Государственное образовательное учреждение профессионального высшего образования УЛЬЯНОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
Go For Your Business English МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
для студентов 2-го курса всех специальностей дневного отделения экономико-математического факультета
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования УЛЬЯНОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
Go For Your Business English МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
для студентов 2-го курса всех специальностей дневного отделения экономико-математического факультета
Составители: Н. Н. Новосельцева Л. В. Корухова
УДК 802(076) ББК 81.2 Англ я7 Г 74 Рецензент доцент кафедры «Иностранные филологических наук, доцент Пятышина Т. Г.
Одобрено секцией методических пособий научно-методического совета университета.
Go for your Business English: Методические указания для студентов 2-го курса всех специальностей экономико-математического факультета дневного отделения / Cост.: Н. Н. Новосельцева, Л. В. Корухова. – Ульяновск: УлГТУ, 2006. – 52 с. Указания составлены в соответствии с программой курса английского языка для высшей школы. Цель пособия – подготовка студентов 2-го курса к экзамену по английскому языку. Данное пособие построено на материале современных текстов и диалогов английских и американских авторов. Оно состоит из двух частей. В первой части даны 10 экзаменационных тем с послетекстовыми упражнениями для закрепления материала. Во второй части представлен дополнительный материал по экономической тематике, который включает тексты для изучающего чтения, ряд диалогов, лексические задания. Включены также упражнения и задания, направленные на развитие навыков устной речи. Работа подготовлена на кафедре «Иностранные языки».
Money is used for buying or selling goods, for measuring value and for storing wealth. Almost every society now has a money economy based on coins and paper notes of one kind or another. However, this has not always been true. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the marketplace that they considered to be of equal value. Barter, however, was a very unsatisfactory system because people’s precise needs seldom coincided. People needed a more practical system of exchange, and various money systems developed based on goods which the members of a society recognized as having value. Cattle, grain, teeth, shells, feathers, skulls, salt, elephant tusks and tobacco have all been used. Precious metals gradually took over because, when made into coins, they were portable, durable, recognizable and divisible into larger and smaller units of value. A coin is a piece of metal, usually disc-shaped, which bears lettering, designs or numbers showing its value. Until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries coins were given monetary worth based on the exact amount of metal contained in them, but most modern coins are based on face value, the value that governments choose to give them, irrespective of the actual metal content. Coins have been made of gold, silver, copper, aluminium, nickel, lead, zinc, plastic, and in China even from pressed tea leaves. Most governments now issue paper money in the form of notes, which are really “promises to pay”. Paper money is obviously easier to handle and much more convenient in the modern world. Cheques, bankers’ cards, and credit cards are being used increasingly and it is possible to imagine a world where “money” in the form of coins and paper currency will no longer be used. Even today, in the United States, many places-especially filling stations - will not accept cash at night for security reasons.
Look after the pennies, and the pounds will look after themselves.
1 Find expressions which mean: 1. A place to buy petrol. 2. A place where goods are bought and sold. 3. The period between 1801 and 1900. 4. The bony structure of the head. 5. Round and flat in shape. 6. An exchange of goods for other goods. 7. The system or type of money that a country uses 8. To officially produce something such as new stamps, coins etc.
2 Find words which mean: 1. Can be divided. 2. Lasts a long time. 3. Can be carried. 4. Can be recognized. 5. Regardless of
3 Complete the sentences below: 1. The ... of Japan is the yen. 2. She has got a lot of ... in her bank account. 3. It costs £10 if you’re paying ... . It’ll be more if you pay by cheque. 4. Can you change this pound note into ... for the coffee machine?
4 Money is used for buying goods means: You can buy goods with it. Write similar sentences which mean: 1. You can measure value with it. 2. You can store wealth with it. 3. You can sell things for it.
“Neither a borrower nor a lender be.”( William Shakespeare)
5 Money is used for buying and selling goods. People use money for buying and selling goods. Change these sentences in the same way. 1. A system of barter was used. 2. Cattle, grain and tobacco have all been used. 3. Paper currency will no longer be used. 4. Cheques, bankers’cards and credit cards are being used.
6 Somebody could exchange a sheep. A sheep could be exchanged. Change the sentences in the same way. 1. People needed a more practical system. 2. Most governments now issue paper money in the form of notes. 3. Filling stations will not accept cash at night.
7 Money is used for buying things. Shampoo is used for washing your hair. Make sentences with: knife / pen/ key/ camera/ suitcase/ saucepan/ toothpaste/ detergent/ wallet/ hair-dryer
8 A place where you can fill your petrol tank is a filling station. Complete these sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
A special room where you can wait is a ... . A pill which helps you to sleep is a ... . A licence which allows you to drive is a ... . A glove which boxers wear is a ... . Oil you can cook with is ... . A pool where you can swim is a ... . Special liquid you can wash up with is ... . A boat with sails is a ... .
A fool and his money are soon parted.
Working relationships 1 What sort of problems can arise in relationships between people who work together? Discuss your ideas. 2 Read the text and decide which of the following titles would suit it best: • Dealing with conflicts • Rules of relationships • Managing your staff Getting on well with colleagues, as anyone who works in an office knows, is a vital element in our working lives. Many office jobs involve a great deal of time spent talking. One British study of 160 managers, for example, found that they spent between one third and 90 per cent of their time with other people. “Working relationships”, write social psychologist Michael Argyle and Monika Henderson, “are first brought about by the formal system of work, but are elaborated in several ways by informal contacts of different kinds... It is essential for such relationships to develop if co-operation at work is to succeed.” And good relationships at work, research shows, are one of the main sources of job satisfaction and well-being. Are there any “rules of relationships” that might be useful as general markers of what to do and what not to do in your dealings with others? “Universal rules”: Michael Argule and his collegues have found that there are such rules. Through interviews with people they generated a number of possible rules. Then they asked others to rate how important those rules were in twenty-two different kinds of relationships. These included relationships with spouses, close friends, siblings and work colleagues as well as relationships between work subordinates and their superiors. The researchers discovered five ”universal” rules that applied to over half of all these relationships: 1. Respect the other’s privacy. 2. Look the other person in the eye during conversation. 3. Do not discuss what has been said in confidence with the other person. 4. Do not criticise the other person publicly. 5. Repay debts, favours or compliments no matter how small. This doesn’t mean that nobody breaks these rules, as we all know- it just means that they are seen as important.
Live now - pay later.
Work rules: As well as these general guidelines for keeping good relationships, Argyle and his associates questioned people about rules that apply very specifically to work settings. In addition to the “universal” rules they came up with the nine “rules for coworkers”: 1. Accept one’s fair share of the workload. 2. Be cooperative with regard to the shared physical working conditions (e.g. light, temperature, noise). 3. Be willing to help when requested. 4. Work cooperatively despite feelings of dislike. 5. Don’t denigrate co-workers to superiors. 6. Address the co-workers by first name. 7. Ask for help and advice when necessary. 8. Don’t be over-inquisitive about each other’s private lives. 9. Stand up for the co-worker in his/her absence. In one of the studies, Monika Henderson, Michael Argyle and co-workers defined four categories of work relationships: 1. Social friends: “friends in the normal sense who are known through work and seen at social events outside the work setting”. Research shows that up to a quarter of friends are made through work. 2. Friends at work: “friends who interact together over work or socially at work, but who are not invited home and do not engage in joint leisure activities outside the work setting”. 3. Work-mates: ”people at work seen simply through formal work contacts and with whom interactions are relatively superficial and task-oriented, and not characterised by either liking or dislike” 4. Conflict relations:”work colleagues who are actively disliked” Argyle and Co. have come up with a special list of endorsed ”rules for people we can’t get on with”. The main ones are: 1. Respect each other’s privacy. 2. Strive to be fair in relations with one another. 3. Don’t discuss what is said in confidence. 4. Don’t feel free to take up as much of the other’s time as one desires. 5. Don’t denigrate the other behind their back. 6. Don’t ignore the other person. 7. Repay debts, favours or compliments no matter how small. 8. Look the other person in the eye during conversation. 9. Don’t display hypocritical liking.
The customer is always right.
