
∫
∞
∫
−∞
0
Using (B.46), ∞
∫ 0
1 x (t )Qx (t ) dt = 2π H
This completes the proof.
∞
∫x
−∞
H
( jω )Qx ( jω ) d ω
(B.51)
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Appendix C: Norms, Singular Values, Supremum, and Infinimum C.1 VECTOR NORMS For a complex or real vector, the norm . is a real valued function with the following properties (Vidyasagar, 1993): i.
x > 0 for all x ≠ 0
(C.1)
ii.
x = 0 implies x = 0
(C.2)
iii.
αx = α x for real or complex number α
(C.3)
iv.
x + y ≤ x + y for any complex or real vectors x and y
(C.4)
Three commonly used norms for a complex or real vector x are defined as p
p
p
x p = ( x1 + x2 + … xn )1/ p
where p = 1, 2, and ∞
(C.5)
Note that x
∞
= max xi i
(C.6)
C.2 MATRIX NORMS For a vector norm, the induced norm of a real or complex matrix A is defined as
A
p
= sup x ≠0
Ax x
p p
= sup Ax
(C.7)
x =1
427
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It has been shown (Vidyasagar, 1993) that A = max 1
j
∑a
;
ij
maximum column sum
(C.8)
maximum row sum
(C.9)
i
A
∞
= max i
∑a
ij
;
j
A = max(λ i ( A H A)1/ 2 ) 2
i
(C.10)
where A H is the complex conjugate transpose of the matrix A, and λ i ( A H A) is the ith eigenvalue of A H A . Fact C.1 The matrix A H A is positive semidefinite. Proof For a vector x, the quadratic form is q = x H A H Ax
(C.11)
y = Ax
(C.12)
q = yH y ≥ 0
(C.13)
Let
Then,
Because of this fact, eigenvalues of A H A are guaranteed to be nonnegative. EXAMPLE ⎡3 ⎢ A = ⎢ −1 ⎢1 ⎣ Here,
−3 3 2
−1⎤ ⎥ −1⎥ 2 ⎥⎦
(C.14)
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Appendix C
429
A =8 , A 1
∞
= 7 and A = 5.33 2
C.3 SINGULAR VALUES OF A MATRIX Singular values σ i ( A) of a real or complex mxn matrix A are nonnegative square roots of eigenvalues of A H A . The dimension of A H A is n × n. Therefore, there will be n eigenvalues of A H A . However, if the rank of the matrix A H A is r , n–r eigenvalues of A H A will be zero. Also, note that r≤p
where
p = min(m, n )
(C.15)
Therefore, the number of singular values is chosen to be p, which is the maximum rank that a matrix A can have. Then, if there is any singular value which is zero, the matrix will not be of full rank. These singular values are usually arranged in descending order. In summary, singular values of a real or a complex matrix A are given as σ i ( A) = λ i ( A H A) ;
i = 1, 2,…, p
σ 1 ( A) ≥ σ 2 ( A) ≥ … ≥ σ p ( A)
(C.16) (C.17)
Maximum and minimum singular values are also denoted by σ and σ , respectively. Therefore,
σ( A) = max x ≠0
Ax x
2
= A
(C.18)
2
2
and ⎡ A −1x σ( A) = ⎢ max ⎢ x ≠0 x 2 ⎣
−1
2
⎤ −1 ⎥ = ⎡ A −1 ⎤ ⎢⎣ ⎥ 2⎦ ⎥ ⎦
if A −1 exists
(C.19)
The minimum singular value, σ( A) , is a measure of how near the matrix A is to being singular or rank deficient. The maximum singular value, σ( A) , is also the 2norm of the matrix A . 2
C.4 SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION (SVD) For an m × n matrix A, the SVD of the matrix A is given (Zhou et al., 1996) by
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
A = U ΣV H
(C.20)
where U and V are m × m and n × n unitary matrices, respectively; i.e., UU H = I m
VV H = I n
and
(C.21a,b)
These results imply that the 2norms of columns of U and V are unity. Furthermore, column vectors of U are orthogonal with respect to each other. Similarly, column vectors of V are orthogonal with respect to each other. Denote U = ⎡⎣u1
u2
.
.
u m ⎤⎦
(C.22)
V = ⎡⎣v1
v2
.
.
v n ⎤⎦
(C.23)
where u i and v i are ith column vectors of matrices U and V, respectively. The matrix Σ is an mxn matrix with the following structures: Σ = ⎡⎣ Σ1
0 ⎤⎦
if m < n
(C.24)
⎡Σ ⎤ Σ = ⎢ 1⎥ ⎣0⎦
if m > n
(C.25)
Σ = Σ1
if m = n
(C.26)
where Σ1 = diag (σ1
COMPUTATION
OF
U
AND
σ2
.
.
σp)
(C.27)
V
Postmultiplying (C.20) by V, AV = U Σ
(C.28)
U H A = ΣV H
(C.29)
Premultiplying (C.20) by U H ,
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Appendix C
431
Premultiplying (C.28) by A H , A H AV = A HU Σ = V Σ H Σ
(C.30)
A H Av i = σ 2i v i
(C.31)
or
Therefore, columns of V are unit (right) eigenvectors of A H A . They are called right singular vectors of the matrix A. Postmultiplying (C.29) by A H , U H AA H = ΣV H A H = ΣΣ HU H
(C.32)
u iH AA H = σ i2 u iH
(C.33)
or
Therefore, rows of U H are unit (left) eigenvectors of AA H . They are called left singular vectors of the matrix A.
SIGNIFICANCE OF SINGULAR VECTORS CORRESPONDING MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SINGULAR VALUES
TO THE
Let v and u be the right and left singular vectors corresponding to the maximum singular value, σ , respectively. Similarly, let v and u be the right and left singular vectors corresponding to the minimum singular value, σ , respectively. As singular values are arranged in descending order, σ = σp
and
σ = σ1
(C.34)
u = up
and
u = u1
(C.35)
v = vp
and
v = v1
(C.36)
Av = σ.u
and
Av = σ u
With these notations, (C.37a,b)
If we think of a system with v i and σ i u i as the input and output, respectively, the 2norms of the output and input are σ i and 1, respectively. Therefore, the
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vector v ( v ) represents the input direction leading to the maximum (minimum) magnitude of the output, which occurs along the u(u) direction (Maciejowski, 1989; Zhou et al., 1996).
C.5 PROPERTIES OF SINGULAR VALUES (CHIANG AND SAFANOV, 1992)
1. σ( A) = max x ≠0
2. σ( A) = min x ≠0
Ax x
= A
2
(C.38)
2
Ax x
2
2
(C.39)
2
3. If A −1 exists, σ ( A) =
1 1 and σ ( A) = −1 σ( A ) σ ( A −1 )
(C.40)
4. σ (αA) = α σ ( A) for a scalar α
(C.41)
5. σ ( A + B) ≤ σ ( A) + σ ( B)
(C.42)
6. σ ( AB) ≤ σ ( A).σ ( B)
(C.43)
7. max[0, (σ ( A) − σ ( B))] ≤ σ ( A + B) ≤ σ ( A) + σ ( B)
(C.44)
8. σ ( A) ≤ λ( A) ≤ σ ( A) where λ( A) is an eigenvalue of A
(C.45)
n
9.
∑σ
2 i
= trace( A H A)
(C.46)
i =1
C.6 SUPREMUM AND INFINIMUM (REDDY, 1986) Let a and b be two real numbers such that b > a . Then, we define closed and open intervals as follows: i. closed interval [ a, b ] = {x : x ∈ R, a ≤ x ≤ b} It is clear that maximum value of x = b minimum value of x = a
(C.47)
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Appendix C
ii. open interval ( a, b ) = {x : x ∈ R, a < x < b}
433
(C.48)
Here, it is not possible to precisely define the maximum and minimum values of x. But, upper and lower bounds can be defined. Any number greater than b is an upper bound of x. However, b is the least upper bound and is called the supremum (sup) of x. Similarly, any number smaller than a is a lower bound of x. However, a is the greatest lower bound and is called the infinimum (inf) of x.
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Appendix D: Stochastic Processes A stochastic process x (t ) refers to an ensemble of functions (Papoulis, 1965), x1 (t ), x2 (t ) , x3 (t ) , …, Figure D.1. For the purpose of contents in this book, the independent variable for these functions is restricted to be time t. Therefore, the sample number in Figure D.1 can be interpreted as time instants. At any time t = ti , there will be different values of these functions, x1 (ti ) , x2 (ti ) , x3 (ti ), …, which can be plotted as a histogram. As the number of these function approaches infinity, this histogram will turn into a probability density function. In other words, there is a random variable x (ti ) and the corresponding probability density function for each time ti .