Argyle and Henderson also suggest: “Another approach to resolving interpersonal conflicts is increasing the amount of communication between those involved, so that each side comes to understand and to trust the other more. Suspition and hostility are increased by ignorance of what the other is up to.” 1 Which of the social skills mentioned in the text and listed below as A-I apply to: 1. relationships in general 2. relationships in the workplace 3. relationships with working colleagues you don’t like very much A B C D E F G H I
respect for personal privacy ability to be fair maintenance of eye contact while talking avoidance of public criticism repayment of debts, favours, etc. willingness to ask for and be asked for help respect for confidentiality use of first names recognition of the other person
2 Look at the vocabulary items below and sort them into two groups according to whether they normally carry a positive or negative connotation. hypocritical satisfaction superficial
e.g. positive: interesting, ... negative: problem, ... 3 Change each of the following adjectives by adding the appropriate negative prefix. Would you use any of the adjectives to describe yourself to your partner? interesting satisfied
essential personal comfortable social fair formal specific normal cooperative willing
4 Answer the question: Do you agree with the rules mentioned in the article?
“Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure nineteen nineteen and six, result happiness. Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure twenty pounds ought and six, result misery.”(Charles Dickens)
So you want to be a success? 1 Read the article “So you want to be a success’’ and note down at least nine things it mentions as contributing to success. Compare your answers.
We live in a society increasingly obsessed with material success. We are exhorted to “Get on!” “Get ahead!” “Get a step on the ladder!” “Make it to the top!” If you don’t prosper, it’s easy to feel like a flop, that you’ve wasted your life and failed your family. But is such success open to all? Do we all have the potential to be millionaires, and can success be taught? What can we learn from those who do make it to the top? Becoming a millionaire is a surprisingly haphazard affair. At school we are told that if we work hard and pass exams we will do well. But a recent study by Professor Cary Cooper, of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, refutes this advice. When we studied the lives of successful entrepreneurs, he found that nearly 60 per cent left school early either because they were thrown out or were “bored”. Other studies suggest there is little correlation between how well children do at school and the salary and job satisfaction they achieve as adults. The most certain route to riches is to start out wealthy. Over half the people in the most recent Sunday Times survey of the richest 200 people in the country inherited money. Twenty-five per cent of those who head large corporations were born into affluent families. If you are not born wealthy, you may be able to capitalise on another advantage: good looks. “Good looks make early life easier. Teachers and other children will expect you to be kinder, cleverer and to do better than plainer peers,” explains Dr Raymond Bull of Portsmouth University, expert on the effects of facial appearance. Being tall is also an advantage. Other qualities being equal, employers are more likely to select taller and more attractive people. However, unless you want to work with children, it can be a handicap having too pretty a baby face. You are likely to be regarded as kind, but not very efficient. You may fare better by taking to crime - juries are far more likely to acquit you. In a new book, Business Elites, Professor Cooper compares a number of successful entrepreneurs with people Cooper calls entrepreneurs. He defines intrapreneurs as those who rise through the ranks to the top of large corporations. Cooper found major differences between the two groups. “Intrapreneurs tended to be the kinds everyone thought would do well. Over half went to university, they are good organisers and get on well with people.” Cooperation, not competition, is the life of business.
But the entrepreneurs often had early reputations as trouble-makers. “They probably left school early, had several business disasters and are awkward personalities. They are also intuitive and very determined.” The most dramatic difference between entrepreneurs and corporation highfliers was that only five per cent of Cooper’s entrepreneurs had both parents present throughout childhood, compared with 91 per cent of the intrapreneurs. In some cases the parent had died, in others they had been absent for long periods. “Coping with disaster early in life appears to give people vital resilience later on,” suggests Cooper. Nearly half of Cooper’s entrepreneurs also felt that they had been the victims of discrimination early on - some were Jewish, some were immigrants, some were just physically small. But even if you are born poor and ugly to parents who refuse to absent themselves from you, there’s still plenty you can do to influence your chance of success. A range of courses and self-help manuals are available to help you forge your way to the top. Go into any large bookshop and you’ll find a section with titles such as The Magic of Thinking Big, or Riches While You Sleep. There’s even a magazine called Personal Success, filled with ads for courses that will “unleash the power within” or “transform your thinking, behaviour and relationships”. “Successful people,” says Breen, an organisational consultant, “are the ones who, when something doesn’t work, try something else. Unsuccessful people keep on doing the same thing, only harder.” Most of today’s courses on positive thinking originate in America. Many start by advising you to try “positive affirmations” such as this one from Success Magazine. “Look in the mirror every morning and say to yourself: “You are rare, unique and different. You were designed for accomplishment, engineered for success.” Sounds embarrassing? Don’t forget that self-belief is crucial for success. In his training programmes, Breen shows people how to banish negative thoughts and put themselves in a more productive frame of mind. Motivation is the key. Working in a big organization can provide motivation (if only because the boss shouts at you), but entrepreneurs have to learn to “gee” themselves up. Breen gets students to concentrate on immediate specific tasks that need attention, rather than allowing themselves to be overwhelmed by a mountain of things waiting to be done. “We get them to imagine getting one thing done, and how good it will feel when they’ve finished,” says Breen. “If you really concentrate on those thoughts for just two or three minutes you’ll find you can’t wait to start work instead of dreading it.”
Good business is business with profits for both sides.
2 Here are some words taken form the text. In groups of three or four work out the meaning of the words you don’t know. It will help you to look at them in the text. haphazard a correlation to inherit affluent to capitalise plain a peer to rise through the ranks awkward a high-flier to cope a self-help manual to forge your way to the top 3 Read the article in detail and decide which paragraph mentions each of the following. A Good looks help you in early life. B It doesn’t work to “try, try and try again”. C Motivation is the key to success. D Many successful entrepreneurs leave school early. E Entrepreneurs tend not to fit in. F Rich people very often have rich parents. G You can often predict the success of interpreneurs. H A hard life as a child can help you later on. 4 These are the final three paragraphs of the article. Some phrases have been removed from them. Decide which phrase belongs to which gap. You will not need to use all the phrases. But what none of these self-improvement techniques do is to look at the quality of your life, or consider whether the price of success is too high. Professor Cooper describes the entrepreneur as “an anxious individual, a non-conformist, poorly organised and not (1)...”. Twenty-five per cent of top executives were unhappy with the long hours they worked (2) ... . In his best-selling book The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Stephen Covey points out that concentrating exclusively on your own effectiveness leads to (3) ... . To build a successful life you need to be able to behave in a way that meets the needs of others and yourself. True success turns out to be founded on more than just chest thumping motivational rituals. There is a need for harmony (4) ... Jerome Burne.
Money isn't everything, but it sure keeps the children in touch.
A achieving the right balance between work, creativity and relationships B in need of organisational support C negative results for all concerned D balanced development E and the destructive effect on their family F a stranger to self-destructive behaviour G greater feelings of self esteem
It costs a pretty packet! Manufacturers have all sorts of tricks to make us buy their products but in the end it’s the customer who foots the bill. 1 Look at the title and introduction to the article. 2 Read the article and make a note, on a separate sheet of paper, of: a) the “tricks” which help manufacturers sell their products. b) how the customer “foots the bill”. Shopping is not as simple as you may think! There are all sorts of psychological and eye-deceiving tricks at play each time we reach out for that particular brand of product on the shelf. Colouring, for example, varies according to what the manufacturers are trying to sell. Most cosmetics are packaged in delicate pastel colours such as pink. Health foods come in greens, yellows or browns because we think of these as healthy colours. Ice cream packets are often blue because we identify that as a cool colour; and luxury goods, like expensive chocolates, are invariably gold or silver. When a brand of pain killer was brought out recently, researchers found that pastel colours turned the customer off because they made the product look weak and ineffective. Eventually, it came on the market in a dark blue and white package- blue because we associate it with safety, and white for calmness. The size of a product can attract a shopper. But quite often a jar or bottle doesn’t contain as much as it appears to. Recently a cosmetics company was successfully prosecuted for marketing a jar of make-up which gave the impression it contained far more than it actually did. All the research behind the wording and presentation of packaging is obviously expressive, and there are no prizes for guessing that it is the customer who foots the bill. However, there are signs of revolution against fancy packaging: The Body Shop, for instance, sells its products in containers with handwritten labels. These bottles are practical as well as cost-effective and can be used again.
To be really successful, company must have branches as well as roots.
It is estimated that the more established cosmetics companies spend, on average, 70 per cent of the total cost of the product itself on packaging! The most successful manufacturers know that it’s not enough to have a good product. The founder of Pears soap, who for 25 years have used enchanting little girls to promote their goods, summed it up. “Any fool can make soap, but it takes a genius to sell it,” he said. 3 Give an example of what colour, according to the text, you think the packets of the following are likely to be. a) face creams b) bran c) ice cream d) expensive chocolates e) painkillers 4 Write T(for True) and F (for False) next to the statements below. a) Manufacturers will persuade us of something that is not true, if necessary, in order to sell their products. b) The colouring of the packaging depends on which manufacturer produces it. c) Shoppers don’t always get the same amount as they think they are buying. d) All manufacturers spend a lot on packaging. e) Cosmetics companies often spend more than half the cost of their product on presentation. 5 Look up the words reach (paragraph 1), turn off (paragraph 3) and fancy (paragraph 5) in a monolingual dictionary and find out which of the meanings shown best correspond to the meaning in the text. Then use one of the meanings shown in the dictionary to complete the following sentences. a) She really ... the man she met at the party, but was too shy to speak to him. b) We ... the motorway at Junction 31 in order to go into Birmingham. c) You must be very tall - your head almost ... the ceiling. d) When the programme finished I ... the television. e) Those chocolates are a bit ... for her, aren’t they? I think she’d prefer plain ones. f) We should ... London soon.
Control of enterprisers is a job for the steering wheel, not for the brake.
Business international etiquette 1 Read the text and write down one thing about each nationality that you can remember. 2 Share what you have written with other students in the class. Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a simple test. Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o’clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they are German, they will be bang on time. If they are American, they will probably be 15 minutes early. If they are British, they will be 15 minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for the Italians. When the European Community began to increase in size, several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought this was a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that the widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their foreign business friends. For example: • The British are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another, and they rarely drink at lunchtime. • The Germans like to talk business before dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be well fed and watered before they discuss anything. • Taking off your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as taking it easy. • American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan, people would be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is a social insult only exceeded by blowing your nose in public.
Business that always runs smooth is running downhill.
The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behaviour. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting because it is essential to establish everyone’s status and position. When it is handed to a person in a superior position, it must be given and received with both hands, and you must take time to read it carefully, and not just put it in your pocket! Also the bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake hands. Bowing the head is a mark of respect and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter. The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be casual and more informal, as illustrated by the universal “Have a nice day!” American waiters have a one-word imperative “Enjoy!” The British, of course, are cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is the weather - unemotional and impersonal. In America, the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link. ”Oh, really? You live in Ohio? I had an uncle who once worked there.” 3 Read the text again and answer the questions. Discuss the questions in pairs. 1. 2. 3. 4.
Which nationalities are the most and least punctual? Why did the British think that everyone understood their customs? Which nationalities do not like to eat and do business at the same time? “They (the French) have to be well fed and watered”. What or who do you normally have to feed and water? 5. An American friend of yours is going to work in Japan. Give some advice about how he/she should and shouldn’t behave. 6. Imagine you are at a party in (a) England (b) America. How could you begin a conversation with a stranger? Continue the conversations with your partner.
If at first you don’t succeed, ask yourself why.
London When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life: for there is in London all that life can afford, wrote Samuel Johnson in 1777. He would recognize many of the great sights on both sides of the Thames, which winds its way downstream from Windsor and Hampton Court, past Westminster Abbey, St Paul’s Cathedral, the Tower, and on down to Greenwich and the sea. When H.G. Wells wrote in 1911 that “London is the most interesting beautiful and wonderful city in the world to me”, horse drawn carriages and Edwardian splendour were on their way out. The 20th century was about to enforce dramatic changes on the London skyline – skyscrapers in the City, the Telecom Tower, an arts center on the South Bank and arising now, Docklands, the business centre for the 21st century. Yet London, the world’s capital, has kept its heart. Johnson would still be able to drink coffee in Covent Garden, or meander through the City’s narrow streets to churches and livery companies with echoes of Medieval days. H.G. Wells might, today, listen to debates in the House of Parliament, attend a concert in the Albert Hall or listen to a military band in a royal park. Today London is a sprawling, cosmopolitan metropolis, about 1600 square km, an exciting world which many visitors from abroad see first from the sky, surprised that the ribbon-like Thames is so curvaceous and a score of bridges so decorative. Down there, seven million people are at home, not in anonymous suburbs but in the Cities of London and Westminster and in districts which have remnants of their countrified past, in Marylebone and Kensington, Hampstead and Highgate with their own high streets and historic monuments remembering famous men and women who built a London which each generation discovers anew. Documented history goes back to the time when Westminster was still a marsh. The Romans had inhabited the land which became the City, building a bridge across the Thames by AD60 and creating a celebrated centre of commerce filled with traders. Westminster, established as a royal palace shortly before the invasion of William the Conqueror in 1066, gradually grew in importance as it became the seat of government, beside the Thames and next door to Westminster Abbey a couple of minutes from the City. Big Ben, the voice of London, has been telling the time to the second since 1859. Construction of the 96 m clock tower began in the year Queen Victoria came to the throne, 1837, as part of the reconstruction of the Houses of Parliament following the devastating fire of 1834. Clock designer, Sir Edmund Grimthorpe, the architect and clockmaker all died before the 13 ½ ton bell was mounted behind the four clock faces, which each measure 7 m in diameter.
Playing fair is worth more to a customer than a price cut.
The Great Bell cracked, was recast and cracked again, giving us the famous, flawed, resonating boom. Why Big Ben? There are two answers - either can be chosen. It could have been named after Sir Benjamin Hall, chief commissioner of works at that time, and a Welshman of great girth. Or, perhaps, it was named by workmen who brought the bell from Whitechapel Foundry on a cart pulled by 16 white horses. Their hero of the day was Benjamin Caunt, a 17 stone prize fighter. 1 Complete the following sentences based on the text: 1. ... wrote in 1911 that “London is the most interesting and wonderful city in the world to me.” 2. ... is the business centre for the 21st Century. 3. ... is an arts centre on the South Bank of London. 4. The voice of London is ... . 5. Sir Edmund Grimthorpe, ... and ... , died before the 13 ½ ton bell was mounted behind the four clock faces. 2 Write a paragraph on a separate sheet of paper describing what places of interest you would visit in London if you had only three hours and why. 3 Write down the Past Simple forms of the following irregular verbs from the text: Base form Past Simple Write Be Keep See Build Grow Become Come Give Choose Bring
Take your work seriously but don’t take the office home with you.
Russian Moskva city is the capital of Russia. It is located in the western part of the country. Today Moscow is not only the political centre of Russia but also the country's leading city in population, in industrial output, and in cultural, scientific, and educational importance. For more than 600 years Moscow has been the spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church. Moscow covers an area of about 386 square miles (1,000 square kilometers).It stands on the Moskva River, a tributary of the Oka and thus of the Volga, in the centre of the vast plain of European Russia. The climate of Moscow is continental. Winters are long and dark. December, January, and February are the driest months. Moscow employs a large number of workers and a fleet of mechanical devices to keep the streets clear of snow. Spring is relatively brief, and the temperature rises rapidly during late April. Summers are warm. Rainy days are not uncommon, but the summer rainfall often comes in brief, heavy downpours and thunderstorms. Autumn, like spring, is short, with rapidly falling temperatures. The hub of the Moscow layout is the fortified enclosure of the Kremlin, the symbol of both Russian and Soviet power and authority. Of the most important towers, the Saviour (Spasskaya) Tower leading to Red Square was built in 1491 by Pietro Solario, who designed most of the main towers. The chimes of its clock are broadcast by radio as a time signal to the whole nation. Also on the Red Square front is the St. Nicholas (Nikolskaya) Tower, built originally in 1491 and rebuilt in 1806. The two other principal gate towers—the Trinity (Troitskaya) Tower, with a bridge and outer barbican (the Kutafya Tower), and the Borovitskaya Tower—lie on the western wall. Within the Kremlin walls is one of the most striking and beautiful architectural ensembles in the world: a combination of churches and palaces, which are open to the public and are among the city's most popular tourist attractions, and the highest offices of the state, which are surrounded by strict security.
He who has four and spends five, needs neither purse nor pocket.