D.1 STATIONARY STOCHASTIC PROCESS A stochastic process x (t ) is said to be stationary if the probability distribution function of x (ti ) is independent of ti ; i.e., it is time invariant. The mean value and standard deviation of x (ti ) are also time invariant. The mean or expected value of x (t ) at any time t is given by ∞
E ( x (t )) =
∫ x(t) p( x(t))dx = a constant value, η
x
(D.1)
−∞
where p ( x ) is the probability density function. For a stationary and Gaussian stochastic process, the probability density function is given by
p( x ) =
1 σ 2π
−
e
( x − η x )2 2 σ x2
(D.2)
where σ x is the standard deviation; i.e., σ x 2 = E (( x − η)2 ) = E ( x 2 ) − ηx 2
(D.3)
435
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1 +
x
x
0.9
x
+
+
x x
0.8
+ +
x
+
x x
0.7
x
x
+
+
x
+
+
+
+
x
+
0.6
+
x x
+
x
+
0.5
+
x
+
+
0.4
x
x
x x
+x
x
x
x
0.2
+
x
0.3
+ +
+ + Member 1
+
x
+
+
x Member 2
0.1
Member 3
+ 0 0
+ x
x
+ 5
x
x
10
15 Sample Number
20
25
30
FIGURE D.1 Ensemble members of a stochastic process.
and ∞
E (x2 ) =
∫ x p( x)dx 2
(D.4)
−∞
AUTOCORRELATION FUNCTION The autocorrelation function of a stationary stochastic process x (t ) is defined as R xx (τ) = E ( x (t ) x (t + τ))
(D.5)
It should be noted that the autocorrelation function is only a function of τ and is independent of t. It should also be noted that R xx (0 ) = E ( x 2 (t ))
(D.6)
R xx (τ) = R xx (− τ)
(D.7)
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Appendix D
437
Numerically, R(τ) will be computed from N observations of the stochastic process by 1 R xx (τ) = N
N
∑ x (t) x (t + τ) i
i
(D.8)
i =1
AUTOCOVARIANCE FUNCTION The autocovariance function of a stationary stochastic process x (t ) is defined as C xx (τ) = E (( x (t ) − ηx )( x (t + τ) − ηx ))
(D.9)
C xx ( τ ) = Rxx ( τ ) − η2x
(D.10)
C xx (0 ) = σ 2x
(D.11)
Therefore,
and
CROSSCORRELATION FUNCTION The crosscorrelation function for two different stationary stochastic processes x (t ) and y (t ) is defined as R xy (τ) = E ( x (t ) y (t + τ))
(D.12)
It should be noted that the crosscorrelation function is only a function of τ and is independent of t. Numerically, R xy (τ) will be computed from N observations of the stochastic process by 1 R xy (τ) = N
N
∑ x (t)y (t + τ) i
i
(D.13)
i =1
CROSSCOVARIANCE FUNCTION The crosscovariance function for two different stationary stochastic processes x (t ) and y (t ) is defined as C xy (τ) = E (( x (t ) − ηx )( y (t + τ) − ηy ))
(D.14)
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Uncorrelated Stochastic Processes Two stationary stochastic processes are uncorrelated if R xy (τ) = E ( x (t ) y (t + τ)) = E ( x (t )) E ( y (t + τ)) = ηx ηy
(D.15)
Equivalently, two stationary stochastic processes are uncorrelated if C xy ( τ ) = E (( x(t ) − ηx )( y(t + τ ) − ηy )) = E (( x(t ) − ηx ))E (( y(t + τ ) − ηy )) = 0
(D.16)
A stationary stochastic process is called ergodic if all of its statistics can be determined from a single observation or a single member of the ensemble. Therefore, the mean, variance, autocorrelation function, and crosscorrelation function of ergodic processes can be computed as follows: 1 T →∞ 2T
ηx = E ( x(t )) = lim
1 T →∞ 2T
σ 2x = E (( x(t ) − η)2 ) = lim
+T
∫ x(t )dt
−T
+T
∫ (x(t ) − η) dt 2
(D.18)
−T
1 T →∞ 2T
Rxx ( τ ) = E ( x(t )x(t + τ )) = lim
1 T →∞ 2T
Rxy ( τ ) = E ( x(t )y(t + τ )) = lim
(D.17)
+T
∫ x(t )x(t + τ)dt
(D.19)
−T
+T
∫ x(t )y(t + τ)dt
(D.20)
−T
D.2 POWER SPECTRUM OR POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY (PSD) The PSD, S xx (ω ) , of a stationary stochastic process x (t ) is the Fourier transform of its autocorrelation function: ∞
S xx (ω ) =
∫e
−∞
− jωτ
R xx (τ) d τ
(D.21)
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Appendix D
439
The inverse Fourier transform corresponding to Equation D.21 yields 1 R xx (τ) = 2π
∞
∫e
jωτ
S xx (ω ) d ω
(D.22)
−∞
D.3 WHITE NOISE: A SPECIAL STATIONARY STOCHASTIC PROCESS The autocorrelation function of the white noise, v (t ) , is given by Rvv (τ) = Pδ(τ)
(D.23)
where P is a constant, and δ(τ) is a deltaDirac function. Equation D.23 indicates that Rvv (τ) = 0
when
τ≠0
(D.24)
Therefore, there is no correlation between v (t1 ) and v (t2 ) where t1 ≠ t2 . Because Rvv (0 ) is infinite, the standard deviation of the process is infinite. The PSD of the white noise, v (t ), is given by ∞
S vv (ω ) =
∫e
− jωτ
P δ (τ) d τ = P
(D.25)
−∞
That is, the PSD of white noise is a constant for each frequency, and consequently, white noise will have infinite power. Thus, white noise is a mathematical fiction.
GENERATION OF APPROXIMATE GAUSSIAN WHITE NOISE IN MATLAB Gaussian random numbers with the zero mean and the standard deviation σ can be generated as follows: w ( k ) = σr ( k );
k = 1, 2, 3, …
(D.26)
where random numbers r(k) wth zero mean and unity standard deviation are generated using the Matlab routine randn. Then, a timedomain signal is obtained by considering this sequence of numbers w(k) as a discretetime signal with a constant sampling interval T. The continuoustime signal v(t) obtained via a zeroorder hold as shown in Figure D.2 can be viewed as a Gaussian white noise with the power spectral density σ 2 T (Meditch, 1969).
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
v (t ) w(5) w(3) w( 4 )
w( 2 )
w(6)
w(1)
0
T
3T
2T
t
5T
4T
FIGURE D.2 Continuoustime white noise v(t) from random numbers w(k). x (t )
y (t ) G (s )
FIGURE D.3 A SISO system.
D.4 RESPONSE OF A SISO LINEAR AND TIMEINVARIANT SYSTEM SUBJECTED TO A STATIONARY STOCHASTIC PROCESS Consider the linear system, Figure D.3, with the transfer function G (s ) where the input x(t) is a stationary stochastic process with PSD equal to S xx (ω ) . The output y (t ) will also be a stochastic process. For a stable system, the output will become a stationary stochastic process in the statistical steady state. In the statistical steady state, 2
S yy (ω ) = G ( jω ) S xx (ω )
(D.27)
where S yy (ω ) is the PSD of the output y (t ) . When the input is a white noise with unit PSD, i.e., S xx (ω ) = 1 , S yy (ω ) = G ( jω )
2
(D.28)
D.5 VECTOR STATIONARY STOCHASTIC PROCESSES Define the vector v(t ) = ⎡⎣ v1 (t )
v2 (t )
.
.
v n (t ) ⎤⎦
T
(D.29)
where v1 (t ) , v2 (t ) , …, v n (t ) are n scalar stochastic processes. Then, the following quantities are defined (Athans, 1992; Kwakernaak and Sivan, 1972):
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Appendix D
441
Mean η = E (v (t )) = [ E (v1 (t ))
[η1
E (v2 (t )) η2
.
.
.
.
E (vn (t ))] =
ηn ]
T
(D.30)
T
Autocorrelation Matrix R (τ) = E (v (t )(v (t + τ))T )
(D.31)
C ( τ ) = E ((v (t ) − η)(v (t + τ ) − η)T )
(D.32)
Ξ = C (0 ) = E ((v (t ) − η)(v (t ) − η)T )
(D.33)
Autocovariance Matrix
Variance Matrix
PSD Matrix ∞
S (ω ) =
∫e
− jωτ
R (τ) d τ
(D.34)
−∞
R (τ) =
1 2π
∞
∫e
−∞
jωτ
S (ω ) d ω
(D.35)
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Appendix E: Optimization of a Scalar Function with Constraints in the Form of a Symmetric Real Matrix Equal to Zero (Zhou et al., 1996) Definition E.1 Suppose that an ndimensional real vector x o is a local minimum of the scalar function f ( x ) subject to constraints U ( x ) = 0 where U ( x ) is a symmetric real matrix. Then, x o is a regular point of the constraints if for a symmetric matrix P, ∇trace(U ( x o ) P ) = 0 has a unique solution P = 0 . Definition E.2 Let x = ⎡⎣ x1
x2
.
T
x n ⎤⎦ . Then, the gradient ∇f ( x ) is defined as
.
⎡ ∂f ∇f ( x ) = ⎢ ⎣ ∂x1
∂f ∂x2
.
.
∂f ⎤ ∂x n ⎥⎦
T
(E.1)
Definition E.3 Given an m × n matrix X, define the following vector: x = VecX = ⎡⎣ x11
.
xm 1
x12
.
xm 2
.
x1n
.
xmn ⎤⎦
T
Then, for a scalar function f ( x ) , the gradients with respect to the matrix X and x = VecX are defined as
443
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
⎡ ∂f ( x ) ⎢ ∂x ⎢ 11 ⎢ . ∂f ( x ) ⎢ =⎢ . ∂X ⎢ . ⎢ ⎢ ∂f ( x ) ⎢ ⎣ ∂xm 1
∂f ( x ) ∂x12
.
.
.
.
.
. . ∂f ( x ) ∂xm 2
. .
. .
.
.
∂f (x ) xm 2
.
∂f ( x ) ⎤ ∂x1n ⎥⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ . ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ ∂f ( x ) ⎥ ∂xmn ⎥⎦
(E.2)
∇f (x ) = ⎡ ∂f (x ) ⎢ ⎣ x11
.
∂f (x ) x m1
∂f (x ) x12
.
∂f (x ) x1n
.