Along the east wall of the Kremlin lies Red Square (Krasnaya Ploshchad), the ceremonial centre of the capital and scene of holiday parades. The modest Lenin Mausoleum blends into the wall, which itself contains the graves of most of the U.S.S.R.'s past leadership. At the southern end of Red Square is the Church of the Intercession (Pokrovsky Sobor), better known as the Blessed. It is a unique and magnificent architectural fantasy, each of its 10 domes differing in design and colour. Along Red Square facing the Kremlin is the State Department Store— usually called by its Russian acronym, GUM—with its long aisles, iron bridges linking the upper floors, and great skylights. The slightly earlier State Historical Museum closes off the northern end of the square. In 1990 the Kremlin and Red Square areas were added to UNESCO's World Heritage List. Moscow has numerous theatres: the State Academic Bolshoi (Great) Theatre, the Maly (Little) Theatre,the city's principal drama theatre, the Moscow Art Theatre, the State Central Puppet Theatre and the Moscow State Circus. There are several concert halls, notably the Tchaikovsky Concert Hall and the two halls of the Conservatory. The museums and art galleries in the capital include several of international rank. Foremost among these are the State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, with a fine international collection, and the State Tretyakov Gallery. Other notable museums are the Armoury Museum in the Kremlin, the State Historical Museum on Red Square, and the nearby Central Lenin Museum on Revolution Square. The inhabitants of Moscow are overwhelmingly of Russian nationality, the largest minority groups being Jews, Ukrainians, Belorussians, and Tatars. It is possible, however, to meet people on the streets of Moscow who belong to any of numerous nationalities, including Georgians and Armenians from the Caucasus Mountains and Uzbeks and Kazaks from Central Asia. Moscow's labour force is one of the most highly skilled and educated in Russia, and the city's financial, engineering, and manufacturing sectors are among the country's most advanced. Women make up more than half of the workforce. They form the vast majority of workers in the textile and food-processing industries, and they predominate in the teaching and medical professions. Moscow is Russia's leading educational and research centre, and its educational institutions furnish skilled workers for its important engineering and aerospace sectors. It is also the centre of Russia's publishing industry.
A man is judged by what he spends, not by what he earns.
As a world-renowned capital, Moscow is a principal focus for foreign visitors. Free-market reforms have encouraged the construction of new, modern hotels and the modernization of existing hotels in the city. The government also opened new tourist offices and refurbished many cultural attractions. 1 Write down the questions which correspond to these answers, based on the text: 1. “How long ... ? ” (to be) For more than 600 years. 2. “What ... on? ” (to stand) The Moskva River. 3. “When ... ? ” (to build) In 1491. 4. “Who ... by?” (to build) Pietro Solario. 5. “Where ... ?” (to locate) In the western part of the country. 2 Match these verbs from text (1-5) with their dictionary definitions (a-e) as follows. First look carefully at the text to find the context of the word, and then choose the correct definition. 1. encouraged a. to decorate and repair something such as a building or office in order to improve its appearance 2. surrounded b. to combine together to form something 3. make up c. to send out radio or television programmes 4. refurbished d. to make something more likely to exist, happen 5. broadcast e. to be all around someone or something on every side 3 Put the Past Simple forms of the regular verbs in the box into one of the columns below, according to the pronunciation of the endings and add some more examples of your own. located surrounded called added encouraged /t/ /d/ /id/
The better the service given to customers, the less it costs to serve them.
4 Make sentences from these verbs: 1. is / Russia / Moscow / of / the / capital. 2. located / in / if / is / western / the / part / of / the / country. 3. of / The / Moscow / is / climate / continental. 4. Moscow / theatres / numerous / has. 5. educational / is / Russia`s / and / leading / Moscow / research / centre.
Canberra is the federal capital of the Commonwealth of Australia. It occupies part of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) in southeastern Australia and is about 150 miles (240 km) southwest of Sydney. Canberra lies astride the Molonglo River, which is a tributary of the Murrumbidgee River. Commonwealth of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital, and surrounding land. Most of the Australian Capital Territory lies within the Southern Tablelands district of New South Wales. The area is 900 square miles (2,400 square kilometers). The Australian Capital Territory has a continental climate with marked seasonal and diurnal variations in temperature. Recorded temperatures range between 14°F and 108°F (−10°C and 42°C); the daily maximum often exceeds 86° F (30°C) in summer (December through February). During the winter (June through August) temperatures are lower, and the higher parts of the mountains are covered with snow. Frosts occur on most winter nights, but the days are usually sunny and often warm. Rainfall is unreliable, with periods of drought and flooding. As a result, large storage reservoirs to ensure water supply and storm-water drainage of high capacity are needed. Sudden heavy storms have resulted in loss of life. Rainfall is much higher in the mountains, averaging about 60 inches a year. Fogs are common in winter and sometimes cause the airport to be closed. The largest native animals common in the territory are kangaroos, wallabies, and wombats, which are found in the forest areas and in the grasslands at the margins of the forests. Smaller marsupials include possums, gliders, and marsupial mice. The wide range of native birds includes currawongs, magpies, ravens, parrots, cockatoos, and lorikeets.
When it is a question of money, everybody is of the same religion.
Many of these birds, including colourful parrots, are common not only in the indigenous forests but also in Canberra.There is much less birdlife in the pine forests. Eastern brown snakes, red-bellied black snakes, and several lizards are common, especially near watercourses, but snakes are seldom found in urban areas. Among the nonendemic animals found in the forests are wild pigs, goats, and horses and, in the grasslands, foxes, rabbits, and hares. The population has a higher proportion of young adults than the national average and a lower proportion from the older age groups. About a quarter of the residents—slightly higher than the national average—were born outside Australia, mainly in the United Kingdom. Less than 1 percent of the population are Aborigines. Roman Catholic and Anglican, together accounting for more than half of the population, are by far the most important religious affiliations. The Australian Capital Territory is not culturally distinct from other parts of Australia, though it has relatively few low-income families, Aborigines, and members of some immigrant groups. The cultural life of Canberra is rich because of the high incomes and high levels of education of many of its residents. Canberra has a lively artistic life, fostered in particular by the music and art schools at the Canberra Institute of the Arts. The staffs of both schools include notable artists. Musical performances are held in Llewellyn Hall at the Canberra School of Music, and theatrical performances are given at the Canberra Theatre. The Canberra Symphony Orchestra is semiprofessional, and there is a professional drama company. In addition to the Australian National Gallery, there are many smaller private galleries. The National Library, together with ANU Library, has one of the largest collections in the country. The Australian War Memorial is a large museum with exhibits on all the wars in which Australians have fought. The Australian academies of science, social sciences, and humanities are located in Canberra. A number of authors have made Canberra their home. Canberra has a week of festivities in March; Canberra Day, a public holiday in the territory, occurs in the third week of March. In September a Floriade festival features displays of spring flowers. There is a wide range of parks and reserves. Clubs and private facilities offer sports, and the Australian Institute of Sport trains competitors at a high level. Canberra has teams in an interstate rugby league, men's and women's basketball, and soccer competitions. The urban lakes are the sites of nonmotorized water sports; there are limited skiing facilities in the mountains.
Give me the luxuries in life... I can live without the necessities !!!
The tourist industry caters to visitors attracted by the national parliament, museums and galleries, and Canberra's reputation as a planned city. Also important are service industries that interact directly with government, including the media, lobby groups, and national associations. Finally, Canberra has the usual range of private industries providing recreation and financial and personal services for the city and the surrounding region. 1 Complete the gaps below with a preposition. Use your dictionary to check your answers. 1. Canberra is the federal capital of the Commonwealth ... Australia 2. The Australian Capital Territory has a continental climate ... marked seasonal and diurnal variations ... temperature. 3. Canberra has a week ... festivities ... March. 4. The largest native animals common ... the territory are kangaroos, wallabies, and wombats, which are found ... the forest areas and ... the grasslands ... the margins ... the forest. 2 Change the words according to the part of speech in brackets: 1. Sunny ........................................ (noun) 2. Population ................................ (verb) 3. Religious ..................................(noun) 4. Culturally..................................(adjective) 5. Particular .................................(adverb) 3 Are these statements true or false: 1. The largest native animals common in the territory are kangaroos, pandas and wombats. 2. Canberra has teams in an interstate rugby league, men's and women's basketball, and soccer competitions. 3. The National Library, together with ANU Library, has one of the smallest collections in the country. 4. The cultural life of Canberra is rich because of the offshore market and high levels of education of many of its residents.
It's not hard to meet expenses...they're everywhere.
Washington, in full Washington, D.C. (“District of Columbia”) is the city and capital of the United States of America. The city is coextensive with the District of Columbia and is located at the head of navigation of the Potomac River, which separates it from Virginia to the southwest. Washington is one of the few capital cities of the world founded expressly as a seat of government and as a centre for international representation. The expansive designs for the city were to symbolize the ideals of the freedom so recently achieved yet still so tenuously held by the citizenry of the nation. It was to be a vital city, the proper seat for the federal government. The modern city also holds the nation's most sacred monuments and the most meaningful artifacts of its history, the embassies of foreign nations, and an impressive collection of the national art treasures. Nearly every significant national organization has its headquarters or a major branch in the District, often for the purpose of lobbying in Congress or within federal agencies. The city was meant to be, and has remained, the focal point of the nation for sightseers and for seekers after the spirit of the American past and present. For many reasons, Washington has had a development that is unique among the world's major cities. An inherent tendency to distinguish between the District of Columbia as the capital, with its paraphernalia of federal facilities, and Washington as the city, with its complexity of social, economic, and political problems, has produced a metropolis as notorious for its ugliness and crime as it is famous for its diverse and truly awesome beauties. The city is located near the end of the sprawling urbanized agglomeration that spreads southward from Boston along the Eastern Seaboard, and it has most of the same problems that face other great core metropolises of the region—Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore— and of the nation as a whole. Another set of disparities exists between the city of Washington and the Washington metropolitan area. More than one-fourth of the people over 26 years of age in the metropolitan area hold college degrees, the highest percentage among the 10 largest such areas in the country, and the area's population has one of the highest annual per capita incomes. It's not how much we have but how much we enjoy that makes us happy.
On the other hand, a high proportion of the population within the city is made up of families with low incomes or of handicapped or aged persons, many requiring governmental assistance. These factors provide insight into why Washington—the city as distinct from the capital and the metropolitan area—has developed neither the social stability nor the continuity that provides the lifeblood of most other large cities. Both the living and the working populations of Washington are among the most transient in the nation. Only a small percentage of residents have longtime roots in Washington, while a high proportion of government and service workers commute into the city from suburban homes. These more affluent Washington workers typically spend most of their income and pay most of their taxes in adjacent counties and states, leaving the needs and destiny of the city to the dictates of an essentially alien body of lawmakers and administrators. The ethnic composition of Washington's population is about three-fifths African American and less than one-third white, with the remaining tenth a mixture of Asians, Africans, Latin Americans, and other ethnic minorities, including embassy personnel. In contrast, the suburban population is predominantly white, with a sizable African American minority. Few cities in the United States are so dominated by the nature of their economic base as is Washington. Only two major economic activities provide virtually all of the income to the city and its residents. The federal civil service is by far the largest single employer in the metropolitan area. Tourism, which includes its retail trade and related services, is second in economic importance. Manufacturing and other commercial activities occupy only a minor place in the economic structure. Since the mid-20th century, Washington has been transformed from a “federal town” to an information and communication centre that is competitive with the largest urban areas in the United States. In addition, it has become the coordinating centre for major foreign activities. As federal involvement has proliferated in both private and public sectors and both at home and abroad, there has been a steady trend toward relocation of the offices of national associations from cities such as New York and Chicago to the Washington metropolitan area.
Money never made the man. Man made the money.
There are more headquarters of national trade and professional organizations and associations in Washington (about 300) than in any other area of the country. The presence of international organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has increased Washington's importance as one of the principal centres for coordinating aid, trade, and finance on the international level. The traditional Cherry Blossom Festival, held early each spring, is the oldest of Washington's celebrations that combine the efforts of federal, civic, and commercial personnel. In spite of their attraction for tourists, the festival parade and crowning of a queen tend to be less important for Washingtonians than is the explosion of blossoms around the Tidal Basin and the Jefferson Memorial that the festival marks. Also popular is Washington's annual festival of American folk arts and crafts, held for a week each summer on the Mall. This open-air display of the arts and crafts of many regional and ethnic subcultures has become an increasingly significant cultural event.
1 Find equivalents in the text: неотъемлемый, несоответствие, понимание, памятники культуры, столичная зона, преимущественно, штаб-квартира
2 Are these statements true or false: 1. Also popular is Washington's annual festival of computer games – Electronic Entertainment Expo. 2. Since the mid-20th century, Washington has been transformed from a “federal town” to an information and communication centre. 3. On the other hand, a high proportion of the population within the city is made up of families with low incomes. 4. There are more headquarters of foreign trade and professional organizations in Washington (about 300) than in any other area of the country.
The quickest way to double your money is to fold it in half and put it back in your pocket.
3 Discuss in groups: 1. Pros and cons of such a small capital as Washington and compare them with those of such big capitals as Moscow or Tokyo. 2. How do you think New York or Washington is a “real” capital of the USA? 4 Answer the following questions: 1. What are the disparities between the city of Washington and the Washington metropolitan area? 2. Why is Washington’s development unique among the world’s major cities? 3. What is the ethnic composition of Washington’s population? 4. What economic activities provide all the income to the city & its residents? 5. Would you like to visit Washington? Why?
“Whenever it is in any way possible, every boy and girl should choose as his life work some occupation which he should like to do anyhow, even if he did not need the money.” (William Lyon Phelps)
English in the Third Millennium Two thousands years ago English did not exist. A thousand years ago it was a language used by less than two million people. Now it the most influential language in the world, spoken by more than a billion people on the planet, as their first, second or third language. English currently dominates science, business, the mass media and popular culture. For example, 80 % e-mails on the Internet are in English. But where will English be at the end of the third millennium? One view is that English is going to become even more important as a global lingua franca, dominating the world’s trade and media while most other languages will become localized or just die out. At present, over half the world’s 6,500 languages are in danger of extinction. Another view is that English is already breaking up, as Latin did, into separate different languages. There are already dictionaries of the “New Englishes”, such as Australian English, full of words that a British English speaker would not recognize. Hopefully , neither of these things will happen. Although different varieties of English will continue to develop around the world, standard English will survive for international communication. In addition, the frightening prospect of a culturally uniform world totally dominated by one language is impossible. Already, other languages are fighting back against the iron grip of English on the Net. Governments around the world are also starting to protect smaller languages and recognize the importance of cultural and linguistic diversity. Enlgish will probably stay in control for a long time, at least while the USA remains the top superpower, but it definitely won’t become the only language in the world. 1 Answer the following questions: 1. Did English exist 2000 years ago? 2. A thousand years ago English was a language used by less than two million people, wasn’t it? 3. How many people speak English now? 4. What does English currently dominate? 5. What percentage of the world’s e-mails are in English? 6. How many languages are there in the world? 2 On a separate piece of paper write about your experiences of learning a foreign language. For example, you might like to talk about how you learnt (e.g. in a class, from a book); what was easy; what was difficult, any problems you had; how you made progress. Concentrate, it saves time and money.
Who is who? 1 Match the job titles with the best definition on the right. 1.Chief Executive Officer (CEO) 2. Information Systems Director 3. Purchasing Director 4. Human Resources Director
5. Systems Analyst 6. Managing Director
7. Marketing Director 8. Production Director
9. Customer Service Manager 10. Staff Development Officer 11. Finance Director 12. Exports Manager
a. Manager responsible for buying. b. Person who designs computer networks c. British English term for senior manager of a company. d. Manager responsible for the creating goods or services for sale to customers. e. American English term for the top manager of a company f. Person responsible for setting up training opportunities for employees g. The person responsible for computer operations in a company. h. Person responsible for managing product development, promotion, customer service, and selling. i. Person responsible for markets in other countries. j. Manager responsible for personnel issues. k. Person responsible for relationships with customers l. Person responsible for presentation and control of profit and loss.
Borrow money from pessimists; they don't expect it back.
2 Management organization. Management of a large company is often hierarchical. Here is a typical model of management organization showing one division within a company. Complete any missing words. If you have problems, look at the words below. Non-executive directors
Chief (1)________ │ Managing Director
SENIOR Production Sales Marketing (3)____ (4)____ (5)____ MANAGEMENT (2)______ Director Director Director Resources Secre-
(6)_______ Production Sales Marketing Finance Human MANAGEMENT (7)_______ Department Department Department Resources
(10)_____ Area Sales Sales Manager Manager (9)_______
Production MANAGEMENT Controller
Market, Financial Personnel Senior Research, Controller and AdmiPR and Training nistraPublicity Officers tive (11)_____ Assistant Sales Clerical Clerical Clerical (12)____ Staff Staff Staff
Area Company Department Director Executive Junior Manager Middle Officers Teams
The trick isn't getting what you want... The trick is wanting it after you get it.