∂f (x ) ⎤ (E.3) ⎥ xmn ⎦
It should be noted that ∂f ( x ) =0 ∂X
(E.4)
∇f ( x ) = 0
(E.5)
is equivalent to
Fact E.1 Suppose that an ndimensional real vector x o is a local minimum of the scalar function f ( x ) subject to constraints U ( x ) = 0 where U ( x ) is a symmetric real matrix. Also, assume that x o is a regular point of the constraints. Then, there exists a unique multiplier symmetric matrix P such that if we define g ( x, P ) = f ( x ) + trace(U ( x ) P )
(E.6)
then at the optimal solution x o , Po , ∇g ( x 0 , Po ) = ∇f ( x 0 ) + ∇trace(U ( x 0 ) Po ) = 0
(E.7)
Note that the gradient here is defined with respect to the following vector: ⎡ x ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ vecP ⎦
(E.9)
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Appendix E
445
Fact E.2 ∂ tr ( AXB) = AT BT ∂X
(E.10)
∂ tr ( AX T B) = BA ∂X
(E.11)
∂ tr ( AXBX ) = AT X T BT + BT X T AT ∂X
(E.12)
∂ tr ( AXBX T ) = AT XBT + AXB ∂X
(E.13)
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Appendix F: A Flexible Tetrahedral Truss Structure The tetrahedral flexible structure, Figure F.1, has been developed at the C. S. Draper Laboratory (Strunce et al., 1979). The structure is supported on the ground by three rightangled bipods on which actuators are mounted. The finite element model is represented by + Kp(t ) = B f f (t ) Mp
(F.1)
where M and K are mass and stiffness matrices, respectively. The vector p(t) contains displacements in x, y, and z directions of nodes 14. The 3 × 1 force vector f (t ) is composed of the forces provided by actuators mounted on elements 1 3. The modal matrix Φ and the diagonal eigenvalue matrix Λ are defined as follows: K Φ = M ΦΛ
(F.2)
where Λ = diag[ω12
ω 22
.
.
2 ω12 ]
(F.3)
and ΦT M Φ = I
(F.4)
The modal matrix is provided in the report (Strunce et al., 1979) and the thesis (Kao, 1989). The natural frequencies are listed in Table F.1.
447
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Z
1
12
11
10
4
8
2
1
3
9 2 10
3
y
9
5
6
7 x
8
4
7
5 6
FIGURE F.1 A flexible tetrahedral truss structure.
TABLE F.1 Natural Frequencies (rad/sec) ω1
ω2
ω3
ω4
ω5
ω6
ω7
ω8
ω9
ω10
ω11
ω12
1.342
1.643
3.391
4.207
4.658
4.754
8.538
4.754
8.538
9.252
10.296
12.923
Define modal coordinate vector ψ as p(t ) = Φψ ψ(t )
(F.5)
Substituting (F.5) into (F.1) and premultiplying both sides by ΦT , + Λψ(t ) = Bψ f (t ) ψ where
(F.6)
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Appendix F
449
⎡ −0.023 ⎢ ⎢ −0.112 ⎢ −0.077 ⎢ ⎢ 0.189 ⎢ 0.156 ⎢ ⎢ −0.289 T Bψ = Φ B f = ⎢ ⎢ −0.320 ⎢ 0.365 ⎢ ⎢ −0.229 ⎢ 0.167 ⎢ ⎢ −0.145 ⎢ 0.025 ⎣ ψT = [ ψ1
ψ2
−0.067 0.017 0.271 −0.060 −0.049 0.289 −0.369 0.299 0.250 −0.150 0.146 −0.013 .
.
−0.044 ⎤ ⎥ 0.069 ⎥ 0.046 ⎥ ⎥ −0.249 ⎥ 0.351 ⎥ ⎥ −0.289 ⎥ ⎥ −0.049 ⎥ −0.069 ⎥ ⎥ 0.231 ⎥ −0.317 ⎥ ⎥ −0.220 ⎥ 0.114 ⎥⎦ ψ12 ]
(F.7)
(F.8)
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Appendix G: Space Shuttle Dynamics during Reentry (Doyle et al., 1986) The 4state rigid body aircraft model (Figure G.1) has state variables x(t) and measurements y meas : ⎡ β ⎤ ⎡sideslip ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ p roll x=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢ r ⎥ ⎢ ya aw ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ φ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ bank
angle ⎤ ⎥ rate ⎥ ; rate ⎥ ⎥ angle ⎥⎦
y meas
⎡p⎤ ⎢ ⎥ r =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ηy ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ φ ⎥⎦
(G.1a,b)
where ηy is the lateral acceleration. In Figure G.1, α and V are the angle of attack and the velocity of the shuttle, respectively. Also,
c fm
⎡ c y ⎤ ⎡ side ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ = ⎢c n ⎥ = ⎢ yawing ⎢ c ⎥ ⎢ rolling ⎣ l⎦ ⎣
⎡ c β ⎤ ⎡sideslip force ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ moment ⎥ and c an = ⎢c α ⎥ = ⎢ aileron ⎢ c ⎥ ⎢ rudder moment ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ l ⎦⎥ ⎣
angle ⎤ ⎥ angle ⎥ (G.2a,b) angle ⎥⎦
Then, c fm = C aer c an
C aer
⎡ c yβ ⎢ = ⎢c nβ ⎢ ⎣ clβ
c ya c na cla
(G.3) c yr ⎤ ⎥ c nr ⎥ ⎥ clr ⎦
(G.4)
451
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
Y rudder
elevon
X roll, p Center of Mass
Vx Vz
yaw, r
bank angle Vy Z
V
FIGURE G.1 Space shuttle variables (Doyle et al., 1986).
rp c fm
c an
R
u act
Wact e act
ny rp
r 0.037 e perf W perf
Space Shuttle
u act
ideal
y meas
gust noise
Ideal Model
Wsens
controller com
FIGURE G.2 Space shuttle control system (Doyle et al., 1986).
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Appendix G
453
The elements of the aerodynamic coefficients matrix C aer are uncertain. Let C aer = C aer + δC aer
(G.5)
where
δC aer
⎡ryβ ⎢ R=⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 ⎡δ yβ ⎢ Δ =⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 T
⎡ ryβ δ yβ ⎢ = ⎢rnβ δ yβ ⎢ ⎣ rlβ δ lβ
rya δ ya rna δ na rla δ la
ryr δ yr ⎤ ⎥ rnr δ nr ⎥ = R Δ ⎥ rlr δ lr ⎦
(G.6)
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ rlr ⎦
0
0
rya
0
0
ryr
0
rnβ
0
0
rna
0
0
rnr
0
rlβ
0
0
rla
0
0
0
0
δ ya
0
0
δ yr
0
δ nβ
0
0
δ na
0
0
δ nr
0
δ lβ
0
0
δ la
0
0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ δ lr ⎦
(G.7)
(G.8)
Let c fm = c fm + δc fm
(G.9)
δc fm = δC aer c an = R Δc an
(G.10)
x = Ax (t ) + Bu(t )
(G.11)
y (t ) = Cx (t ) + Du(t )
(G.12)
where c fm is the nominal value. Then,
STATE SPACE MODEL
where
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
⎡δc fm ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ u = ⎢ u act ⎥ ; ⎢ gust ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
⎡ c ⎤ y = ⎢ an ⎥ ; ⎣ y meas ⎦
⎡ −9.460 e − 02 ⎢ −3.5595e + 00 A=⎢ ⎢ 3.950 e − 01 ⎢ 0 ⎢⎣
1.409e − 01 −4.284e − 01 −1.263e − 02 1
and
⎡u ⎤ u act = ⎢ e ⎥ ⎣ur ⎦
−9.900 e − 01 2.809e − 01 −8.142 e − 02 −1.405e − 01
(G.13)
3.637e − 02 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ (G.14) ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦
B= ⎡1.275 e − 05 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣
0 −3.114 e − 05 −1.905 e − 04
0 −3.117 e − 03 −6.443e − 05
−1.240 e − 02 6.571e + 00 3.783e − 01
1.023e − 02 1.256 e + 00 −2.560 e − 01
0
0
0
0
−1.086 e − 04 ⎤ ⎥ −4.126 e − 03⎥ 4.533e − 04 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(G.15) ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ C=⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ −6.804e + 01 ⎢ 0 ⎣
0 0 0 1 0 −1.744 0
0 0 0 0 1 −4.058 0
⎤ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −3.720 e − 05 ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎦
(G.16)
D= ⎡ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢1.111e − 02 ⎢ 0 ⎣
0 0 0 0 0 −1.111e − 02 0
0 0 0 0 0 −1.111e − 02 0
0 1 0 0 0 2.667 e + 01 0
0 0 1 0 0 −2.952 0
1.148 e − 03 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ −7.810 e − 02⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦
(G.17) Each measurement is corrupted by the white noise passing through a filter. The weighting matrix Wsens is described as follows:
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Appendix G
455
Wsens = ⎡ 0.003(1 + 100 s ) diag ⎢ (1 + 2 s ) ⎣
0.003(1 + 100 s ) (11 + 2 s )
0.25(1 + 20 s ) (1 + 0.1s )
0.007(1 + 100 s ) ⎤ ⎥ (1 + 0.55 s) ⎦ (G.18)
As p and r are both measured with similar gyroscopes, their sensor noise weights are assumed to be identical. The actuators are represented by the elevon u e and the rudder u r . The actuator weights are Wact = diag ⎡⎣We
Wr ⎤⎦
(G.19)
where
We =
1 1 − 1.732 (s / 173) + (s / 173)2 1 + 1.44(s / 14) + (s / 14)2 1 + 1.732 (s / 173) + (s / 173)2
(G.20a)
Wr =
1 1 − 1.732 (s / 173) + (s / 173)2 2 1 + 1.5(s / 21) + (s / 21) 1 + 1.732 (s / 173) + (s / 173)2
(G.20b)
The performance weights are ⎡ 0.8(1 + s ) W perf = diag ⎢ ⎣ (1 + 10 s )
500 (1 + s ) (1 + 100 s )
250 (1 + s ) ⎤ (1 + 100 s ) ⎥⎦
(G.21)
The dynamics of the ideal model is given by Gideal (s ) =
1 1 + 1.4(s / 1.2 ) + (s / 1.2 )2
(G.22)
This page intentionally left blank
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Index A Abate studies, 76 Active suspension and active suspension systems full state feedback control, 319–320 H2 control, 285–286 optimal linear state feedback, 134–137 stochastic optimal regulator, 211–212 Actuators and actuator weights, 455 Additive uncertainty, 301, 301–304 Algebraic Riccati equation (ARE), see also Control algebraic Riccati equation (CARE); Filter algebraic Riccati equation (FARE); Riccati equation double integrator system, 385 infinite final time, 132 robustness, 253 Analog computer simulation diagram, 7–8 Anderson and Moore studies, 127, 132, 203, 239–242, 257 Annaswamy studies, 231 Aortic pressure observer, 182–184 ARE, see Algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) Armaturecontrolled DC motor, 128–132, 129 Artificial heart, 182–184 Asada and Slotine studies, 377, 387 Astrom studies, 86 Athans, Lublin and, studies, 390 Athans studies, 217, 259–260, 268, 440 Attractive condition, 377 Autocorrelation function, 436–437 Autocorrelation matrix, 441 Autocovariance function, 437 Autocovariance matrix, 441 Autonomous system, 115–123 Available bandwidth, 345
B Balancing a pointer, 82–85, 190–191 Balas studies, 225 Banavar and Dominic studies, 233 Bangbang control, 160, 160, 168 BassGura formula, 82, 85