Clerical Staff Human
All the directors together are the board. They meet in the boardroom. Non-executive directors are not the managers of the company; they are outsiders, often directors of other companies who have particular knowledge of the industry or of particular areas. In the UK non-executive directors are chairman/chairwoman/chief executive/managing director. In the US they are president/chief executive officer(CEO)/chief operating officer(COO). Senior managers may be called senior executives/top executives/executive directors. They head or head up their departments. The finance director may be called the chief financial officer(CFO). In the US, senior managers in charge of a particular areas are often called vice presidents(VPs), for example, VP marketing/human resources. 3 Read the text and use the information to complete the chart showing a company’s organization. The Managing Director is in charge of the plant which is just outside Nottingham. The plant is divided into three departments. Production, Administration and Marketing Department. The Marketing Department is not based in Nottingham. It is in London. The Production Department is divided into two sections: Motors and Spare Parts. The Motors section employs 75 people and it makes electrical motors for the machines. The Spare Parts section deals with replacement pieces for old machines and it employs 15 people. The Administration department is divided into three sections. The Commercial section has double the staff of the Financial section and they deal with all the orders. Finally there is the Personnel department which has only two people at the moment. They hire and fire the staff as well as arrange all staff training.
Spare Parts orders 3
To feel rich, count the things you have that money can't buy.
What is what? 1 The types of business organization. I’m the chief executive of a British company called Megaco PLC. “PLC”means public limited company, so anybody can buy and sell shares in Megaco on the stock market. We must have an authorized share capital of at least £ 50,000 of which no less than 25% must be paid up.
I’m the managing director and main shareholder of a small company called AdCom Ltd. “Ltd” means limited company. The other shareholders and I have limited liability: we do not have to use our personal property, such as a car, to pay the company’s debts.Our liability is limited in the event of the company being wound up (US=Corporation)
I have a small firm called Adman. I offer public relations advice to organizations. I am a sole trader(BrE) or sole proprietor/owner (BrE,AmE), i.e. an individual who runs an unregistered (unincorporated)* business.
I’m CEO of Bigbucks Inc. “Inc” stands for Incorporated. This shows that we are a corporation, a term used especially in the US for companies with limited liability.
We are Thompson, Styles and Granville, a small accountancy partnership jointly owned by three partners. We have joint liability for debts. This means that if one partner defaults, the remaining partners are liable.
I’m a freelance graphic designer, a freelancer. That means I work for myself – I’m self-employed**. I prefer working independently for different companies rather than being employed by one particular company. To use an official term, I am a sole trader.
*Registered (Inc.) are organisations are legal entities and have an existence separate from their owners. Organisations which are not registered (unincorporated) do not acquire an independent existence. **You usually describe people such as designers and journalists as freelancers, and people such as builders and plumbers as self-employed.
2 What type of organization is each of these? 1. A group of engineers who work together to provide consultancy and design services. There are no outside shareholders. 2. A large British engineering company with 30,000 employees. Its shares are bought and sold on the stock market. 3. An American engineering company with outside shareholders. 4. An engineer who works by herself providing consultancy. She works from home and visits clients in their offices. 5. An independent British engineering company with 20 employees. It was founded by three engineers, who are shareholders and directors of the company. There are five other shareholders who do not work for the company. 3 Starting a new business. Complete the text below with these words: capital competition plan market facility investments flow products expenses overheads stock sales A few years ago I decided to start my own business. I live by the sea and I love surfing, so I knew that there would be a (1) ... for surfboards, wetsuits and all the other equipment surfers need. There were already other shops in the area selling similar (2) ... , so I knew there would be quite a lot of (3) ... , but I still thought I could make a success of it. I had already built up a certain amount of (4) ... in my bank account but I knew I would need an overdraft (5) ... , so I asked the bank what I needed to do. They told me I needed to prepare a business (6) ... with a detailed cash (7) ... . I was pleasantly surprised that they immediately agreed to provide the overdraft. I deliberately opened my shop in May so I knew (8) ... would be good, but when you start a business, the (9) ... are very high as well. In addition to (10) ... – rent, regular bills and so on – you also have to make quite a big (11) ... in computers, equipment and of course, (12) ... . It’s too early to say, but things seem to be going OK. I’m keeping my fingers crossed! After you’ve started your business, you then run it, expand it, sell it and then retire!
Another person's secret is like another person's money... You are not as careful with it as you are with your own.
4 Verbs to describe a business. Choose the correct ending for each sentence: 1. We produce a. most of our products to the States. 2. We import b. a new range of skin-care products for men. 3. We export c. a new branch in Singapore. 4. We’ve just opened d. all our parts from Germany 5. We’ve just launched e. luxury goods, which are sold all over the world. 6. We’re negotiating f. the final details of the agreement tomorrow. 7. We do g. a lot of business in the Far East. 5 How’s business? Decide whether the following mean that a business is going well (W) or badly (B): 1. We’ve just had our end-of-year figures. Profits are up on last year. 2. January and February were quiet but business has picked up in the last three weeks. 3. We’re going through a bad patch but I’m sure things will start to pick up soon. 4. Business is pretty slack at the moment. 5. Business is booming. We sold more in the last three months than in the whole of last year. 6. If business continues like this, a lot of small companies will go to the wall. 7. We are now the market leader in our field. 8. We’ve just taken over one of our competitors. We’re expanding all the time. 9. Apparently, they’ve just gone bankrupt. If you go bankrupt, you are unable to pay your debts and your creditors can force you out of business. It is then very difficult to start another business. 6 Figures. Only one of the expressions in italics in each example is correct. Delete the wrong one. 1. Companies shouldn’t expect to make much profit / do much profit in their first year of business. In fact they are probably doing quite well if they get even / break even. 2. We made a huge loss / got a huge loss in the first year. We seriously considered giving up.
Money talks, mine keeps saying good-bye.
3. The company’s annual turnover / annual turnaround is over £2,000,000. 4. The budget / expenditure for this project is £12,000. We really mustn’t go over that. 5. This month’s sales figures / sales numbers are a lot better but the year to date still doesn’t look very good. 6. We have set ourselves more realistic sales targets / sales goals this year and we’re on course to reach the target for the year by the end of November. 7. We’ve had a 7% increase / addition in sales so far this year. 8. Sales are up but costs are up too, so the bottom figure / bottom line is disappointing. The bottom line (in a set of company accounts) is the final profit or loss. “What’s the bottom line?” is an idiom meaning, “Tell me what the overall result will be without going into the details.” 7 Trends. When numbers change, we usually talk about a rise or fall with an adjective to describe the change. For example, “We anticipate a slight rise in costs.” Match the adjectives with the definitions: 1. a slight fall 2. a steady rise 3. a sharp drop 4. a dramatic fall 5. a marginal increase
a. very quickly b. large and sudden c. changing slowly d. small e. extremely small Advertising
The language of advertising. Here are some methods used in persuasive advertising. Read them. Decide which appeal to you and which don’t. Think of an example for each type from your country. Persuasive advertising. 1. Repetition. The simplest kind of advertising. A slogan is repeated so often that we begin to associate a brand name with a particular product or service. 2. Endorsement. A popular personality is used in the advertisement.
My yearnings exceed my earnings.
3. Emotional appeal. Advertising often appeals to basics such as motherlove,femininity,manliness. 4. Scientific authority. Sometimes the advert shows a person in a white coat (i.e. a scientist) telling us about the product. More often it mentions “miracle ingredients” or “scientific testing” to persuade us. 5. Comparison. The advert lists the qualities of a product in direct comparison with the rival products. 6. An appeal to fear or anxiety. This type is similar to 3, but works on our fears. 7. Association of ideas. This is usually visual. Until it became illegal in Britain, cigarette advertising showed attractive, healthy people smoking in beautiful rural situations. 8. Information. If a product is new, it may be enough to show it and explain what it does. 9. Special offers/free gifts. This is a very simple and direct appeal – it’s half price! 10.Anti-advertising. This is a modern version which appeals to the British sense of humour. It makes fun of the techniques of advertising.