Benchmark robust control controller, structured singular values analysis, 360–364 modeling errors impact, 223–224, 226–228 Bernstein, Wie and, studies, 223–224 Bicycle dynamics, 86–89 Biegler studies, 117, 120 Bode’s sensitivity integrals, 345–351 Bounded real lemma, 273, 275–278, see also Lemmas Braatz and Morari studies, 360 Bryson studies, 142–143 Bucy, Kalman and, studies, 182 Butterworth configuration, 142
C Cannon and Schmitz studies, 232 Canonical form, similarity transformations, 30–31 CARE, see Control algebraic Riccati equation (CARE) Cascaded linear systems, 4 Cases controller design, 335–336 linear quadratic regulator, 132–137 minimumtime control, 158–159 small gain theorem, 295–297 CayleyHamilton theorem, 23, 65 Chen, Seo and, studies, 423 Chen studies, 423 Chiang and Safanov studies, 336, 338, 366, 432 Closedloop observer aortic pressure observer, 182–184 artificial heart, 182–184 detectability, 181 disturbance observer, 184–186 fundamentals, 180, 181 multipleoutput system, 182 observer gain vector determination, 181–182 observer pole locations, 182–186 proof, 181 singleoutput system, 181–182 theorem, 181 Closedloops optimal control, linear quadratic regulator, 126–127
457
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system dynamics, linear quadratic Gaussian control, 218–219 transfer function, state feedback effect, 80–89 Column operations, 50–51 Columnreduced matrix, 38 Column space, 409 Combined observercontroller, 186–191 Common right divisor, see Greatest common right divisor (GCRD) Complementary sensitivity, robustness definitions, 240 facts, 240 fundamentals, 238–242 Kalman filter, 262 Matlab programming, 247–251 multiplicative uncertainty, 246–247 proof, 240 springmass system, 247–251 structured uncertainties, 242, 242–244 unstructured uncertainties, 244, 244–251 Computations, H2 and H∞ norms, 278–283 Conditions, optimal control theory, 113–115 Conservation laws, 26, 345 Constant input disturbances, 91–95 Constant output, 89–91 Constraints Hamiltonian, autonomous system, 117–120 loop shaping, 345–351 optimality conditions, 114–115 Continuoustime Gaussian white noise vector, 201, 216 Control bicycle dynamics, 88–89 cost, symmetric root locus, 140–142 frequencyshaped linear quadratic control, 148–154 pointer balancing, 84 Control, estimated states active suspension system, 211–212 aortic pressure observer, 182–184 artificial heart, 182–184 benchmark robust control problem, 223–224, 226–228 closedloop observer, 180–186, 181 closedloop system dynamics, 218–219 combined observercontroller, 186–191 detectability, 181 disturbance observer, 184–186 double integrator system, 204–205, 212–213, 219–220 exercise problems, 228–233 flexible mode, 226–228 Kalman filter, 200–208 linear continuoustime system, 195–200 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 215–222
Matlab programming, 198–200, 205–208, 214–215, 220–221 mean, 196–197 measurement equation, 200–201, 216 modeling errors impact, 222–228 multipleoutput system, 182 objective function, 209–211, 216–219 observerbased control, 222–228 observer dynamics, 201–202 observer gain matrix determination, 182 observer gain vector determination, 181–182 openloop observer, 179–180 optimal regulator, 208–215 pointer balancing, 190–191, 191 pole locations, 182–186 proof, 181 reducedorder observer, 191–195, 193 regulator, optimal, 208–215 rigid mode, 226 robust control problem, 223–224, 226–228 simple mass, 194, 194–195, 204–205, 212–213, 219–220 singleoutput system, 181–182 springmass damper, 198 state dynamics, 200, 208, 216 steady state, 208–215 stochastic forces, 198, 204–205, 208–215 structured parametric uncertainties, 222–224 theorem, 181 unmodeled dynamics, 224–228 variance, 197 white noise response, 195–200 Control algebraic Riccati equation (CARE), 218, 264, see also Algebraic Riccati equation (ARE); Filter algebraic Riccati equation (FARE); Riccati equation Controllability matrix, 22 MIMO system, 44–46 similarity transformations, 30–31 simultaneous, 30–36 SISO system, 19–28, 25, 27 Controllability Gramian, 19 Controller, structured singular values analysis benchmark robust control, 360–364 definitions, 351–353 DK iteration, 366–367 fundamentals, 351–353 graphical interpretation, 360 Matlab programming, 364–366 performance, 354–366 properties, 351–353 robustness analysis, 353–354 singleinput, singleoutput system, 357–360
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Index synthesis, 366–367 theorems, 353–354 Controller design, 332–336 Controller form realization, 59–66 Control spillover, 225 Conversion, controller form realization, 64–66, 65 Cost of control, 140–142 Covariance matrix, 197 Crosscorrelation function, 437 Cross term, 127–132 Crossvariance function, 437
D Dahleh studies, 355 DC motor, 128–132 Definitions controller, structured singular values analysis, 351–353 H2 and H∞ norms, 269–270, 273 matrixfraction description, 49 MIMO system, 37–38, 44–45 optimization, scalar function with constraints, 443–444 sensitivity, robustness, 240 wellposedness and internal stability, 289 Degree of a square polynomial matrix, 47–49 DeltaDirac function, 439 Derivatives linear function, 421–422 quadratic function, 419–421 Detectability, closedloop observer, 181 Diagonal form, similarity transformations, 29–30 Disturbance feedforward, 320–322 Disturbance observer, 184–186 DK iteration, 366–367 Dominic, Banavar and, studies, 233 Dorato studies, 368 Double integrator and double integrator system full state feedback, linear system, 384–385 H2 control, 285, 287–288 Kalman filter, 204–205, 262 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 219–220 loop transfer recovery, 268–269 stochastic optimal regulator, 212–213 timeoptimal control, 156–160 Doyle and Stein studies, 244, 268, 382 Doyle studies, 263, 351, 451–455 Drazenovic studies, 386 Duality, state space model properties, 10 Dynamics, space shuttle reentry, 451–455
459
E Eigenvalues and eigenvectors aortic pressure observer, 184 benchmark robust control, 224 combined observercontroller, 188 diagonal form, 29–30 disturbance observer, 186 estimated states, 396 fundamentals, 415 H∞ norm, 282–283 infinite final time, 132 LQR problem, root locus plot, 139 matrix norms, 428 observability, 33–34 openloop stability, 84 single input/single output system, 358 sliding hyperplane matrix, 382 sliding mode, 378 state feedback gain matrix, multiinput system, 99–112, 102 symmetric matrix, 418 Electric ventricular assist device (EVAD), 182–184, 183 Electronics navigation, 101–108, 102, 108–112 Elementary column/row operations, 50–51 Energy control, minimum, 128–132 Equations solutions, state space description, 12–14 Equivalence, H∞ control, 325, 328–332 Equivalent control, sliding mode, 378 Estimated states, control active suspension system, 211–212 aortic pressure observer, 182–184 artificial heart, 182–184 benchmark robust control problem, 223–224, 226–228 closedloop observer, 180–186, 181 closedloop system dynamics, 218–219 combined observercontroller, 186–191 detectability, 181 disturbance observer, 184–186 double integrator system, 204–205, 212–213, 219–220 exercise problems, 228–233 flexible mode, 226–228 Kalman filter, 200–208 linear continuoustime system, 195–200 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 215–222 Matlab programming, 198–200, 205–208, 214–215, 220–221 mean, 196–197 measurement equation, 200–201, 216 modeling errors impact, 222–228 multipleoutput system, 182
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Linear Systems: Optimal and Robust Control
objective function, 209–211, 216–219 observerbased control, 222–228 observer dynamics, 201–202 observer gain matrix determination, 182 observer gain vector determination, 181–182 openloop observer, 179–180 optimal regulator, 208–215 pointer balancing, 190–191, 191 pole locations, 182–186 proof, 181 reducedorder observer, 191–195, 193 regulator, optimal, 208–215 rigid mode, 226 robust control problem, 223–224, 226–228 simple mass, 194, 194–195, 204–205, 212–213, 219–220 singleoutput system, 181–182 springmass damper, 198 state dynamics, 200, 208, 216 steady state, 208–215 stochastic forces, 198, 204–205, 208–215 structured parametric uncertainties, 222–224 theorem, 181 unmodeled dynamics, 224–228 variance, 197 white noise response, 195–200 Estimated states, robust control, 394–396 EVAD, see Electric ventricular assist device (EVAD) Exercise problems estimated states control, 228–233 robust control, 367–376, 402–403 state feedback control and optimization, 167–178 state space description, 73–77 Existence theorems, 156, see also Theorems
F Facts derivatives, 419, 421 full state feedback control, 317 gain margin, 257 H2 and H∞ norms, 274, 279–280 linear function, 421 matrix norms, 428 multiinput system, 257 optimization, scalar function with constraints, 444–445 phase margin, 257 positive definite matrix, 419 positive semidefinite matrix, 419 positive semidefinite quadratic function, 418 quadratic function, 419