Fluency Project A new product 1.You are preparing to launch three new products: a soft drink, a yoghurt and an ice-cream, all with new fruity flavours. You are having a marketing meeting. You are to divide into groups and decide on the type of your business organization and your job titles . Then work through the agenda below for the meeting and discuss each point in turn. You must reach the decision on each item. You can choose any product or take them all. See Appendix 1 for help. 2. Now discuss and write the script for a one-minute radio or TV commercial for your product. Perform your commercial for the class. AGENDA FOR DISCUSSION 1. Flavour Choice of fruit (or combination of flavours) for the product 2. Comparison with other products In what way is it different from other similar products?
Money can't buy Love. But it can help you look for it in comfort !
3. Packaging How would you package and present it? In a bottle, a can, a jar, a plastic tube? What shape? How could you make it look different? 4. Name What would be a good name for it? 5. Consumers Who do you think would buy it? What age group? 6. Price How much do you think it should cost? 7. The promotional offer What sort of special offer might you start with? 8. Advertising How and where would you advertise it? What sort of advertising image would you give it? What words would you use to describe it?
Money 1 Use the following words in the text below: notes coins credit card currency cash cheque The less money you carry around with you, the better. I usually have about £40 in (1) … in my wallet and a couple of pounds in (2) ... . in my pocket. I pay (3) ... for things which cost under £10, but for anything over that I use my (4) ... . I only use my (5) ... book to pay bills. When I go on holiday, I carry all my foreign (6) ... in a ... round my waist under my trousers! In the United States notes are called bills. The American spelling of cheque is check. We say pay cash but pay by cheque or pay by credit card. 2 Situations. Complete the following dialogues with the words below: credit card cash change cheque 1. Um, I think £25 is a bit expensive. >Well, there’s 10% off if you pay ... . 2. We still haven’t paid the telephone bill. > Don’t worry, I put a … in the post last night. 3. Can I pay by ...? > Yes, we take Visa and MasterCard. 4. Have you got any …? I’ve only got a twenty-pound note. > Yes, I think I’ve got some pound coins.
Money can buy you anything but happiness and can take you anywhere but heaven!
3 Income. Most of us earn money from our regular jobs, but there are other ways of getting money too. Complete the definitions with these words: a) pension f) maintenance b) interest g) income c) pocket money h) fee d) wage i) salary e) bonus j) grant 1. A ... is what you earn weekly. 2. A ... is what you earn monthly or annually. 3. Your annual salary plus any other money you earn in a year is your ... . 4. A ... is paid to a professional for some work – a lawyer, for example. 5. ... is given by parents to children. 6. People who have retired receive a ... . 7. ... is paid by a man to his ex-wife. 8. ... is extra money you receive monthly or annually if you keep money in the bank. 9. Some people receive a ... once a year if they have done a good job or if the company has had a good year. 10.A ... is money given to you to help you with your studies or to travel. What social security benefits are available in your country if you are ill or unemployed? 4 Talking about your income. Complete the following dialogues with the correct form of the verb phrases below: get £400 a week make a lot more earn pretty good money get a rise 1. I’ve only just got enough to get by at the moment, but fortunately I ... next month. 2. She wears some lovely clothes, doesn’t she? > Yes, and she bought a Porsche recently, so I guess she ... . 3. How’s the new job? Does it pay well? > Not too bad. I ... after tax.
A fine is a tax for doing wrong. A tax is a fine for doing well.
4. My basic wage is only £200 a week, but I ... because I do so much overtime. In Britain it is not considered polite to ask somebody, “How much do you earn?” Can you ask this question in your country? 5 Collocations with pay. Use these verbs with the correct pattern below: pay A ... B ...
a meal, the drinks, my ticket £10 for (the ticket), a lot of money for it, somebody to (fix your car), income tax, the bill, bills, a fine, the rent
C ... a loan, your debts, the mortgage Use the correct form of some of the phrases from patterns B and C to fill the gaps in the following: 1. Gas, electricity, telephone – all I ever seem to do is ... . 2. I’ve got a loan of £10,000 to buy a car but it’s going to take 5 years to ... it ... . 3. I’ve got a job at last! Now I can ... all my ... ! 4. The landlord came round last night to see why we haven’t ... yet. 5. The more money you earn, the more ... you have to ... . 6 Verb collocations. Match the verbs on the left with the phrases: 1. spend a. to a beggar 2. lose b. on food money c. in a will 3. give 4.save d. at the casino 5.leave e. by walking to work 6. lend f. in a new business g. into the bank 7. invest 8. waste money h. to a friend 9. pay i. for your holiday 10. change j. on silly things
If you lend someone $20, and never see that person again, it was probably worth it !
7 Expressions with money. Complete the dialogues with these expressions: What a waste of money! It’s very good value for money. It’ll save a bit of money. He’s got more money than sense! 1. That new French restaurant does a fixed price menu for only £18. ... . 2. She’s got more money than sense. That dress she’s wearing cost £500! > You’re joking. ... ! 3. Let’s take the ferry instead of the plane. > Good idea! … . 4. Have you seen Martin’s latest car? It’s an open-topped Mercedes. >…! 8 Verb expressions with money. Here are some ways of earning money with little effort. Match these beginnings and endings: 1. I’ve never won any money 2. I inherited some money 3. They’ve organised an event to raise money 4. I’m hoping to borrow some money 5. Her father made a lot of money a. from the bank b. when my grandfather died. c. when he sold his house. d. for charity. e. on the lottery. 9 Mark each of the following sentences (+) if they are about having a lot of money or (-) if they are about having very little or no money: 1. He won the lottery last year. They say he’s a millionaire. 2. This latest tax will make life even more difficult for family on low incomes. 3. I can just about get by on what I earn.
Every time we make ends meet...someone moves the end.
4. Millions of people in developing countries live in poverty. 5. He’s lived a life of luxury since he sold his business. 6. He’s lost his house, his car – everything. He’s been made bankrupt. 10 Borrow and lend Complete this dialogue with these words: pay you back lending owe borrow
Peter: Mark, can I ... £5 for a couple of days? Mark: I’m always ... you money. You still ... me the £10 I ... you last week. Peter: Don’t worry. I’ll ... . Mark: Sure, when? At Christmas? Peter: No, on Friday. I promise. Complete another version of the same dialogue with these words: Get it back borrowing lent paid back lend Peter: Mark, could you ... me £5? Mark: You’re always ... money from me. You still haven’t ... the £10 I ... you last week. Peter: I know, I know. Don’t worry. You’ll ... on Friday. Mark: I’ll believe that when it happens! 11 Rich and poor idioms. Mark the following sentences (+) if they are about someone who is rich, and (-) if they are about someone who is poor: 1. She’s got money to burn. 2. He’s on the breadline. 3. Money’s a bit tight at the moment. 4. We need to tighten our belts. 5. They live in the lap of luxury. 6. We’re struggling to make ends meet. 7. She hasn’t got a penny to her name. 8. They just live from hand to mouth. 9. She’s worth a fortune. 12 Complete the following article using these words: debt share wealth poverty progress poor
Although huge (1)..... has already been made in tackling global (2)..... , there is still a widening gap between the rich and the poor. The unfair distribution of (3)..... means that while the world as a whole is getting richer, many poor people are excluded from their (4)..... of this wealth. One sigh of hope is that rich nations are starting to consider cutting Third World (5)..... . Governments now recognise that without debt relief, there is little chance of poor countries like Rwanda and Tanzania achieving the growth necessary to lift their population out of absolute poverty. Charities now have the ambitious target of cutting the world’s (6).... by half in the next 15 years. They believe that this target will only be reached when governments and development agencies work together to achieve it.
13 Well-paid or badly-paid? Put these phrases into the correct list: hardly anything far too much a fortune next to nothing peanuts 1. Professional footballers are paid ... ... 2. Children in developing countries who make footballs are paid ... ... ... 14 Read these sentences and put the words and phrases in italics into the correct column below: 1. The wedding’s at one of the best hotels in London. Her father’s a very wealthy man. 2. They must be pretty well-off. They’ve just bought a six-bedroomed house. 3. I won’t be able to have a holiday this year. I’m a bit short of money. 4. My father’s got a very good pension so my parents have been quite comfortable since he retired. 5. I can’t come out tonight. I’m broke.