robust control, sliding mode methods, 396 sensitivity, robustness, 240 single input, single output case, 139 state space description, 40 wellposedness and internal stability, 289–290 Feedback, see State feedback control and optimization Filter algebraic Riccati equation (FARE), see also Algebraic Riccati equation (ARE); Control algebraic Riccati equation (CARE); Riccati equation linear quadratic Gaussian control, 218, 264 observer dynamics, 203 Firstorder system, 132–134 Flexible mode, 226–228 Flexible/rigid modes system, 161–163 Flexible tetrahedral truss structure, 390–392, 447–449, see also Uncertain tetrahedral truss structure Forbidden unit circle, 255, 255 Fourier integrals, 422–425, see also Inverse Fourier transformations Frequencyshaped linear quadratic control fundamentals, 148–151 harmonic oscillator, 151–154 standard control, 152 standard linear quadratic control, 152 Friedland studies, 19 Fujita studies, 229, 375 Full state feedback, control H∞ control, 314–322 H2 control, 283, 283–286 state feedback control and optimization, 108–112 Full state feedback, linear system double integrator system, 384–385 fundamentals, 379–380 helicopter, 382–383 optimal sliding mode controller, 383–385 sliding hyperplane matrix, 380–383 Full state feedback, uncertain linear system flexible tetrahedral truss structure, 390–392 H∞ method, 386–394 impact, uncertainties, 387–388 Matlab programming, 392–394 sliding hyperplane matrix computation, 388–394 uncertain tetrahedral truss structure, 392–394
G Gain margin multiinput system, 257–260 single input system, LQR, 254–256
9217_book.fm Page 461 Tuesday, December 19, 2006 10:44 AM
Index Gain matrix computation, multiinput system, 95–99 Gain vector computation, 80–85, 82 GCRD, see Greatest common right divisor (GCRD) Gopal studies, 92, 156, 160, 409–416 Gramian determinant, 414 Gramian observability and matrix, 19–21 Graphical interpretation, 360 Greatest common right divisor (GCRD), 47–49, 51–57 Greatest lower bound, 433 Green and Limebeer studies, 278 Guaranteed norm, 322–324 Gupta studies, 148 Gyro box, 101–108, 102, 108–112
H Hamiltonian autonomous system, 115–123 H∞ norm, 281 linear quadratic trajectory control, 144 linear timeinvariant system, 154 LQR problem, root locus plot, 138 minimumtime control, 154, 167–168 optimality, 114 timeoptimal control, 157 Harmonic oscillator, 151–154 H∞ control active suspension system, 319–320 cases, 335–336 controller design, 332–336 disturbance feedforward, 320–322 equivalence, 325, 328–332 facts, 317 full state feedback control, 314–322 guaranteed norm, 322–324 imaginary axis, 336–337 lemma, 325, 328, 330, 332, 334 output feedback control, 324–336 poles, imaginary axis, 336–337 proof, 317, 325–332, 334–335 simple mass, 317–319 stability, 328–332 state estimation, 322–324 theorems, 325 zeros, imaginary axis, 336–337 H2 control active suspension system, 285–286 double integrator system, 285, 287–288 full state feedback H2 control, 283, 283–286 output feedback H2 control, 286, 286–288 simple mass, 287–288
461 Helicopter, 382–383 High cost of control, 140 H∞ method, 386–394 Homogeneous equation, 12–13 Hughes studies, 146
I Imaginary axis, 336–337 Impact, uncertainties, 387–388 Independent vectors, 65 Inequality for robustness test, 237–238 Infinimum, 432–433 Infinite final time, 132–137 Inhomogeneous equation, 13–14 Inman, Schultz and, studies, 101–108 Innovation process, 203 Input loop transfer matrix, 288 Input return difference matrix, 288 Inputs and constraints, 114–115 Input shaping, 163–168 Integral action, 91–95 Integral output feedback, 94–95 Intensity matrix Kalman filter, 200 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 216 optimal sliding mode Gaussian control, 397 stochastic optimal regulator, 208 Internal stability, 288–292 Inverse Fourier transformations, 422, 439, see also Fourier integrals Inverse Laplace transformations, see also Laplace transformations H2 and H∞ norms, 269, 278 inhomogeneous equation, 13–14 state space equations, 12 Irreducible matrixfraction description, 71
K Kailath studies balancing a pointer, 82 closedloop observer, 180–181 combined observercontroller, 189 controller form realization, 59, 65 degree of a square polynomial matrix, 47, 49 duality, 10 greatest common right divisor, 51 infinite final time, 132 integral action, 93, 96–97 low cost of control, 142 LQR problem, root locus plot, 139 minimal order, state space realization, 58
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multiinput/multioutput systems, 38–40 nonzero and constant output, 90 openloop observer, 179 reducedorder observer, 191, 193 row and column operations, 50 simultaneous controllability and observability, 32 Smith form, 66 SmithMcMillan form, 67 stability analysis, 72 state feedback gain matrix, 100 state feedback gain vector, 81 state space realization nonuniqueness, 11 zeros of the closedloop transfer function, 86 Kalman and Bucy studies, 182 Kalman filter double integrator system, 204–205 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 217 linear quadratic regulator feedback loops, 260–263, 261, 263–264 loop transfer recovery, 265 Matlab programming, 205–208 measurement equation, 200–201 observer dynamics, 201–202 observer pole locations, 182 optimal sliding mode Gaussian control, 397 simple mass, 204–205 state dynamics, 200 stochastic disturbances, 204–205 threedisk system, 399 Kao and Sinha studies, 394 Kao studies, 447 Kar studies, 370 Kirchoff’s law, 128 Kitada studies, 372 Kuo studies, 4, 128, 140, 163 Kwakernaak and Sivan studies, 132, 138, 266, 288, 440
L Lack of guaranteed robustness, 263–265 Lagrange multiplier, 202, 210 Laminar pipe flow, 26 Laplace transformations, see also Inverse Laplace transformations bicycle dynamics, 87 inhomogeneous equation, 13 Kalman filter, 260 noncolocated sensor and actuator, 143 robustness, 252 scalar signal, 422–423 SISO system, 3–4, 11 state space equations, 12
Law of conservation of mass, 26 Least upper bound, 433 Lemmas constant input disturbances, 92 controller design, 334 equivalence of stability systems, 328, 330, 332 H2 and H∞ norms, 273, 275–278 matrix inversion lemma, 415–416 MIMO system, 38 observer dynamics, 202–203 output feedback H∞ control, 325 stochastic optimal regulator, 210 LFT, see Linear fractional transformation (LFT) Limebeer, Green and, studies, 278 Linear algebraic equations, system, 409–414 Linear continuoustime system, white noise response fundamentals, 195–196 Matlab programming, 198–200 mean, 196–197 springmass damper, 198 stochastic forces, 198 variance, 197 Linear fractional transformation (LFT) structured uncertainties, robust control, 304–308, 305–306, 308 uncertainties impact, 388 Linear independence, vectors, 409, 414 Linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control closedloop system dynamics, 218–219 double integrator, 268–269 double integrator system, 219–220 fundamentals, 215 lack of guaranteed robustness, 263–265 loop transfer recovery, 265–269 Matlab programming, 220–221, 313–314 measurement equation, 216 objective function, 216–219 proof, 266–268 simple mass, 219–220, 268–269 state dynamics, 216 theorems, 266 Linear quadratic maximization problem, 275–278 Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) active suspension, 134–137 closedloop optimal control, 126–127 cost of control, 140–142 cross term, 127–132 DC motor, 128–132 energy control, minimum, 128–132 fact, 139 firstorder system, 132–134 fundamentals, 123–137 high cost of control, 140 infinite final time, 132–137
9217_book.fm Page 463 Tuesday, December 19, 2006 10:44 AM
Index low cost of control, 140–142 minimum energy control, 128–132 noncolocated sensor/actuator, 142–143 objective function, 127–132 openloop optimal control, 124–126 optimal linear state feedback, 134–137 sensor, noncolocated, 142–143 SISO system, 137–143 symmetric root locus, 139–142 Linear quadratic regulator (LQR), feedback loops fundamentals, 252, 252–254 gain margin, 254–260 Kalman filter, 260–263, 261, 263–264 linear quadratic regulator, 252–263 multiinput system, 257–260 phase margin, 254–260 proof, 253–254, 258 simple mass, 255–256, 262–263 singleinput system, 254–256 special case, 259 Linear quadratic trajectory control fundamentals, 143–146, 147 sun tracking solar concentrations, 146–148 Linear state feedback, optimal, 134–137 Linear systems, full state feedback double integrator system, 384–385 fundamentals, 379–380 helicopter, 382–383 optimal sliding mode controller, 383–385 sliding hyperplane matrix, 380–383 Linear systems, robust control, 394–396 Linear timeinvariant system, minimumtime control cases, 158–159 double integrator system, 156–160 existence theorems, 156 flexible/rigid modes system, 161–163 fundamentals, 154–155 harmonic oscillator, 151–154 input shaping, 163–168 linear timeinvariant system, 154–168 normality, linear systems, 155–156 optimality, 166–168 rigid body timeoptimal control, 156–160 rigid/flexible modes system, 161–163 theorems, 156 timeoptimal control, 156–160 time optimality, 166–168 uniqueness theorems, 156 Loop shaping Bode’s sensitivity integrals, 345–351 constraints, 345–351 H∞ control, 337–344 Matlab programming, 343–344, 348–351 performance/robustness tradeoff, 337–344
463 singleinput singleoutput system, 345–351 threedisk system, 340–343 X29 aircraft, 347–351 Loop transfer recovery (LTR) double integrator, 268–269 lack of guaranteed robustness, 263–265 loop transfer recovery, 265–269 proof, 266–268 simple mass, 268–269 theorems, 266 Low cost of control, 140–142 Lowell and McKell studies, 86 Lower linear fractional transformation, 305–306 LQG, see Linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control LTR, see Loop transfer recovery (LTR) Lublin and Athans studies, 390 Lyapunov equation H2 and H∞ norms, 279–280 H∞ control, 316–317 observer dynamics, 203 stability analysis, 72 stochastic optimal regulator, 210 white noise response, linear continuoustime system, 197–198
M Maciejowski studies, 236, 432 Matlab commands lyap, 281 normh2, 281 normhinf, 283 null, 382 sigma, 237 Matlab programming approximate Gaussian white noise generation, 439, 440 Bode’s sensitivity integrals, 343–344 electronics navigation, 108–112 full state feedback control, 108–112 Gaussian white noise generation, 439, 440 gyro box, 108–112 Kalman filter, 205–208 linear quadratic control, 313–314 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 220–221, 247–251 linear system, white noise response, 198–200 loop shaping, 343–344 sensitivity, robustness, 247–251 springmass system, 247–251 stochastic optimal regulator, 214–215 structured singular values analysis, 364–366
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structured uncertainties, robust control, 313–314 tetrahedral truss structure, uncertain, 392–394 uncertain tetrahedral truss structure, 392–394 white noise generation, 439, 440 white noise response, linear system, 198–200 X29 aircraft, 348–351 Matlab routines aresolv, 392 augtf, 347 fitd, 367 hinf, 342 hinfopt, 347, 363, 367 lyap, 198 ODE23, 133 ODE45, 133 randn, 439 ssv, 367 Matrices norms, 427–429 range, 409 similar, 11 singular values, 429 Matrixfraction description (MFD) controller form realization, 59–66 degree, square polynomial matrix, 47–49 fundamentals, 46–47 greatest common right divisor, 47–49 gyro box, 103 minimal order, state space realization, 57–59 similarity transformation, 64–66, 66 square polynomial matrix, 47–49 state space, 59–64, 71 transfer function matrix, 57–59 Matrix inversion lemma controller design, 334 fundamentals, 415–416 loop transfer recovery, 266–267 Maximization, optimality conditions, 115 Maximum distance, 117–123 Maximum singular values, 431–432 McKell, Lowell and, studies, 86 Mean, 196–197, 441 Measurement equation Kalman filter, 200–201 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 216 optimal sliding mode Gaussian control, 396–397 Meditch studies, 439 Methods controllability, 24–25, 45–46 H2 and H∞ norms, 278–280 observability, 16–17, 32–36, 45–46 SISO system, 5–9
state space realization, 5–9, 16–17, 24–25, 32–36 transfer function matrix, 40–44 MFD, see Matrixfraction description (MFD) Miller, Sinha and, studies, 384, 395–397, 400 MIMO, see Multiinput/multioutput systems (MIMO) Minimal order, state space description, 57–59 Minimization, optimality conditions, 114 Minimum energy control, 128–132 Minimum singular values, 431–432 Minimumtime control, linear timeinvariant system cases, 158–159 double integrator system, 156–160 existence theorems, 156 flexible/rigid modes system, 161–163 fundamentals, 154–155 harmonic oscillator, 151–154 input shaping, 163–168 linear timeinvariant system, 154–168 normality, linear systems, 155–156 optimality, 166–168 rigid body timeoptimal control, 156–160 rigid/flexible modes system, 161–163 theorems, 156 timeoptimal control, 156–160 time optimality, 166–168 uniqueness theorems, 156 Modal compatibility, 82 Modeling errors impact benchmark robust control, 223–224, 226–228 flexible mode, 226–228 rigid mode, 226 structured parametric uncertainties, 222–224 unmodeled dynamics, 224–228 Model properties, state space description, 10–11 Moore, Anderson and, studies, 127, 132, 203, 239–242, 257 Morari, Braatz and, studies, 360 Multiinput/multioutput systems (MIMO) analog computer simulation diagram, 43 Bode’s sensitivity integrals, 346 columnreduced matrix, 38 definitions, 37–38, 44–45 frequencyshaped LQ control, 150 fundamentals, 36–37 lemma, 38 methods, 45–46 poles and zeros, 66–71 Smith form, 66–67 SmithMcMillan form, 67–71 transfer function matrix, 66–71
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Index Multiinput system linear quadratic regulator feedback loops, 257–260 state feedback gain matrix computation, 95–99 Multiple output system, closedloop observer, 182 Multiplicative uncertainty sensitivity, robustness, 246–247 unstructured uncertainty, 299–301, 300, 302–304 Multivariable Parseval relation, 425
N Necessity, small gain theorem, 293–295 Newton’s second law of motion bicycle dynamics, 86 DC motor, minimum energy control, 129 gyro box, 101 pointer balancing, 83 No constraint on input, 114 Noncolocated sensor/actuator, 142–143 Nonsingular polynomial matrix, 40 Nonuniqueness, 10–11, 49 Nonzero output, 89–91 Normality, linear systems, 155–156 Notation, SISO system state space realizations, 9 Null space (nullity), 410–414 Nyquist criterion gain and phase margins, 258 simple mass control, 256, 256–257 unstructured uncertainties, 244–245
O Objective function linear quadratic Gaussian control, 216–219 linear quadratic regulator, 127–132 stochastic optimal regulator, 209–211 Observability matrix, 16 MIMO system, 44–46 simultaneous, 31–36 SISO system, 14–19 state space realizations, 5 Observation spillover, 225 Observerbased control, 222–228 Observer dynamics, 201–202 Observer gain matrix determination, 182 Observer gain vector determination, 181–182 Observer poles, 182–186 Openloop observer, 179–180 Openloop optimal control, 124–126
465 Openloop stability, 84 Optimal control theory autonomous system, 115–123 conditions, optimality, 113–115 constraints, 114–115, 117–120 fundamentals, 112–113 Hamiltonian, 115–123 inputs and constraints, 114–115 maximization, 115 maximum distance, 117–123 minimization, 114 no constraint on input, 114 special case, 116–117 time, 117–123 travel, velocity constraints, 117–123 velocity constraints, 117–123 zeros, 120–123 Optimality, minimumtime control, 166–168 Optimal linear state feedback, 134–137 Optimal regulator, 208–215 Optimal sliding mode Gaussian (OSG) control measurement equation, 396–397 proof, 398–399 state dynamics, 396–397 theorems, 397–398 threedisk system, 399–400 Optimal sliding mode (OS) controller, 383–385 Optimization, scalar function with constraints, 443–445 OS, see Optimal sliding mode (OS) controller OSG, see Optimal sliding mode Gaussian (OSG) control Output feedback control, 286–288, 324–336 Output loop transfer matrix, 288 Output return difference matrix, 288
P Pai and Sinha studies, 388 Pao, Singhose and, studies, 163 Pao and Singhose studies, 163 Papoulis studies, 435 Parseval’s theorem frequencyshaped LQ control, 148–149 fundamentals, 422–425 H2 and H∞ norms, 269–270, 272, 275, 278 Penn State electric ventricular assist device (EVAD), 182–184, 183 Performance, controller, 354–366 Performance/robustness tradeoff, 337–344 Periodic structure, SISO system, 27–28 Phase margin multiinput system, 257–260 single input system, 254–256
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Plant noise vector, 144, see also Process noise Plant transfer matrix, 299, 301 Pointer balancing combined observercontroller, 190–191, 191 state feedback gain vector computation, 82–85 Poles closedloop transfer function, 80–85, 82 imaginary axis, 336–337 irreducible matrixfraction description, 71 locations, closedloop observer, 182–186 SmithMcMillan form, 66–71 Polynomial vectors, 38 Position output integral output feedback, 94 springmassdamper system, 17–18 springmass system, 90–91 Positive definite matrix, 419 Positive definite quadratic function, 418 Positive semidefinite matrix, 419 Positive semidefinite quadratic function, 418 Power spectrum/spectral density (PSD), 438–439, 441 Process noise, see also Plant noise vector Kalman filter, 200 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 216 optimal sliding mode Gaussian control, 396 stochastic optimal regulator, 208 Proofs closedloop observer, 181 constant input disturbances, 92–93 controller design, 334–335 derivatives, 420–422 equivalence of stability systems, 328–332 full state feedback control, 317 H2 and H∞ norms, 274–275, 279–280 linear quadratic regulator feedback loops, 253–254, 258 loop transfer recovery, 266–268 matrix inversion lemma, 415–416 matrix norms, 428–429 multivariable Parseval relation, 425 optimal sliding mode Gaussian control, 398–399 output feedback H∞ control, 325–328 scalar Parseval relation, 424 sensitivity, robustness, 240 SISO system, controllability, 22–24 wellposedness and internal stability, 289–290, 293–295 Properties, controller, 351–353
Q Quadratic functions, 417–419 Quarter car model, 134, 134