Budget: A method for going broke methodically.
6. I lent my brother some money last week. He’s a bit hard up at the moment. 7. When the children were young, we couldn’t afford to go on holiday. 8. They have three holidays a year so they must be loaded. Lots of money .....................
Little money ......................
15 Complete each of the following expressions with one of the word: 1. I couldn’t ... it. 2. We need to ... . 3. I’m a bit ... of money. 4. They’re a bit ... up. 5. She hasn’t got a ... to her name. 6. They’re paid ... to nothing. 7. He lives a life of ... . 8. I can just about ... by. 9. Could you ... me £10? 10. Can I ... £10 for a couple of days?
At the bank
1 Basic vocabulary. Complete the sentences below with these words: borrow cash
1. I haven’t got any ... with me. I’ll need to go to the bank. 2. My salary is paid straight into my ... at the end of every month. 3. If you want to buy a new car, why not get a ... from the bank? 4. Interest rates are very low. Why don’t you ... the money from the bank? 5. I’m going to the bank to pay in this ... . 6. I’ll have to stop spending so much money. I’m already ... by over £100. 7. If you are prepared to make more risk, you’ll get higher ... on your investment. 8. Tom’s got quite a few ... . He’s borrowed money from the bank and several of his friends.
“If you don't want to work, you have to work to earn enough money so that you won't have to work.” (George Jean Nathan )
9. I need some cash. Is there a ... near here? 10. I’m spending too much money. I’ve already got an enormous ... . A cashpoint is called an ATM (automated Teller Machine) in American English. In informal British English it is often called a hole in the wall. 2 Bank accounts and bank cards Put these words in the correct list below: current savings credit cash deposit joint .......... .......... .......... ..........
.......... .......... card
Now match the phrases with these definitions: 1. An account shared by two or more people. 2. An account that allows you to pay money in or take money out whenever you like. 3. A card used to buy things on credit. You have to pay money back each month. 4. A card used to take money out of a cash point. 5. These accounts earn higher interest. In Britain different banks use different names for their accounts. Most people have a current account. If you want to leave money in the bank for longer periods, you will use a deposit, savings, or high-interest account. In the United States a cash card is called an ATM card. A current account is called a checking account. 3 Using an account Complete the sentences with these words: electronic
direct debit a withdrawal a pay-in standing order
1. If you pay money into your account you make ... .
“The darkest hour in any man's life is when he sits down to plan how to get money without earning it.” ( Horace Greeley )
2. If you take money out of your account you make ... . 3. If you need to pay a bill, you can ... cheque. 4. If you have to pay money to the same person or company on a regular basis, you can pay by ... or ... . 5. Some people never need to visit their bank. They use an ... banking services. They can check their account and make payments using the internet. 4 Borrowing money from the bank Complete the following dialogues with the words below: debt interest mortgage overdraft loan overdrawn 1. I’m glad it’s nearly the end of the month. I’ve got absolutely no money left. > I know what you mean. I don’t get paid for another week and I’m already ... . 2. You’re working long hours at the moment. Are you saving up for something? > No – nothing so exciting! I’m trying to pay off the ... on my Barclays account. 3. I’m sure the bank would lend you the money if you really need it. > No, I don’t want to do that. I already owe my father £300. I really don’t want to get further into ... . 4. I hear you’re thinking of starting your own business. How are you going to get the money? > No problem. I’ve already applied to the bank for a ... . 5. If you really want a new car, why don’t you borrow some money from the bank? > I don’t really want to do that. You have to pay so much in ... . 6. So, I hear you’re getting a flat of your own, are you? > Yes, I’ve found a really nice place, saved up enough for a deposit, and arranged a ... . A mortgage is a loan, but it is only used to buy a flat or house. If your account is in the black, do you have a healthy account or do you owe money? What about if you’re in the red? 5 At the cashpoint Put the following into the most logical order: a. Key in your PIN number. b. Take your card. c. Choose the amount of money you want. d. Take your cash.
“When money is seen as a solution for every problem, money itself becomes the problem.” (Richard Needham)
e. Insert your card. f. Press the “withdraw cash ” button. You can also use the cashpoint for other services. Complete the text below with these words: statement balance transactions If you just want to know how much money you have in your account, you can check your ... . You can also order a ... , which your bank will send out to you within a few days and which shows all the ... you have made. 6 At the bank – verbs Make complete sentences; 1. I’d like to open 2. I’d like to pay 3. I’d like to transfer 4. I’d like to withdraw 5. I’d like to cash a. these travellers’ cheques. b. a new account. c. £200 from my current to my savings account. d. this cheque into my account. e. £300, please.
A man is rich according to what he is... not according to what he has!
Appendix 1 Expressing an opinion In my opinion
Pros and cons
The (main) advantage disadvantage is .....
in other words that is to say
The point is ...
... against which ... by which I mean...
Don’t you think that ...
... besides (which) ... To make it clear... ...on the other hand...
From my point of view...
...from another point of view...
What is meant is that... This is not to say that...
As I see it...
We should/ 'd better do this.
To sum up ...
Why don’t we ... ?
How about ... ?
What is more...
I don’t see why we can’t ...
We may now summarize ... by saying that ...
One more point to May be it would be a good idea All this allows us to conclude … be made here is ... to ... ...as well as ...
Have you thought about ... ?
Bibliography 1. Peter Viney and Bernard Hartley. “Streamline English. Destinations”. Oxford University Press, 2001. 2. Peter Viney and Bernard Hartley.“Streamline English. Directions”. Oxford University Press, 2001. 3. Mary Spratt and Lynda B. Taylor. “The Cambridge CAE Course”. Self-study Student’s book. Cambridge University Press, 2000. 4. Jan Bell, Roger Gower. “Matters Intermediate”. Workbook. Longman, 1997. 5. Liz and John Soars. “New Headway Intermediate English Course”. Student’s book. Oxford University Press, 2003. 6. Энциклопедия Britannica 2006 Ultimate Reference Suite. 7. Thomas Benacci. “London”. London, 2003. 8. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman, 2006. 9. Chris Gough. “English Vocabulary Organiser”. 100 topics for self-study. Thomson, 2002. 10. Вестон, Линн. Деловой английский за 30 дней: учеб. пособие / Линн Вестон, Элинор Холсолл; пер. на англ., рус. яз. и предисловие Т. Б. Назаровой. – М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель»: ООО «Издательство АСТ», 2005. – 254с. 11. Brian Abbs, Ingrid Freebairn. “Blueprint Upper Intermediate”. Student’s book. Brian Abbs and Ingrid Freebairn London, 1993. 12. Bill Mascull. “Business Vocabulary in Use”. Cambridge University Press, 2002. 13. Simon Sweeney. “Management”. Pearson Education Limited, 2002. 14. Миньяр-Белоручева, А. П. Англо-русские обороты научной речи: методическое пособие для оформления курсовых, дипломных и диссертационных работ, для ведения конференций и деловых встреч / А. П. Миньяр-Белоручева. – М.: «Издательский дом « Проспект - АП», 2005.–112 с. 15. Словарь ABBYY Lingvo 10.
Contents Part One. Examination topics. Money ...................................................................................................................... 3 Working relationships .............................................................................................. 6 So you want to be a success? ................................................................................... 9 It costs a pretty packet ............................................................................................ 12 Business international etiquette .............................................................................. 14 London .................................................................................................................... 16 Moscow ................................................................................................................... 18 Canberra .................................................................................................................. 21 Washington ............................................................................................................. 24 English in the third Millennium .............................................................................. 28 Part Two. Money matters. Who is who? ............................................................................................................ 29 What is what? .......................................................................................................... 32 Advertising .............................................................................................................. 35 Money ..................................................................................................................... 37 At the bank .............................................................................................................. 43 Appendix 1............................................................................................................... 47 Bibliography............................................................................................................. 48
Go for your Business English Методические указания Составители: НОВОСЕЛЬЦЕВА Надежда Николаевна КОРУХОВА Людмила Владимировна Редактор Н.А. Евдокимова Подписано в печать 30.06.2006. Формат 60x84/16. Бумага офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 3,03. Тираж 200 экз. Заказ Ульяновский государственный технический университет 432027, г. Ульяновск, ул. Северный Венец, д.32. Типография УлГТУ. 432027, г. Ульяновск, ул. Северный Венец, д.32.