R Range of a matrix, 409 Range space, 409 Rational transfer function matrix, 37 Ray studies, 112–113, 116, 126 Reaching condition, 377 Realization, state space description, 5–11, 7–8, 16–17 Reddy studies, 432–433 Redheffer studies, 332 Reducedorder observer, 191–195, 193 References, 405–408 Regular point, 443–444 Regulator, optimal, 208–215 Repeated blocks, 351 Residual dynamics, 225 Residual vibratory mode, 302–304 Return difference equality, 252–254 Riccati equation, see also Algebraic Riccati equation (ARE); Control algebraic Riccati equation (CARE); Filter algebraic Riccati equation (FARE) closedloop optimal control, 126 controller design, 333 firstorder system, 133 stochastic optimal regulator, 210 Riccatilike equation, 390 Rigid body mode, 341–342 Rigid body timeoptimal control, 156–160 Rigid/flexible modes system, 161–163 Rigid mode, 226 Robust control active suspension system, 285–286, 319–320 additive uncertainty, 301, 301–304 benchmark robust control, 360–364 Bode’s sensitivity integrals, 345–351 bounded real lemma, 273, 275–278 cases, 295–297, 335–336 complementary sensitivity, 238–251 computations, 278–283 constraints, 345–351 controller, structured singular values analysis, 351–367 controller design, 332–336 definitions, 238–242, 269–270, 273, 289 disturbance feedforward, 320–322 DK iteration, 366–367 double integrator, 268–269, 285, 287–288
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Index equivalence, 325, 328–332 exercise problems, 367–376 facts, 240, 257, 274, 279–280, 290, 317 feedback loop, 252, 252–254 full state feedback control, 283, 283–286, 314–322 gain margin, 254–260 graphical interpretation, 360 guaranteed norm, 322–324 H2 and H∞ norms, 269–283 H∞ control, 314–337, 343–344 H2 control, 283–288 imaginary axis, 336–337 inequality, test, 237–238 internal stability, 288–292 Kalman filter, 260–263, 261, 263–264 lack of guaranteed robustness, 263–265 lemma, 273, 275–278, 325, 328, 330, 332, 334 linear fractional transformation, 304–308, 305–306, 308 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 263–269, 313–314 linear quadratic maximization problem, 275–278 linear quadratic regulator, 252–263 loop shaping, 337–351 loop transfer recovery, 265–269 lower linear fractional transformation, 305–306 Matlab programming, 247–251, 313–314, 343–344, 348–351, 364–366 methods, 278–280 modeling errors impact, 223–224, 226–228 multiinput system, 257–260 multiplicative uncertainty, 246–247, 299–301, 300, 302–304 necessity, 293–295 output feedback control, 286, 286–288, 324–336 performance, 337–344, 354–366 phase margin, 254–260 poles, imaginary axis, 336–337 residual vibratory mode, 302–304 robustness analysis, 353–354 root mean square response, 271–273 sensitivity, 238–251 significances, 270–278 simple mass, 255–256, 262–263, 268–269, 287–288, 317–319 singleinput, singleoutput system, 345–351, 357–360 singleinput system, 254–256 singular value analysis, 235–238 small gain theorem, 292–299, 313 special case, 259
467 springmass damper system, 236–237, 281, 283 springmass system, 247–251 stability, 328–332 state estimation, 322–324 state space, 291 state space model, 307–308, 308 structured parametric uncertainties, 308–314 structured singular values, 351–353 structured uncertainties, 242, 242–244, 304–314 sufficiency, 293 synthesis, 366–367 threedisk system, 340–343 transfer function, 291–292 transfer function matrix, 235–237 twomass system, 311–313 uncertain stiffness, 311–313 unit impulse responses, 270–271 unstructured uncertainties, 244, 244–251, 299–304 upper linear fractional transformation, 306–307 wellposedness, 288–290 worstcase frequency response, 273–274 worstcase output or input, 274–275 X29 aircraft, 347–351 zeros, imaginary axis, 336–337 Robust control, sliding mode methods double integrator system, 384–385 estimated states, 394–396 exercise problems, 402–403 facts, 396 flexible tetrahedral truss structure, 390–392 full state feedback, 379–394 fundamentals, 377–379, 378 helicopter, 382–383 H∞ method, 386–394 impact, uncertainties, 387–388 linear systems, 379–385, 394–396 Matlab programming, 392–394 measurement equation, 396–397 optimal slide mode Gaussian control, 396–400 optimal sliding mode controller, 383–385 proof, 398–399 sliding hyperplane matrix, 380–383, 388–394 state dynamics, 396–397 theorems, 397–398 threedisk system, 399–400 uncertain linear system, 386–394 uncertain tetrahedral truss structure, 392–394 Root locus plot, SISO case cost of control, 140–142 fact, 139 noncolocated sensor/actuator, 142–143
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sensor, noncolocated, 142–143 symmetric root locus, 139–142 Root mean square response, 271–273 Row operations, 50–51 Rugh studies, 50
S Safanov, Chiang and, studies, 336, 338, 366, 432 Safanov studies, 336 Sage and White studies, 143–145 Scalar Parseval relation, 424 Schmitz, Cannon and, studies, 232 Schultz and Inman studies, 101–108 Seering, Singer and, studies, 165 Sensitivity, robustness definitions, 240 facts, 240 fundamentals, 238–242 Matlab programming, 247–251 multiplicative uncertainty, 246–247 proof, 240 springmass system, 247–251 structured uncertainties, 242, 242–244 unstructured uncertainties, 244, 244–251 Sensor, noncolocated, 142–143 Seo and Chen studies, 423 Separation property, 188 Separation theorem, 217 Shaped input, 163–168 Shultz and Inman studies, 101–108 Significances, H2 and H∞ norms, 270–278 Similarity transforms and transformations controller form realization, 64–66, 65 state space description, 29–31 Similar matrices, nonuniqueness, 11 Simple mass full state feedback control, 317–319 H2 control, 287–288 Kalman filter, 204–205, 262–263 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 219–220 linear quadratic regulator feedback loops, 255–256 loop transfer recovery, 268–269 reducedorder observer, 194, 194–195 stochastic optimal regulator, 212–213 Simultaneous controllability and observability, 31–36 Singer and Seering studies, 165 Singhose, Pao and, studies, 163 Singhose and Pao studies, 163 Singleinput/singleoutput (SISO) system Bode’s sensitivity integrals, 345–351 case, 139–142
cost of control, 140–142 duality, 10 fact, 139 methods, 5–9 multiplication uncertainty, 246–247 noncolocated sensor/actuator, 142–143 nonuniqueness, 10–11 notation, 9 observability, 14–19, 18 robustness analysis, 357–360 sensor, noncolocated, 142–143 SISO system, 137–143 state space model properties, 10–11 state space realizations, 5–12, 7–8 stationary stochastic process response, 440, 440 symmetric root locus, 139–142 transfer function, 3–5, 11–12 Singleinput system, linear quadratic regulator feedback loops, 254–256 Singleinput system, state variable feedback bicycle dynamics, 86–89 closedloop transfer function, 80–89 constant input disturbances, 91–95 constant output, 89–91 controllability, 84 fundamentals, 79–80 gain vector computation, 80–85, 82 integral action, 91–95 integral output feedback, 94–95 lemma, 92 openloop stability, 84 pointer balancing, 82–85 poles, closedloop transfer function, 80–85, 82 position output, 90–91, 94 proof, 92–93 single input system, 79–95, 80 springmass system, 90–91 velocity output, 91, 95 zeros, 85–89, 86 Singleoutput system, closedloop observer, 181–182 Singular value decomposition (SVD), 429–431 Singular values analysis, 235–238 matrix, 429 properties, 432 Sinha, Kao and, studies, 394 Sinha, Pai and, studies, 388 Sinha and Miller studies, 384, 395–397, 400 SISO, see Singleinput/singleoutput (SISO) system Sivan, Kwakernaak and, studies, 132, 138, 266, 288, 440 Sliding hyperplane matrix, 380–383, 388–394
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Index Slotine, Asada and, studies, 377, 387 Small gain theorem additive uncertainty, 302 multiplicative uncertainty, 300 robust control, 292–299 structured uncertainties, robust control, 313 Smith form, 66–67 SmithMcMillan form, 67–71 Space description, see State space Space shuttle reentry dynamics, 451–455 Special case Hamiltonian, autonomous system, 116–117 linear quadratic regulator feedback loops, 259 matrix inversion lemma, 416 Spectral radius, 353 Spillover, control and observation, 225 Springmass damper, stochastic forces, 198 Springmass damper system H2 and H∞ norms, 281, 283 integral output feedback, 94 observability matrix, 17–19 singular value analysis, 236–237 Springmass system nonzero and constant output, control, 90–91 sensitivity, robustness, 247–251 Square polynomial matrix, 47–49 Stability internal, 288–292 openloop stability, 84 output feedback H∞ control, 328–332 state space, 71–72 Staircase input, 164, 164 Standard linear quadratic control, 152 State dynamics Kalman filter, 200 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 216 optimal sliding mode Gaussian control, 396–397 stochastic optimal regulator, 208 State error dynamics, 195 State estimation, 322–324 State feedback control and optimization active suspension, 134–137 actuator, noncolocated, 142–143 autonomous system, 115–123 bicycle dynamics, 86–89 cases, 158–159 closedloop optimal control, 126–127 closedloop transfer function, 80–89 conditions, optimality, 113–115 constant input disturbances, 91–95 constant output, 89–91 constraints, 114–115, 117–120 controllability, 84 cost of control, 140–142
469 cross term, 127–132 DC motor, 128–132 double integrator system, 156–160 eigenvalues and eigenvectors, 99–112, 102 electronics navigation, 101–112 energy control, minimum, 128–132 exercise problems, 168–178 existence theorems, 156 fact, 139 firstorder system, 132–134 flexible/rigid modes system, 161–163 frequencyshaped linear quadratic control, 148–154 full state feedback control, 108–112 gain matrix computation, multiinput system, 95–112 gain vector computation, 80–85, 82 gyro box, 101–112 Hamiltonian, 115–123 harmonic oscillator, 151–154 high cost of control, 140 infinite final time, 132–137 inputs and constraints, 114–115 input shaping, 163–168 integral action, 91–95 integral output feedback, 94–95 lemma, 92 linear quadratic regulator, 123–143 linear quadratic trajectory control, 143–148, 147 linear timeinvariant system, 154–168 low cost of control, 140–142 Matlab programming, 108–112 maximization, 115 maximum distance, 117–123 minimization, 114 minimum energy control, 128–132 minimumtime control, 154–168 multiinput system, gain matrix computation, 95–112 no constraint on input, 114 noncolocated sensor/actuator, 142–143 nonzero output, 89–91 normality, linear systems, 155–156 objective function, 127–132 openloop optimal control, 124–126 openloop stability, 84 optimal control theory, 112–123 optimality, 166–168 optimal linear state feedback, 134–137 pointer balancing, 82–85 poles, closedloop transfer function, 80–85, 82 position output, 90–91, 94 proof, 92–93 rigid body timeoptimal control, 156–160
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rigid/flexible modes system, 161–163 root locus plot, 137–143 sensor, noncolocated, 142–143 single input system, 79–95, 80 SISO system, 137–143 special case, 116–117 springmass system, 90–91 standard linear quadratic control, 152 sun tracking solar concentrations, 146–148 symmetric root locus, 139–142 theorems, 156 time, 117–123 timeinvariant system, 154–168 timeoptimal control, 156–160 time optimality, 166–168 travel, velocity constraints, 117–123 uniqueness theorems, 156 variable, 79–95 velocity constraints, 117–123 velocity output, 91, 95 zeros, 85–89, 86, 120–123 State space canonical form, 30–31 column operations, 50–51 columnreduced matrix, 38 controllability, 19–28, 30–36, 44–46 controller form realization, 59–66 definitions, 37–38, 44–45, 49 degree of a square polynomial matrix, 47–49 diagonal form, 29–30 duality, 10 equations solutions, 12–14 exercise problems, 73–77 facts, 40 greatest common right divisor, 47–49, 51–57 homogeneous equation, 12–13 inhomogeneous equation, 13–14 internal stability, 291 irreducible matrixfraction description, 71 lemmas, 38 Lyapunov equation, 72 matrixfraction description, 46–66, 71 methods, 5–9, 16–17, 24–25, 32–36, 40–46 minimal order, 57–59 models, 10–11, 307–308 multiinput/multioutput systems, 36–40, 44–46, 66–71 nonuniqueness, 10–11, 49 notation, 9 observability, 14–19, 31–36, 44–46 periodic structure, 27–28 poles, 66–71 position output, 17–18 proofs, 22–24 properties, 10–11
realization, 5–11, 7–8, 16–17 row operations, 50–51 similarity transforms and transformations, 29–31, 64–66 simultaneous controllability and observability, 31–36 single input/single output system, 3–12, 14–28 Smith form, 66–67 SmithMcMillan form, 67–71 space shuttle reentry dynamics, 451–455 square polynomial matrix, 47–49 stability analysis, 71–72 structured uncertainties, 307–308, 308 theorems, 22, 32 transfer function, 3–5, 4, 11–12 transfer function matrix, 40–44, 57–59, 66–71 velocity output, 18–19 zeros, 66–71 State transition matrix, 13 State variable feedback, singleinput system bicycle dynamics, 86–89 closedloop transfer function, 80–89 constant input disturbances, 91–95 constant output, 89–91 controllability, 84 fundamentals, 79–80 gain vector computation, 80–85, 82 integral action, 91–95 integral output feedback, 94–95 lemma, 92 nonzero output, 89–91 openloop stability, 84 pointer balancing, 82–85 poles, closedloop transfer function, 80–85, 82 position output, 90–91, 94 proof, 92–93 single input system, 79–95, 80 springmass system, 90–91 velocity output, 91, 95 zeros, 85–89, 86 State variables, 6 Stationary stochastic processes, 440–441 Steady state covariance matrix, 209 error covariance, 202 estimated states control, 208–215 Stein, Doyle and, studies, 244, 268, 382 Stein studies Bode’s sensitivity integrals, 345 controller design, 335 full state feedback control, 315–316 output feedback control, 324–325 root mean square response, 272 system stability, 328, 332
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Index worstcase output/input, 274 X29 aircraft, 347 Stochastic forces and processes autocorrelation function, 436–437 autocovariance function, 437 crosscorrelation function, 437 crossvariance function, 437 fundamentals, 435 Kalman filter, 204–205 optimal regulator, steady state, 208–215 power spectrum/spectral density, 438–439 springmass damper, 198 stationary, 435–438, 440–441 uncorrelated processes, 438 vectors, 440–441 white noise, 439 Strang studies, 380, 384, 409–416, 418–419 Strictly proper transforms, 269 Structured parametric error, 222 Structured parametric uncertainties modeling errors impact, 222–224 structured uncertainties, robust control, 308–314 Structured uncertainties sensitivity, robustness, 242, 242–244 structured uncertainties, robust control, 304–314 Structured uncertainties, robust control linear fractional transformation, 304–308, 305–306, 308 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 313–314 lower linear fractional transformation, 305–306 Matlab programming, 313–314 small gain theorem, 313 state space model, 307–308, 308 structured parametric uncertainties, 308–314 structured uncertainties, 304–314 twomass system, 311–313 uncertain stiffness, 311–313 upper linear fractional transformation, 306–307 Strunce studies, 447 Sufficiency, small gain theorem, 293 Sun tracking solar concentrations, 146–148 Supremum, 432–433 SVD, see Singular value decomposition (SVD) Symmetric root locus, 139–142 Synthesis, controller, 366–367 System, linear algebraic equations, 409–414
T Tankpipe system, 25
471 Taylor series expansion, 116 Theorems closedloop observer, 181 H2 and H∞ norms, 281–283 linear quadratic Gaussian control, 217 loop transfer recovery, 266 minimumtime control, 156 null space (nullity), 410–414 optimal sliding mode Gaussian control, 397–398 output feedback H∞ control, 325 robustness analysis, 353–354 separation, 217 simultaneous controllability and observability, 32 SISO system, controllability, 22 Thompson studies, 134, 137 Threedisk system, 340–343, 399–400 Time, 117–123, 132–137 Timeoptimal control, 156–160 Time optimality, 166–168 Toeplitz matrix, upper triangular, 81 TPBVP, see Twopoint boundary value problem (TPBVP) Transfer function and transfer function matrix internal stability, 291–292 MFD, minimal order, 57–59 poles and zeros, MIMO, 66–71 singular value analysis, 235–237 state space, 3–5, 4, 11–12, 40–44 Travel, velocity constraints, 117–123 Triangular Toeplitz matrix, upper, 81 Tsach studies, 182–183 Twodegreeoffreedom system, 142, 142 Twomass system, 311–313 Twopoint boundary value problem (TPBVP), 125–126
U Uncertain linear system, full state feedback flexible tetrahedral truss structure, 390–392 H∞ method, 386–394 impact, uncertainties, 387–388 Matlab programming, 392–394 sliding hyperplane matrix computation, 388–394 uncertain tetrahedral truss structure, 392–394 Uncertain stiffness, 311–313 Uncertain tetrahedral truss structure, 392–394, see also Flexible tetrahedral truss structure Uncorrelated stochastic processes, 438 Unimodularity, 49, 51
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Uniqueness theorems, 156 Unit impulse responses, 270–271 Unmodeled dynamics, 224–228 Unstructured uncertainty additive uncertainty, 301, 301–304 fundamentals, 299 multiplicative uncertainty, 299–301, 300, 302–304 residual vibratory mode, 302–304 sensitivity, robustness, 244, 244–251 Upper linear fractional transformation, 306–307 Upper triangular Toeplitz matrix, 81 Utkin and Yang studies, 380–381 Utkin studies, 377
V Variables, state space realizations, 6 Variance, 197, 441 Vectors independence, 65 linear independence, 409, 414 norms, 427 polynomial, multiinput/multioutput systems, 38 signal, 424–425 singular value decomposition, 431–432 stationary stochastic processes, 440–441 Velocity constraints, 117–123 Velocity output integral output feedback, 95 springmass damper system, 18–19 springmass system, 91 Vidyasagar studies, 274, 427–428
W Wellposedness, 288–290 White, Sage and, studies, 143–145 White noise response, linear continuoustime system fundamentals, 195–196, 439 Matlab programming, 198–200 mean, 196–197 springmass damper, 198
stochastic forces, 198 variance, 197 Wiberg studies, 8 Wie and Bernstein studies, 223–224 Worstcase frequency response, 273–274 Worstcase output or input, 274–275
X X29 aircraft, 347–351
Y Yang, Utkin and, studies, 380–381 Yang studies, 176
Z Zeromean Gaussian white noise, 198 Zeromean white noise inputs, 273 Zeromean white noise vector, 196, see also White noise response, linear continuoustime system Zeros closedloop transfer function, 85–89, 86 imaginary axis, 336–337 irreducible matrixfraction description, 71 SmithMcMillan form, 66–71 state feedback control and optimization, 120–123 Zhou studies Bode’s sensitivity integrals, 345–346 detectability, 181 DK iteration, 366 H∞ norm, 282 linear fractional transformation, 304 robustness analysis, 354 scalar function optimization, 443–445 singular value decomposition, 429 singular values, 351, 432 sliding hyperplane matrix, 390 small gain theorem, 293 structured parametric uncertainties, 308–309 structured singular values, 351 wellposedness, internal stability, 288–292